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# EN 1995-1-1

## Design of timber structures

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures DIN 1052
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
General concept
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Design situations
Permanent situation
(after erection of the
structure)

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
temporary situation
(during erection)

Design situations
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Accidential situation
(impact, fire)

Design situations
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Limit states
Ultimate limit states
Serviceability limit states

For all design situations the limit states shall
not be exceeded.
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Characteristic Actions according
to EN 1991
G
k
e.g. self-weight
Q
k
e.g. wind, snow, traffic
A
k
e.g. impact
Actions
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Ultimate limit state
Design values of actions
Basic combination:
E
G,j
G
k,j
+
Q,1
Q
k,1
+ E
Q,i

0,i
Q
k,i

e.g. 1,35

G
k
+ 1,5

W
k
+ 1,5

0,5

S
k

simplified:
Most unfavourable variable action:
E
G,j
G
k,j
+
Q1
Q
k,1
1,35

G
k
+ 1,5

W
k

All unfavourable variable actions:
E
G,j
G
k,j
+ 1,35 E Q
k,i
1,35

(G
k
+ W
k
+ S
k
)
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
From a statistic point of view its unlikely that all actions/loads act at the same
time with their fully values.

0
combination coefficient (in fundamental design situations)

1
frequent coefficient (in accidential design situations and servicability
calculations)

2
quasi-permanent coefficient (in servicability calculations)
Principle rule:
G K Q,1 K,1 0,i Q,i K,i
i 2
G Q Q
>
+ +
Coefficient for represantative values of actions
(for exact national data see: National Applience Documents)
Use of
0
Design values of actions; coefficient for representative
values of actions:
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Combination factors
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Combination factors
Action
0

1

2

Domestic residential areas 0,7 0,5 0,3
Congregation areas 0,7 0,7 0,6
Storage areas 1,0 0,9 0,8
Wind 0,6 0,5 0,0
Snow (s 1000 m) 0,5 0,2 0,0
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Partial safety factors for actions
(EN 1990)
Action permanent variable
favourable

G
= 1,0
Q
= 0
unfavourable

G
= 1,35
Q
= 1,5

13

E
d

Effect of
Actions:
Wind
Snow
Temperature
Fire
....
R
d

Resistance:
Structure
Structural Elements
Materials, E-
Modulus etc.
cross sections,
Area, Moment of
Inertia

Semi-probalistic safety concept

Safety
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

capacity R
95% quantile 5% quantile
E
k
R
k

M
E
d
R
d
Safety

15

Partial Safety Factors
F
(
G
,
Q
)

,
M

G
k

G
+ Q
k

Q
s k
mod
R
k
/

M

(timber:
M
= 1,3)

Safety factors in case of fire or other accidential
situations: = 1,0

4. Sicherheitskonzepte
Safety Concept - simplified
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Serviceability limit states
Calculation of
deformations
vibrations
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
III.1 Eurocode 5 in basic; loads/actions on structures

. the combination of actions
under consideration
d Q k
Q Q =
d G k
G G =
Increase the actions/load by partial safety factors (gamma factors)
less safety risks
Design situation
G

Q

Structural design
calculation
favourable effect 1,0 -
unfavourable effect 1,35 1,5
Check at servicability
limit state
1,0 1,0
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Design values of actions
characteristic (rare) combination:
EG
k,j
+ Q
k,1
+ E
0,i
Q
k,i

G
k
+ W
k
+ 0,5

S
k

quasi-permanent combination:
EG
k,j
+ E
2,i
Q
k,i

G
k
+ 0,0

W
k
+ 0,0

S
k

Serviceability limit states
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

Safety factor

timber
service-class

Safety factor

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor

timber
service-class

Safety factor

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor
= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

timber
service-class

Safety factor

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor
= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)
= ?
(permissible stress)

timber
service-class

Safety factor

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures
Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor
= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)
= ?
(permissible stress)

timber
service-class
k
mod

0,6 permanent,SC 1
0,9 short, SC 1
0,5 permanent, SC 3
0,7 short, SC 3
Safety factor

Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor
= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)
= ?
(permissible stress)

timber
service-class
k
mod

0,6 permanent,SC 1
0,9 short, SC 1
0,5 permanent, SC 3
0,7 short, SC 3
?
(permissible stress)

Reduction of 1/6
(SC 3)

Safety factor

Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor
= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)
= ?
(permissible stress)

timber
service-class
k
mod

0,6 permanent,SC 1
0,9 short, SC 1
0,5 permanent, SC 3
0,7 short, SC 3
?
(permissible stress)

Reduction of 1/6
(SC 3)

Safety factor = 1,3 (5%-Quantil)

