=
t
g = 980 cm/s
2
r: in cm
) ( (rpm) 10 119 . 1
cm/s 980
cm) (
rpm
s 1047 . 0
rpm) (
RCF
2 5
2
2
1
2
r
r
=
(
=
Often an average RCF is determined using a value for r
midway between the top and bottom of the sample
container.
I ntroduction (7/8)
r
avg
= 7 cm
20,000 rpm
}
RCF = 31,000
(centrifugal force = 31,000 g)
I ntroduction (8/8)
FORCES DEVELOPED IN CENTRIFUGAL
SEPARATION
The acceleration from a centrifugal force: a = e
2
r
where e = angular velocity, rad/s
r = radial distance from center of rotation
Settling by gravity force: g
d
v
s g
) (
18
2
=
Settling in centrifuges:
r
d
v
s
2
2
) (
18
e
e
=
 Gravitational sedimentation is too slow to be practical
for bacteria, and conventional centrifugation is too slow
for protein macromolecules.
FORCES DEVELOPED I N CENTRI FUGAL SEPARATI ON (2/3)
__________
[Example] A laboratory bottle centrifuge is used to collect
yeast cells after fermentation. The centrifuge consists of a
number of cylinders rotated perpendicularly to the axis of
rotation. During centrifugation, the distance between the
surface of liquid and the axis of rotation is 3 cm, and the
distance from the bottom of the cylinder to that axis is 10 cm.
The yeast cells can be assumed to be spherical, with a
diameter of 8.0 m and a density of 1.05 g/cm
3
. The fluid has
physical properties close to those of water. The centrifuge is
to be operated at 500 rpm. How long does it take to have a
complete separation?
Solution:
r
d
dt
dr
v
s
2
2
) (
18
e
e
= =
t
d
r
r
s
2
2
1
2
) (
18
ln e
=
or
(To be continued)
Example: laboratory bottle centrifuge
Solution (contd):
t
d
r
r
s
2
2
1
2
) (
18
ln e
=
t = 0, r = 3 cm; t = ?, r = 10 cm
Data: d = 8.0 m = 8.0 10
4
cm; = 1 cP = 0.01 g/cms;
s
= 1.05 g/cm
3
; = 1.0 g/cm
3
;
rad/s 3 . 52
60
2 500
rpm 500 =
= =
t
e
t
=
2
2 4
) 3 . 52 ( ) 1 05 . 1 (
01 . 0 18
) 10 0 . 8 (
3
10
ln
t = 2467 s = 41.3 min
#
* Sedimentation Coefficient, s
The velocity of a particle through a viscous medium
is usually proportional to the accelerating field.
r
d
v
s
2
2
) (
18
e
e
=
) (
18
2
=
s
d
s
Unit of s: svedberg (S; 1 S = 10
13
second)
Svedberg: the inventor of ultracentrifuge
r s v
2
e
e
=
FORCES DEVELOPED I N CENTRI FUGAL SEPARATI ON (3/3)
[Example] Estimate the time it would take to completely
clarify a suspension of 70 S ribosomes in a high speed
centrifuge operating at 10,000 rpm. During centrifugation,
the distance between the surface of liquid and the axis of
rotation is 4 cm, and the distance of travel of particles
radially outward is 1 cm.
Solution:
} }
=
5
4
2
0
1
r
dr
s
dt
t
e
( )
h 8.1 s 29080
s 60
min 1
rev
2
min
rev
10000 s 10 70
223 . 0
4
5
ln
1
2
13
2
= =

.

\

= =
t
e s
t
#
r s
dt
dr
v
2
e
e
= =
TUBULAR BOWL CENTRIFUGE
 Suspension is usually fed through the
bottom, and clarified liquid is removed
from the top.
 Solid deposits on the bowls wall as a thick
paste.
 The suspension can be fed until solid loss in
the effluent becomes prohibitive.
 An intermittent operation.
Assume that a particle is located at a distance z from the
bottom of the centrifuge and at a position r from the axis of
rotation. This particle is moving in both the z and r
directions.
TUBULAR BOWL CENTRI FUGE (2/6)
The movement of the particle in the z
direction (due to the convection of the
feed flow):
) (
2
1
2
0
R R
Q
dt
dz
=
t
where Q = the volumetric flow rate
R
1
= the distance of liquid interface
from the axis of rotation
The movement of the particle in the r direction:
r
d
dt
dr
s
2
2
) (
18
e
=
g
d
v
s g
) (
18
2
=


.

