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Social and Industrial Psychology

Prashant Kumar Siddhey Asst. Professor Shri Vaishnav Institute of Tech. & Sc., Indore MP (India)

Psychology
Psychology It is the study of human mind i.e. it is the study of human behaviour. Social Psychology, It is the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behaviour and thought in social situations.

Nature of Social Psychology


Social psychology is the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behaviour and thought in social situations. It adopts the values and methods used in other fields of science. Its different from Common Sense. Social psychology focuses on the behaviour of individuals and seeks to understand the causes of social behaviour and thought. Its an study of behaviour and characteristics of other persons, cognitive processes, aspects of the physical environment, culture, and biological and genetic factors.

Industrial Psychology
The application of the knowledge of psychology to the industrial situations is known as industrial psychology.

Conti

Hugo Munsterberg is called the father of Industrial Psychology. Psychology and Industrial Efficiency 1913 book written by him. He analysed jobs in terms of their mental and emotional requirements and in terms of the development of testing devices. Advances were made in selection, placement, testing, training and research practices. Industrial p introduced matching of employees to jobs, for different jobs requiring different skills and abilities. It emphasized the use of psychology in the field of personnel testing, interviewing, attitude measurement, learning theory, training, monotony study, safety, job analysis and human engineering. I. psy is very important because the human factor is very important for the achievement of the objectives of any organization. Man is the most difficult element to inspire, control and motivate.

Conti..
It is the study of human behaviour at work and is concerned with application of information relating to human behaviour. It is the study of human relations, mental health of the workers on the job and ways to help to gain good mental health for the workers who have become confused and upset. It means I.P is the study of principles and practices that affect the behaviour of human beings. It is also concerned with the physical aspect of work environment such as lighting and temperature and their effect on the output and safety of the workers.

Scope of Industrial Psychology


The aim of I. P is to give the workers greater physical and mental ease at work. To achieve the aim of I. P, the work of psychologists is (i) to investigate in an unbiased manner the ways in which psychological problems are handled at present (ii) to develop new methods and to modify the methods which have been tried out and evaluated. (iii) to formulate certain principles which will help I. the solution of human relations problems. The scope of I. P is research rather than administration. The scope of I. P is limited to material and social environment to which an individual adapts himself while he is at work and by which his attitude is modified. Its scope includes the entire process of managements dealings with people at work.

Industrial Psy. & Related Concepts


Individual Differences Human Relation

Human Re-engineering/ Ergonomics

Principles of Industrial Psychology


1. Individual Differences: This principle emphasizes that a manager has to be cautious in dealing with human beings, who differ in physical characteristics, emotions, goals, feelings etc. Importance is given in order to select right type of people and reduce the rate of labour turnover. 2. Causation of Human Behaviour: I. Psychologists assume that human behaviour is caused. It is the situation which stimulates a person to behave in a particular manner. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the cause of behaviour before making an attempt to improve upon it.

Application of Industrial Psychology


Selection and Placement of Personnel: Psychologists have designed various tests to select people such as intelligence test, aptitude, interest, personality test etc. Placement of a new employee is not a simple problem. It has many psychological implications. A new employee must be induced, oriented, trained properly to perform his job effectively. Training and Development: Psychologists help in determining the training needs of employees. Training programs for operative workforce as well as for executives. The imp techniques used are teaching machine, programmed learning, sensitivity training, role playing etc. Performance Appraisal: The results of p.a. are more reliable and they can be used for important personnel decisions like - promotions, transfer, training, counseling etc. Determination of Wages: Job evaluation to serve as a scientific basis of basic wage rate fixation. Job evaluation helps in designing a rational wage structure using factors like education, training, experience, degree of supervision, degree of risk etc. Motivation of Personnel: Human behaviour is caused by some needs and it does not occur automatically. Needs are starting point in motivating employees. I. psychologists can help the mgt in designing the suitable system of incentives in order to motivate employees. Also try to remove the causes of fatigue and determine work conditions to maximize productivity. Improvement of Morale: Psychologists study group dynamics. They find causes of low morale and help in removing them. Human Engineering/Ergonomics