Comparison of safety concepts
Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method
Concept of
permissible
stresses
Action
combinations
Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2
Safety factor
= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)
= ?
(permissible stress)

timber
service-class
k
mod

0,6 permanent,SC 1
0,9 short, SC 1
0,5 permanent, SC 3
0,7 short, SC 3
?
(permissible stress)

Reduction of 1/6
(SC 3)

Safety factor = 1,3 (5%-Quantil)
= ?
(permissible stress)

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

k
mod
f
k

k
mod
design situation
Ultimate limit state:
Serviceability limit
state:

w
el
(1+ k
def
)
def
E
1 k +
Influence of service classes and duration of load
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
III.1 Eurocode 5 in basic; loads/actions on structures
Ultimate limit state:
05
d mod
M
X
X k

=
Bending strength:
m,k
m,d mod
M
f
f k

=
t ,0,k
t ,0,d mod
M
f
f k

=
Servicability limit state:
d m
X X =
Modulus of elasticity:
d 0,mean
E E =
Design value of material properties:
Tensile strength:
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
o
d

f
d
s

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

M

E
k

design values
5%-
quantiles
f
k

x
G

Q

E
d

x k
mod

III.1 Eurocode 5 in basic; loads/actions on structures
Structural design calculation:
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Festigkeitsklasse (Sortierklasse nach DIN 4074-
1)
C16 C24 C30 C35 C40
Festigkeitskennwerte in N/mm
2

Biegung f
m,k
2)
16 24 30 35 40
Zug parallel f
t,0,k
2)

rechtwinklig f
t,90,k
10
0,4
14
0,4
18
0,4
21
0,4
24
0,4
Druck parallel f
c,0,k

rechtwinklig f
c,90,k

17
2,2
21
2,5
23
2,7
25
2,8
26
2,9
Schub und Torsion f
v,k
3) 6)
2,7 2,7 2,7 2,7 2,7
Steifigkeitskennwerte in N/mm
2

Elastizittsmodul parallel E
0,mean
4)

rechtwinklig E
90,mean

4)

8000
270
11000
370
12000
400
13000
430
14000
470
Schubmodul G
mean

4) 5)
500 690 750 810 880
Rohdichtekennwerte in kg/m
3

Rohdichte
k

310 350 380 400 420
1)
Nur maschinen sortiert
2)
Nadelrundholz geschlt ohne angeschnittene Faser: +20%
3)
Beim Nachweis von Querschnitten die mindestens 1,50 m vom Hirnholz entfernt liegen, darf f
v,k
um 30 %
erhht werden.
4)
Fr die charakteristischen Steifigkeitskennwerte E
0,05
, E
90,05
und G
05
gelten die Rechenwerte:
E
0,05
= 2/3E
0,mean
E
90,05
= 2/3E
90,mean
G
05
= 2/3G
mean

5)
Der zur Rollschubbeanspruchung gehrende Schubmodul darf mit G
R,mean
= 0,10G
mean
angenommen
werden.
6)
Als Rechenwert fr die charakteristische Rollschubfestigkeit des Holzes darf fr alle Festigkeitsklassen mit
f
R,k
= 1,0 N/mm
2
angenommen werden.

Strength properties for timber (Tab. F. 5 DIN 1052)
(for exact national data see: National Annexes)
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Festigkeitsklasse des Brettschichtholzes GL 24 GL 28 GL 32 GL 36
h = homogen c = kombiniert h c h c h c h c
Festigkeitskennwerte in N/mm
2

Biegung f
m,y,k

1)
24 24 28 28 32 32 36 36
f
m,z,k

2)
28,8 24 33,6 28 38,4 32 43,2 36
Zug parallel f
t,0,k
rechtwinklig f
t,90,k
16,5
0,5
14
0,5
19,5
0,5
16,5
0,5
22,5
0,5
19,5
0,5
26
0,5
22,5
0,5
Druck parallel f
c,0,k

rechtwinklig f
c,90,k

24
2,7
21
2,4
26,5
3,0
24
2,7
29
3,3
26,5
3,0
31
3,6
29
3,3
Schub und Torsion f
v,k
3)
3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,5
Steifigkeitskennwerte in N/mm
2

Elastizittsmodul parallel E
0,mean
4)

rechtwinklig E
90,mean

4)

11600
390
11600
320
12600
420
12600
390
13700
460
13700
420
14700
490
14700
460
Schubmodul G
mean

4) 5)
720 590 780 720 850 780 910 850
Rohdichtekennwerte in kg/m
3

Rohdichte
k

380 350 410 380 430 410 450 430
1)
Bei Brettschichtholz mit liegenden Lamellen und einer Querschnitthhe H s 600 mm darf f
m,y,k
mit folgendem Faktor
multipliziert werden: (600 / H)
0,14
s 1,1
2)
Brettschichtholz mit mindestens 4 hochkant stehenden Lamellen
3)
Als Rechenwert fr die charakteristische Rollschubfestigkeit des Holzes darf fr alle Festigkeitsklassen f
R,k
= 1,0
N/mm
2
angenommen werden.
4)
Fr die charakteristischen Steifigkeitskennwerte E
0,05
, E
90,05
und G
05
gelten die Rechenwerte:
E
0,05
= 5/6E
0,mean
E
90,05
= 5/6E
90,mean
G
05
= 5/6G
mean

5)
Der zur Rollschubbeanspruchung gehrende Schubmodul darf mit G
R,mean
= 0,10G
mean
angenommen werden.