\

=
g
r
v
dt
dr
g
2
e
TUBULAR BOWL CENTRI FUGE (3/6)
) (
2
1
2
0
R R
Q
dt
dz
=
t


.

\

=
g
r
v
dt
dr
g
2
e
;
The trajectory of a particle in the
centrifuge:
Q
R R
g
r
v
dt dz
dt dr
dz
dr
g
) (
/
/
2
1
2
0
2


.

\

= =
t e
Consider a particle enters the centrifuge at R
1
(that is,
at z = 0, r = R
1
) and do not reach R
0
until at z =
Q
R R
g
v
R
R
g
) (
ln
2
1
2
0
2
1
0
=
t
e
) / ln(
) (
1 0
2 2
1
2
0
R R g
v R R
Q
g
e t
=
or
TUBULAR BOWL CENTRI FUGE (4/6)
For R
0
and R
1
being approximately equal,
) / ln(
) (
1 0
2 2
1
2
0
R R g
v R R
Q
g
e t
=
2
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 0
2
1
2
0
2 ) (
/ ) (
) )( (
] / ) ( 1 ln[
) )( (
) / ln(
R R R R
R R R
R R R R
R R R
R R R R
R R
R R
= + =
+
=
+
+
=
+ + = +
4 3 2
4
1
3
1
2
1
) 1 ln( x x x x x
Note:
) (
2
2 2
E =


.

\

=
g g
v
g
R
v Q
e t
Note: v
g
is a function only of the particles themselves, and E
is a function only of the particular centrifuge.
TUBULAR BOWL CENTRI FUGE (5/6)
* Continuous tubular bowl
centrifuge for separation of
two liquids:
An internal baffle provides a
separate passage adjacent to
the bowl wall to conduct the
heavierphase liquid to a
different discharge elevation.
TUBULAR BOWL CENTRI FUGE (6/6)
[Example] A bowl centrifuge is used to concentrate a
suspension of Escherichia coli prior to cell disruption. The
bowl of this unit has an inside radius of 12.7 cm and a
length of 73.0 cm. The speed of the bowl is 16,000 rpm and
the volumetric capacity is 200 L/h. Under these conditions,
this centrifuge works well. (a) Calculate the settling
velocity v
g
for the cells. (b) After disruption, the diameter of
debris is about onehalf of that of cell and the viscosity is
increased four times. Estimate the volumetric capacity of
this same centrifuge operating under these new conditions.
Solution:
2 2
2 2
2
or
2
e t
e t
R
Qg
v
g
R
v Q
g g
=


.

