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Development Models

Developmental Theories: Key Points

Career choice: Is a process which spans a number of years Involves self reflection Recognise the developmental as well as the differential experiences of people Influence on practice: Less directive, more client centred interviews Stressed the importance of preparing people to make choices educational emphasis

Key Theorists: Ginzberg and Super

General points common to both:

In choosing a career, we dont make one choice (as implied in trait and factor) but a series of choices.
Our choices develop and mature as we get older. Ginzbergs original work looks at choice over the adolescent period, Super over life stages.

Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad & Herma

Reality factors

Educational factors
Emotional factors Value factors

Ginzberg et al Theory 1951

In the main, occupational choice takes place in adolescence The process of decision making is irreversible Occupational choice is a series of compromises between what we want and what is available We move through 3 stages: Fantasy, Tentative and Realistic

1972 Ginzberg revised views

Occupational choice could carry on beyond adolescence Occupational choice no longer seen as irreversible The process of compromise more aptly seen as one of OPTIMISATION

Donald Super: Key Ideas

Life Span theory

Early influences were developmental psychology Ginzberg and Carl Rogers client centred counselling
Basically psychological, though socioeconomic factors were considered.

Supers Early Work (1953)

Self Concept

Vocational Maturity
Life Stages: Growth development of self concept Exploration tentative phase Establishment trial through experience Maintenance continual adjustment Decline preparing for retirement

Cycling and Recycling of Developmental Tasks Throughout the Life Stages: Super (1990)
Age Life Stage Adolescence 14-25 Giving less time to hobbies Verifying current occupational choice Getting started in a chosen field Learning more about opportunities Developing a realistic selfconcept Early Adulthood 25-45 Reducing sports participation Making occupational position secure Middle Adulthood 45-65 Focusing on essentials Holding one's own against competition Developing new skills Identifying new tasks to work on Accepting one's own limitations Late Adulthood 65 & Over Reducing working hours Keeping what one enjoys Doing things one has wanted to do Finding a good retirement place Developing and valuing nonoccupational roles




Settling down in a suitable position

Finding desired opportunity Learning to relate to others



Supers Life Career Rainbow (1980)

Roles: homemaker (parent), partner, worker, citizen, leisurite, student, child Theatres: home, community, work, education Role salience

Super: A Summary

Holistic approach to career choice Counselling skills Influence of UK programmes of careers education Later work emphasised the whole range of factors influencing career decisions Constant changes, suggests the need to look at transition and implications for those involved in adult guidance and lifelong learning.

Supers work - critique

Fragmented theory lacks coherence (segmental theory) Lacks practical application Stages reflect experience of white, middle class males in the US Does not adequately address gender or cultural differences Yet, still influential in careers education & guidance

National Guidance Research Forum Website

Sharf, R. S. (2009) Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling: 5th edn Pacific Grove: Brooks / Cole Watts, A.G. (2001) Donald Supers Influence in the United Kingdom, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 1(1) Zunker, V. G., (2006) Career Counseling: a holistic approach. 7th edn. Pacific Grove: Brooks / Cole