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Foot and Mouth Disease in Bovine

Dr.Jibachha Sah VHRTC(P)LTD Lankupul,Nrayangarh

FMD infected Cow flock

A cow flock infected with FMD in Biratnagar

FMD outbreaks in 1997 - 1999

F.M.D out breaks in world 2000

Nature of Disease
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a

highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease is characterized by the formation of vesicles (fluid-filled blisters) and erosions in the mouth, nose, teats and feet

The FMD virus (FMDV) is a member of the

genus Aphthovirus in the family Picornaviridae There are seven serotypes of FMDV: A, O, C, Asia 1, and Southern African Territories (SAT) 1, 2 and 3. Within these serotypes, over 60 subtypes have been described.


F.M.D virus

F.M.D. virus protein structure

F.M.D. virus capsomere structure

F.M.D. virus orange colour

F.M.D. virus

OIE List A disease

Susceptible species
Cloven-hoofed animals (ungulates) are

susceptible to FMD. Of the domestic species, cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep, goats and deer are susceptible. Horses are not affected.


Site for predilection for FMD lesion pathogenesis

Clinical sign
FMD should be suspected wherever

vesicles are seen in cloven-hoofed animals. Vesicles begin as mall white fluid filled areas that quickly grow to a blister about 3 cm in diameter. Two or more blisters may join to form a large one.

Other sign are

sudden lameness in a number of

animals salivation fever loss of appetite in dairy cattle, a sudden drop in milk yield

In Cattle
dullness, poor appetite, fever. Salivation and

lameness may be seen. Vesicles appear inside the mouth on the tongue, cheeks and gums, lips and palate. Vesicle may form between the claws of the feet and along the coronary band. There may also appear on the teats and udder reduced lactation, mastitis and abortion are common. Mortality in adults is usually very low. However, up to 50% of calves can dies due to cardiac involvement,

FMD excessive salivation

FMD infected cow unable to rise due to feet lesion

FMD severe lesion on dental pad

FMD cause excessive salivation

FMD in cow note the saliva falling in ground

FMD drooling saliva from mouth

Drooling saliva from FMD infected buffalo

FMD large erosion on tongue

FMD unruptured vesicle on mouth

FMD unruptured vesicle on tongue

Recently rupture vesicle on gingival

FMD white necrotic epithelium on the tongue

FMD rupture epithelium on dental pad

FMD rupture vesicle on foot cleft

FMD, fold secondary infection

FMD large vesicle on tongue

FMD dry lesion on tongue

FMD necrotic area on tongue

FMD severe ulceration on dental pad

FMD ulcer on dental pad

FMD two small unruptured vesicle on tongue

FMD ruptured vesicle on tongue surface

FMD vesicle on foot

FMD teat lesion

FMD teat lesion

FMD teat lesion

FMD teat lesion

FMD udder lesion

FMD blanched epithelium vesicle on the end of teat

FMD ruptured vesicle on bovine teat

FMD udder lesion

In sheep and goat

the disease is usually milder with fewer

lesions. Affected sheep are depressed and reluctant to stand. Some animals may get a sudden lameness. Vesicles form around the top of the foot and between the claws. Lesions may develop on the tongue and dental pad, but can be hard to detect.

Post mortem
In addition to the lesions described

above, vesicles may also be present in the rumen. In young animals there is focal necrosis of cardiac muscle.

FMD erosion on the rumen pillar

FMD pale area in the myocardial neck .

Myocardium degeneration and necrosis are termed as tiger heart

Differential Diagnosis
other vesicular diseases (swine vesicular

disease, vesicular exanthema, vesicular stomatitis) infectious bovine rhinotracheitis rinderpest bluetongue bovine papular stomatitis mucosal disease peste des petits ruminants Foot Rot

Specimen required for Diagnosis

From live animals collect vesicular fluid,

vesicular fluid epithelium, esophagealpharyngeal fluid and whole blood From dead animals tissue specimens . should be taken lymph nodes, thyroid, adrenal, kidney, spleen and heart.

Sample collection of FMD, remove infected epithelium from tongue surface

For serology
Blood collected in plain tubes and the

sera separated.

For histopathology
Samples of lesion tissue, rumen pillae

FMD is one of the most contagious

diseases of animals. Animals can become infected through inhalation, ingestion and through reproduction. The primary mechanism of spread within herds is by direct contact, through inhalation of virus aerosols.

To eradicate the disease a stamping

out policy can be applied. This involves quarantine, movement restrictions and slaughter and disposal of all affected an in-contact livestock on affected premises followed by cleaning and disinfection.