\

=
(To be continued)
[Example] Analysis of bowl centrifuge
2 2
2
e t R
Qg
v
g
=
Solution:
Data: R =12.7 cm; = 73 cm; e = 16,000 rpm = 1674.7 rad/s;
Q = 200 L/h = 55.56 cm
3
/s; g = 980 cm/s
2
v
g
= 2.63 10
7
cm/s
Using the same centrifuge,
1
2
1
2
1
2
g
g
g
g
v
v
v
v
Q
Q
=
E
E
=
g
d
v
s g
) (
18
2
=
16
1
4
) 2 / 1 (
/
/
/
/
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
= = = =
d d
d
d
Q
Q
(a) Calculate the settling velocity v
g
for the cells.
(b) Estimate the volumetric capacity of this same centrifuge for cell
debris.
#
[Example] Beer with a specific gravity of 1.042 and a
viscosity of 1.4 10
3
Ns/m
2
contains 1.5% solids, which
have a density of 1160 kg/m
3
. It is clarified at a rate of 240
L/h in a bowl centrifuge, which has an operating volume of
0.09 m
3
and a speed of 10,000 rev/min. The bowl has a
radius of 5.5 cm and is fitted with a 4cm outlet. Calculate
the effect on feed rate of an increase in bowl speed to 15,000
rev/min and the minimum particle size that can be removed
at the higher speed.
Solution:
All conditions except the bowl speed remain the same.
2
1
2
2
1
2
e
e
=
Q
Q
)] ( [
)] / [ln( 18
) (
) / ln(
) (
2
1
2
0
1 0
2 2
1 0
2 2
1
2
0
R R
R R
d
R R g
v R R
Q
s
g
e
e t
(To be continued)
Calculate: when e = 15,000 rev/min, Q = ? d = ?
Solution (contd):
)] ( [
)] / [ln( 18
) (
2
1
2
0
1 0
2 2
R R
R R
d
Q
s
= t
e
2
1
2
2
1
2
e
e
=
Q
Q
2
2
2
) 10000 (
) 15000 (
240
=
Q
/s m 10 5 . 1
s 3600
h
L 1000
m
L/h 540
3 4
3
2
=
(
= Q
[Example] Beer with a specific gravity of 1.042 and a viscosity of 1.4
10
3
Ns/m
2
contains 1.5% solids, which have a density of 1160 kg/m
3
. It
is clarified at a rate of 240 L/h in a bowl centrifuge, which has an
operating volume of 0.09 m
3
and a speed of 10,000 rev/min. The bowl
has a radius of 5.5 cm and is fitted with a 4cm outlet.
(To be continued)
)] ( [
)] / [ln( 18
) (
2
1
2
0
1 0
2 2
R R
R R
d
Q
s
= t
e
1
s 1570
60
2 15000

=
=
t
e
Operating volume
3 2
1
2
0
m 09 . 0 )] ( [ = = R R t
] 09 . 0 [
) 4 / 5 . 5 ln( ) 10 4 . 1 ( 18
) 1042 1160 ( ) 1570 (
10 5 . 1
3
2 2
4
=
d
d = 2.14 10
7
m
Calculate: when e = 15,000 rev/min, Q = ? d = ?
Solution (contd):
[Example] Beer with a specific gravity of 1.042 and a viscosity of 1.4
10
3
Ns/m
2
contains 1.5% solids, which have a density of 1160 kg/m
3
. It
is clarified at a rate of 240 L/h in a bowl centrifuge, which has an
operating volume of 0.09 m
3
and a speed of 10,000 rev/min. The bowl
has a radius of 5.5 cm and is fitted with a 4cm outlet.
#
SEPARATION OF LIQUIDS BY CENTRIFUGATION
A common operation in the food and other industries.
* Example: the dairy industry, in which the emulsion of
milk is separated into skim milk and cream.
The differential force across a
thickness dr is:
dF = re
2
dm
r
dF
dP rdr dm
t
t
2
and ] ) 2 [( = =
rdr
r
rdr r
dP
2
2
2
] ) 2 [(
e
t
t e
= =
Integration between r
1
and r
2
:
( )
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
2
r r P P =
e
SEPARATI ON OF LI QUI DS BY CENTRI FUGATI ON (2/3)
( )
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
2
r r P P =
e
At the liquidliquid interface,
Pressure exerted by the light
phase of thickness (r
2
r
1
)
= Pressure exerted by the heavy
phase of thickness (r
2
r
4
)
( ) ( )
2
1
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2 2
r r r r
L H
=
e e
L H
L H
r r
r
=
2
1
2
4 2
2
* The interface at r