Strength properties for gluelam (Tab. F. 9 DIN 1052)
(for exact national data see: National Annexes)
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
+
+
-
-
+
-
z
z
y
y
o
m
,y
o
m
,z
m
a
x

o
m
m
in

o
m
+
=
+
+
-
-
+
-
z
z
y
y
o
m
,y
o
m
,z
m
a
x

o
m
m
in

o
m
+
=
Vd
Mae in cm
6
5
12
18
12
24
III.2 Bending, shear, buckling
Design resistance for cross-sections
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
V
d
= design value of the shear force
S = static moment (section modulus)
= bh
2
/8 (rectangle cross-section)
I = second moment of area (moment of inertia)
= bh
3
/12 (rectangle cross-section)
b = width
f
v,d
= design shear strength for the actual condition
d
d v,d
V
1,5 f
A
t = s
d
v,d
1,5 V A
1
f

s
d
d v,d
V S
f
I b
t

= s

d
v,d
1
f
t
s
Shear force
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
| |
| |
| |

>

d
d
v,d
v,d
A in cm
V
erf A 15 with V in kN
f
f in N/mm
proportioning:
t = s
d
d v,d
V
15 f
A
s
d
v,d
V A
15 1
f
t
d
in [N/mm]
V
d
in [kN]
A in [cm]
f
v,d
in [N/mm]
| |
| |

>
`

)
d
d
A in cm
erf A 9 V with
V in kN
For sawn timber C 24, service class 2 and medium term action:
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
uniaxial bending
construction
Pfette
Sparren
static systems
d
m,d m,d
n
M
f
W
o = s
d n
m,d
M / W
1
f
s
o
m,d
= design value of bending stress
M
d
= design value of bending moment
W
n
= netto moment of resistance considering the cross section weaks
f
m,d
= design value of bending strength

rafter
purlin
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
600 mm s h f
m,y,k

250 mm < h <
600 mm
h s 250 mm f
m,y,k
1,1
h
| |

|
\ .
0,1
m,y,k
600
f
h
d
m,d m,d
n
M
1000 f
W
o = s
d n
m,d
M / W
1000 1
f
s
o
m,d
in [N/mm]
M
d
in [kNm]
W
n
in [cm]
f
m,d
in [N/mm]
E.g. gluelam influence of height:
Ultimate limit state
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
| |
| |
| |
n
d
n d
m,d
m,d
W in cm
M
erf W 1000 mit M in kNm
f
f in N/mm

>

proportioning:
For sawn timber C 24, service class 2 and medium term action:
| |
| |

>
`

)
n
n d
d
W in cm
erf W 68 M with
M in kNm
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
4
,
3

m
w
y y
100 100 mm
y y
wz
qz
y y
wz
Fc
Fc
Biegung um y-Achse
om,y
Knicken um y-Achse
kc,y
Stability of Members
|=2
|=1 |=0,7 |=0,5
lef s
lef
lef
lef
1 2 3 4
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
c,0,d
c,0,d c c,0,d
n
F
k f
A
o = s
c,0,d n
c c,0,d
F A
1
k f
s

A
n
: local cross section weakenings might be neglected at the stress
verification if they are not situated in the middle third of the buckling length.
k
c
: local cross section weakenings might be neglected at the calculation
of the buckling coefficient.
Compression members endangered by buckling
Structural design calculation using compressive stress values and reduced
compressive strength:
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
c
2 2
rel ,c
1
k 1
k k
= s
+
buckling coefficient / instability factor
k =
( )
2
c rel ,c rel ,c
0,5 1 0,3 |
(
+ +

|
c
= 0,2 for solid timber
0,1 for glued laminated timber and LVL

rel,c
= Relative Slenderness
c,0,k c,0,k
ef
0,05 0,05
f f
i E E

t t
= =

=
ef
i
= Slenderness

ef
= | s = effective lenght
| = buckling length coefficient
i
I A =

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
|=2
|=1 |=0,7 |=0,5
lef s
lef
lef
lef
1 2 3 4
buckling length coefficient |
|=2
|=1 |=0,7 |=0,5
lef s
lef
lef
lef
1 2 3 4
|=2
|=1 |=0,7 |=0,5
lef s
lef
lef
lef
1 2 3 4
|=2
|=1 |=0,7 |=0,5
lef s
lef
lef
lef
1 2 3 4
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
compression member with intermediate lateral support:
buckling length = distance of lateral supports
different buckling lengths
ef,y
and
ef,z
:
2
1
y z
Scheibe
h
ho
hu
3
z
y
h
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
procedure at the design calculation:
1. determination of buckling lengths
ef
for buckling around the principal axis
2. calculation of the slenderness ratio
y
and
z

