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IGBTS AND MOSFETS

Source

Vein

Artery Valve

Gate

Drain

Emitter

Collector

Base

P W +

N W +

Vappl > 0

Vappl < 0

Holes from P region (Emitter) of 1st PN junction driven by FB of 1st PN junction into central N region (Base) Driven by RB of 2nd PN junction from Base into P region of 2nd junction (Collector)

The metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) : the gate is insulated from the channel by a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer

Two types of MOSFETs


depletion type (D-MOSFETs) have a physical channel between Drain and Source, with no voltage applied to the Gate enhancement type (E-MOSFETs) have no physical Drain-Source channel

D-MOSFET
Channel may be enhanced or restricted by gate voltage

E-MOSFET
Channel is created by gate voltage

Gate Insulator Source Channel Substrate Drain

If the MOSFET is an nchannel or nMOSFET, then the source and drain are 'n+' regions and the body is a 'p' region.

If the MOSFET is a pchannel or pMOSFET, then the source and drain are 'p+' regions and the body is a 'n' region.

A cross section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage VGS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an n-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the n-doped terminals; the switch is on

VSG > 0 n type operation VSG Gate Insulator More electrons Source Channel Substrate Drain VSD

Positive gate bias attracts electrons into channel Channel now becomes more conductive

-+ +++ +++ metal oxide - - p -+ +++ +++ +++ metal - -oxide - - -p

D VGS1>Vt

ID

increasing VGS

n+

n+

D VGS2>VGS1 G n+

n+

cut-off
D VGS3>VGS2

VDS

+ +++ +++ +++ +++ metal - - - oxide -----p

0.1 v

n+

n+

Increasing VGS puts more charge in the channel, allowing more drain current to flow

As the drain voltage increases, the difference in voltage between the drain and the gate becomes smaller. At some point, the difference is too small to maintain the channel near the drain pinch-off

body B

source S

gate G
- +

drain D
VDS large

+++ +++ +++

metal
oxide

n+ p

n+

V G 0 0

V G 0 0

VG 0

VG VD

once pinch-off occurs, there is no further increase in drain current

Cut-off: VGS<
VT

Triode: VGS>VT
and VDS < VGSVT

Saturation:
VGS>VT and VDS > VGS-VT

Whats an IGBT ?
IGBT(Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) is a voltage-controlled power transistor,

similar to the power MOSFET in operation and construction.


These devices offer superior performance to the bipolartransistors. They are core cost- effective solution in high power, wide range of frequency applications THE SIMPLE ADDITION OF A EXTRA P-N JUNCTION TO

THE DRAIN OF THE MOSFET CHANGES THIS UNIPOLAR DEVICE INTO BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR.

Construction & Operation of IGBT


The operation of the partitioning of an N-channel MOSFET and a PNP bipolar transistor. The IGBT functions as a bipolar transistor that is supplied base current by a MOSFET.
GATE EMITTER COLLECTOR

IGBT simply can be treated as

NN+ P+

GATE

EMITTER COLLECTOR

Structure Of IGBT

Equivalent Circuit

TURN-ON
The presence of the substrate creates a junction J1 between the P+ and the N zone of the body. When the positive gate bias allows the inversion of the P base region under the gate, an N channel is created, with a flow of electrons, generating a current in the exact same way as a Power MOSFET.

TURN-OFF

When a negative bias is applied to the gate or the gate voltage falls below the threshold value, the channel is inhibited and no holes are injected in the N- region.

REVERSE BLOCKING

When a negative voltage is applied to the collector then J1 is reverse biased and the depletion layer expands to the N- region.

FORWARD BLOCKING.

When gate and emitter are shorted and a positive voltage is applied to the collector terminal the P/N- theJ3 junction is reverse biased. Again it is the depletion layer in the Ndrift region that withstands the voltage applied

Industrial Applications of IGBT


IGBT Module & Discrete

Elevator F.A. - Inverter,


AC servo, Robotics

Power Supply Welding


machine - UPS, SMPS

Transportation
-Ignition control, Battery charger

Consumer Applications of IGBT


IGBT Module & Discrete
IH-Jar (Rice Cooker)

IH-Cooker

4|00

MWO

Camera Strobo Washing machine Inverter Air-conditioner


12:30

21 /4 5

IGBT Operation Area


25 KW

HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH CURRENT

10
POWER 1

GTO
HIGH FREQUENCY
IGBT BJT

0.1 1 70 FREQUENCY

MOSFET
1000KHZ
22 /4 5

QUES AND ANS SESSION

THANK YOU