2
must be located at a radius smaller
than r
3
.
SEPARATI ON OF LI QUI DS BY CENTRI FUGATI ON (3/3)
[Example] In a vegetableoilrefining process, an aqueous
phase is being separated from the oil phase in a centrifuge.
The density of the oil is 919.5 kg/m
3
and that of the aqueous
phase is 980.3 kg/m
3
. The radius for overflow of the light
liquid has been set at 10.160 mm and the outlet for the
heavy liquid at 10.414 mm. Calculate the location of the
interface in the centrifuge.
Solution:
L H
L H
r r
r
=
2
1
2
4 2
2
5 . 919 3 . 980
) 160 . 10 ( 5 . 919 ) 414 . 10 ( 3 . 980
2 2
2
2
= r
r
2
= 13.75 mm
#
DISK CENTRIFUGE
 A short, wide bowl 8 to 20 in.
in diameter turns on a vertical
axis. Inside the bowl and
rotating with it are closely
spaced disks, which are
actually cones of sheet metal
set one above the other.
 In operation, feed liquid
enters the bowl at the bottom,
flows into the channels, and
upward past the disks.
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (2/14)
 The operation can be made continuous.
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (3/14)
___
____
___
Collection of solid:
 A properly operated disc centrifuge should separate
99% of the solids from the liquid stream and produce
an 8090% wet solids concentrate.
 The smaller the particle diameter, the lower the flow
rate, and the longer the interval between discharges.
* Flow rate is proportional to the square of the
diameter of the particle.
g
d
v v Q
s g g
) (
18
;
2
= E =
* Cell debris (particle size ~ 0.5 m) can be
separated with flow rates of 300500 L/h.
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (6/14)
 In actual operation, the desired separation is achieved by
empirically determining:
(a) The flow rate of feed that yields a clarified
supernatant liquid
(b) The time interval between solid discharges that will
minimize liquid loss while still allowing the solids to
flow
Discharge periods are on the order of 0.1 s.
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (7/14)
Consider a particle located
at position (x, y), where x is
the distance from the edge
of the outer disks along the
gap between the disk, and
y is the distance normal to
the lower disk. Liquid is
fed into the centrifuge so
that it flows upward
through the gap between
the disks, entering at R
0
and leaving at R
1
.
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (8/14)
The velocity of the particle in the x direction is:
u
e
sin
0
v v
dt
dx
=
where v
0
is the convective liquid velocity, and v
e
is the
particles velocity under centrifugation.
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (9/14)
There are three important characteristics of v
0
:
(1) Under most conditions, v
0
>> v
e
sinu.
(2) v
0
is a function of radius.
(3) v
0
is a function of y.
) (
) 2 (
0
y f
r n
Q
v
dt
dx
(
= =
t
where Q = the total volumetric flow rate
n = number of disks
r = the distance from the axis of rotation
= the distance between disks
f(y) = some function giving the velocity variation
across the distance between disks
= =
t
Note: Q = (total cross sectional area) (average velocity)
dy
r n
y Qf
r n dy v r n Q
} }
= =
0 0
0
) 2 (
) ( 1
) 2 (
1
) 2 (
t
t t
1 ) (
1
0
=
}
dy y f
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (11/14)
The velocity of the particle in the y direction is:
u
e
u
e
cos cos
2