3. determination of instability factors k
c,y
und k
c,z

ef
i = with i = 0,289 h resp. = 0,289 w at rectangular cross sections
4. verification of buckling resistance
c,0,d
c,0,d c c,0,d
n
F
10 k f
A
o = s
c,0,d n
c c,0,d
F A
10 1
k f
s

o
c,0,d
in [N/mm]
F
c,0,d
in [kN]
A
n
in [cm]
f
c,0,d
in [N/mm]
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
a A Nd, max in kN for a buckling length of lef in m
mm mm 2,00 2,50 3,00 3,50 4,00 4,50 5,00 5,50 6,00 6,50 7,00
100 10000 72 50,4 36,4 27,4 21,3 17 13,9 11,5 9,7 8,3 7,2
120 14400 130 97,6 72,5 55,2 43,2 34,6 28,3 23,6 20 17,1 14,8
140 19600 202 164 127 98,7 78 62,9 51,6 43,1 36,6 31,4 27,2
160 25600 284 247 202 161 129 105 86,5 72,5 61,5 52,9 45,9
180 32400 375 340 293 243 199 163 136 114 97,1 83,6 72,7
200 40000 476 444 399 343 288 240 201 170 146 126 109
220 48400 587 557 514 459 397 337 286 244 209 181 158
240 57600 709 679 639 586 522 454 391 336 290 252 221
260 67600 841 812 773 723 660 588 515 448 390 340 299
Design resistance of squared columns C 24 in
Service class 2 for medium action load
for axail compression a
a
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Serviceability limit state
Limiting values: Only Recommendations, disregarding is possible
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Vibrations:
To reduce vibrations the fundamental frequency of the floors should be
greater than 8 Hz.

EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Vibrations:
High stiffness of the floor reduce the vibration,

frequency greater than 8 Hz.

For single-span beams

In residential buildings vibrations of the floors often cause unacceptable
discomfort to the users.
To reduce vibrations the fundamental frequency of the floors should be
greater than 8 Hz.

g*,inst
w 6 mm s
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Designtables for estimate calculations given in timberdesigntables.pdf
Notice:
national standard
cross-sectional
dimensions, they
differ in different
territories!
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Span tables for Timber C 24 in for floor joists permanent (dead) load g
k
in kN/m
Single span beams for ulitmate limit state and serviceability limit state except vibration
k
in kN/m
l g
k
m kN/m 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00
1,5 60 x 160 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240
1,75 60 x 160 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240
2 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240
2,25 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240
1,5 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240
1,75 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240
2 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240
2,25 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240
1,5 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240
1,75 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240
2 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240
2,25 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 200 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240 120 x 240
1,5 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240
1,75 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240
2 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240 120 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 -
2,25 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 -
1,5 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240 120 x 240 - -
1,75 80 x 240 120 x 200 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - -
2 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - -
2,25 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - -
1,5 100 x 200 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - -
1,75 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - 120 x 240 - - - -
2 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - - 120 x 240 - - - -
2,25 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - - 120 x 240 - - - -
Joist spacing e in m
k
= 2,0 kN/m imposed load q
k
= 2,75 kN/m
3,0
3,5
4,0
Joist spacing e in m
4,5
5,0
5,5
Span tables with german sizes, Vibrations of residential floors disregarded
EC 5-1-1 Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles
Span tables for Timber C 24 in for floor joists
Single span beams for ulitmate limit state and serviceability limit state simplified vibration analysis for residential floors included
l g
k
m kN/m 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00
1,5 60 x 160 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240
1,75 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240
2 60 x 180 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240
2,25 60 x 180 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 200 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240
1,5 60 x 200 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240
1,75 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240
2 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240
2,25 60 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 60 x 240 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240
1,5 60 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240
1,75 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240
2 80 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 -
2,25 80 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - -
1,5 120 x 240 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - -
1,75 120 x 240 120 x 240 - - - 120 x 240 - - - -
2 120 x 240 - - - - 120 x 240 - - - -
2,25 120 x 240 - - - - - - - - -
4,5
Joist spacing e in m
3,0
3,5
4,0