.

\

= =
g
r
v v
dt
dy
g
The trajectory of a particle between the disks of this
centrifuge is:
u
e t
cos
) (
2
/
/
2
2
r
y Qgf
v n
dt dx
dt dy
dx
dy
g
(
(
= =
) (
) 2 (
0
y f
r n
Q
v
dt
dx
(
= =
t
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (12/14)
u
e t
cos
) (
2
/
/
2
2
r
y Qgf
v n
dt dx
dt dy
dx
dy
g
(
(
= =
u sin
0
x R r =
u u
e t
cos ) sin (
) (
2
2
0
2
x R
y Qgf
v n
dx
dy
g
(
(
=
u sin
0
x R r =
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (13/14)
u sin
0
x R r =
u u
e t
cos ) sin (
) (
2
2
0
2
x R
y Qgf
v n
dx
dy
g
(
(
=
Integration for those particles that are most difficult to
capture, that is,
At x = 0, y = 0 (The most unfavorable entering position.)
At x = (R
0
R
1
)/sinu, y = (They are captured at the wall.)
) ( cot ) (
3
2
3
1
3
0
2
E =
(
=
g g
v R R
g
n
v Q u
e t
1 ) (
1
0
=
}
dy y f
DI SK CENTRI FUGE (14/14)
[Example] Chlorella cells are being cultivated in an open
pond. We plan to harvest this biomass by passing the dilute
stream of cells through an available disc bowl centrifuge.
The settling velocity v
g
for these cells has been measured as
1.07 10
4
cm/s. The centrifuge has 80 discs with an angle of
40, an outer radius of 15.7 cm, and an inner radius of 6 cm.
We plan to operate the centrifuge at 6000 rpm. Estimate the
volumetric capacity Q for this centrifuge.
Solution:
(
= u
e t
cot ) (
3
2
3
1
3
0
2
R R
g
n
v Q
g
Data: v
g
= 1.07 10
4
cm/s; n = 80; R
0
= 15.7 cm; R
1
= 6 cm; u = 40; g =
980 cm/s
2
rad/s 628
60
2 6000
=
=
t
e
Q = 3.14 10
4
cm
3
/s = 31.4 L/s
#
SCALEUP OF CENTRIFUGATION
Use laboratory data to predict performance of
commercially available centrifuges.
 Commercially available centrifuges are designed on a
mechanical basis and cannot be modified easily.
 Laboratory bottle centrifuges, being batch operation,
give a clear liquid and a concentrated solid or paste.
An idealized separation, never reached in a
continuous flow centrifuge.
 There are two approaches of scaleup of centrifugation:
(1) use of the equivalent time Gt
(2) sigma analysis
 Scaleup of centrifugation based on the equivalent time Gt
Gt: a measurement of the difficulty of a given separation
t
g
R
Gt
2
e
=
where R = a characteristic radius, often the maximum
in the centrifuge
t = the time needed for a particle to reach R
* Once the value for Gt is determined, a largescale
centrifuge that has a similar Gt should be considered.
* This approach must be regarded as only a crude
approximation.
SCALEUP OF CENTRI FUGATI ON (2/5)
Values of Gt for various solids:
SCALEUP OF CENTRI FUGATI ON (3/5)
[Example] It has been shown that bacterial cell debris
has Gt = 54 10
6
s. For a centrifuge bowl of 10 cm in
diameter, find the centrifuge speed if a full
sedimentation in 2 h is required.
Solution:
t
g
R
Gt
2
e
=
) 3600 2 (
980
) 5 (
10 54
2
6
=
e
rpm 580 , 11
min
s 60
rad 2
rev 1
rad/s 1212 =
(
=
t
e
#
 Scaleup of centrifugation using the E factor (Q = v
g
E)
Scaleup involves choosing a centrifuge that has
the required E value to meet the process
requirements of v
g
and Q.
* The value of E is really the area of a gravitational
settler that will have the same sedimentation
characteristics as the centrifuge for the same feed
rate.
SCALEUP OF CENTRI FUGATI ON (4/5)
 Scaleup of centrifugation using the E factor (Q = v
g
E)
* Scaleup from a laboratory test of Q
1
and E
1
to Q
2
using similar type and geometry centrifuges:
2
2
1
1
E
=
E
Q Q
* Scaleup if different centrifuges are used:
2 2
2
1 1
1
E
=
E E
Q
E
Q
E is the efficiency of a centrifuge, which is determined
experimentally.
SCALEUP OF CENTRI FUGATI ON (5/5)
[Example] The old process for recovering starch particles
from a slurry of starch and gluten involved a gravitational
settling procedure in which the slurry was fed to one end of
a table where the starch particles settled and remained in
the table and starchfree liquid was discharged from the
opposite end of the table. We have been asked to evaluate a
process improvement involving the use of continuous
centrifuges. It has been reported that a starch table with
the dimensions of 2 ft wide and 120 ft long can handle a
slurry feed rate of 2 gal/min. The slurry has a viscosity of
10
3
kg/ms and a density difference of 100 kg/m
3
. The
centrifuge has a E value of 31,500 m
2
.
(a) Calculate the effective diameter of the starch particles.
(b) Estimate the centrifuge throughput, assuming that you
can operate at 50% of the theoretical maximum.
(To be continued)
[Example] Recovery of starch particles.
= 10
3
kg/ms;
s
= 100 kg/m
3
(a) Calculate the effective diameter of the starch particles.
Solution:
m/s 10 66 . 5
s 60
min
ft 3.28
m
gal 7.48
ft
ft 120 2
gal/min 2
6
3
2
=
(
=
g
v
A starch table with the dimensions of 2 ft wide and 120 ft long can
handle a slurry feed rate of 2 gal/min.
g
d
v
s g
) (
18
2
= ) 8 . 9 )( 100 (
) 10 ( 18
10 66 . 5
3
2
6
=
d
d = 1.02 10
5
m
(To be continued)
[Example] Recovery of starch particles. The centrifuge has a E value of
31,500 m
2
. (b) Estimate the centrifuge throughput, assuming that you
can operate at 50% of the theoretical maximum.
Solution (contd):
Q at 50% of the theoretical maximum
= v
g
(0.5E) = (5.66 10
6
) (0.5 31500)
gal/min 1410
min
s 60
L 28.32
gal 7.48
m
L 1000
s
m
089 . 0
3
3
=
(
=
#
m/s 10 66 . 5
6
=
g
v
[Example] A new recombinant protein is produced in
yeast. The company scientists, also known as the boys in
the lab, separate the cells in a laboratory bottle centrifuge
to give a thick paste that will be subsequently disrupted to
release the protein. This separation is accomplished by
centrifuging small quantities of the broth for 30 min at
2000 rpm. In the lab centrifuge, the inner radius of the
solution is 5 cm and the bottle tip radius is 15 cm. The cell
suspension contains only 7% by volume of cells. We are
asked to recommend the size and type of centrifuge for
separating 10 m
3
of this suspension per day.
Solution:


.

\

=
g
r
v
dt
dr
g
2
e
} }
=
t
g
R
R
dt
g
v
r
dr
0
2
0
1
e
t
R R g
v
g
t v
R
R
g
g
2
1 0
2
1
0
) / ln(
or ln
e
e
= =
(To be continued)
Q = v
g
E
[Example] Recommend the size and type of centrifuge for separating
10 m
3
of a yeast suspension per day.
t
R R g
v
g
2
1 0
) / ln(
e
=
Solution (contd):
Data: R
1
= 5 cm; R
0
= 15 cm; t = 30 min; e = 2000 rpm
v
g
= 1.36 10
5
cm/s
2
5
3
m 851
cm/s 10 1.36
day / m 10
=
= = E
g
v
Q
* In general, a safety factor of 2 is introduced for disc
centrifuges, while no safety factor is needed for tubular
bowl centrifuges.
#
[Example] We want to centrifuge chlorella cells using an
available disc bowl centrifuge operated at 6000 rpm. The
centrifuge has 80 discs with an angle of 40, an outer radius
of 15.7 cm, and an inner radius of 6 cm. The cell suspension
has a viscosity of 1 cp and a density difference of 0.1 g/cm
3
.
The effective diameter of chlorella cells is 4.3 10
4
cm.
Assume the efficiency of the disc centrifuge is 0.5; estimate
the throughput.
Solution:
cm/s 10 01 . 1 ) 980 )( 1 . 0 (
) 01 . 0 ( 18
) 10 3 . 4 (
) (
18
4
2 4 2
= = g
d
v
s g
1
s 628
s 60
min
rev
2
rev/min 6000

=
(
=
t
e
(
= E R R
g
n
v Q
g
u
e t
cot ) (
3
2
3
1
3
0
2
= 14,820 cm
3
/s
#
s  cm
g
: poise

.

\

SCROLL TYPE OF DECANTING CENTRIFUGE
Horizontal Type
* An internal scroll conveyor is used to move the decanted
solid out of the machine.
* Centrifugal force: 5006,000 g
* Scroll Decanting
Centrifuge: Vertical
Type (2/2)
ULTRACENTRIFUGE
The term ultracentrifuge was originally applied by T.
Svedberg to any centrifuge that permitted observation of
the contents of the container during the act of
centrifuging.
It is now more commonly applied to any ultrahighforce
centrifuge (up to 75,000 rpm, with RCF values up to
500,000 g).
ULTRACENTRI FUGE (2/3)
ULTRACENTRI FUGE (3/3)
SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR LIQUID
SOLID SEPARATIONS
Major function:
(1) Recover solids
(2) Clarify liquid
Operation mode:
(1) Continuous
(2) Batch, automatic
(3) Batch
Major function Operation Classification
Classification Equipment Subclassification
Major function Operation Classification
Classification Equipment Subclassification
CENTRIFUGAL EXTRACTOR
CENTRI FUGAL EXTRACTOR (2/2)
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