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HOUSE PLUMBING SYSTEM FOR WASTE WATER COLLECTION

SANTHINI S 1 st YR MTECH
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGG.

INTRODUCTION

The arrangement provided in a building for collecting and conveying waste water through drain pipes , by gravity ,to join either a public sewer or a domestic septic tank , is house drainage.

AIMS OF HOUSE DRAINAGE


To maintain healthy conditions in the building. To dispose of f waste water as early and quickly as possible. To avoid the entry of foul gases from the sewer or the septic tank. To facilitate quick removal of foul matter (e.g. human excreta). To collect and remove waste matters systematically

PRINCIPLES OF HOUSE DRAINAGE


The lavatory basins should be so located that the length of drainage line is minimum. The drainage pipes should be laid by the side of the building rather than below the building. All the drains should be aligned straight between successive inspection chambers. All sharp bends and junctions should be avoided except through chambers.

CONTD
The slope of the drains should be sufficient to develop self cleansing velocity. The size of drain should be sufficient so that flooding of the drain does not take place while handling the maximum discharge. The drainage system should contain enough number of traps at suitable locations.

CONTD.
The house drain should be disconnected to the public sewer by the provision of an intercepting trap .. Rain water pipes should drain out rain water directly into the street gutters from where it is carried to the storm water drain. All the connections should be water tight.

CONTD
The entire drainage system should be properly ventilated from the starting point to the final point of disposal All the materials and fittings of the drainage system should be hard strong and resistant to corrosive action. The entire system should be so designed that the possibilities of formation of air lock, siphonage, under deposits etc. are minimised.

SYSTEMS OF PLUMBING
Single stack system. One pipe system. Partially ventilated single stack system. Two pipe system.

SINGLE STACK SYSTEM


One single pipe called soil or waste pipe Effective only with water seal of depth not less than 75 mm. Gully traps and waste pipes are completely dispensed with

ONE PIPE SYSTEM


Separate vent pipe is provided Completely ventilated Costlier than single stack system

PARTIALLY VENTILATED SINGLE STACK SYSTEM


Waste discharged into 1 common pipe. A relied vent pipe is also used for ventilation. Traps of basin are not directly connected to vent pipe.

TWO PIPE SYSTEM


Separate S.P and W.P. All traps completely ventilated. 4 pipes are required. Discharge from W.P disconnected from drain by gully trap.

SANITARY FITTINGS
Wash basin Sinks Bath tubs Water closets Urinals Flushing cisterns Traps

WASH BASIN

SINKS

BATH TUBS

WATER CLOSET

URINALS

FLUSHING CISTERN

TRAPS
A depressed or bent fitting which always remains full of water and maintaining water seal. Depth of water seal is vertical distance between crown and dip of trap

CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAPS
It should possess adequate water seal at all times, to fulfill the purpose of is installation. It should be of non-absorbent material. It should be free from any inside projections, angles or contractions. It should be simple in construction, cheap and readily available It should be self cleaning It should be provided with suitable access for cleaning. Its internal and external surfaces should have smooth finish so that dirt etc does not stick to it.

CLASSIFICATION
According to shape
1. 2. 3. P- Trap Q-Trap S-Trap

1. 2. 3.

According to use
Floor trap or Nahni trap Gully trap Intercepting trap

P TRAP
Resembles shape of letter P Legs are at right angles to each other

Q TRAP
Also called half Strap Resembles shape of letter Q Two legs meet at an angle other than a right angle

S TRAP
Resembles letter S Both legs are parallel to each other, discharging in the same direction

FLOOR TRAP
Commonly known as Nahni trap Used to collect wash water from floors, kitchens and bath rooms Covers can be removed to do frequent cleaning of trap

GULLY TRAP
Disconnect sullage drain from main drainage system Either made up of stone-ware or of cast iron Water seal 6070mm

INTERCEPTING TRAP
Provided at junction of house drain Has deep water seal of 100 mm Has opening at top called cleaning eye or rodding arm

GREASE TRAPS
Used only in large hotels, restaurants or industries Oily and greasy matter is separated which forms ugly scum May be of masonry or cast iron chamber, with bent pipe or Teepipe at the outlets

REFERENCES
Wastewater engineering , B.C.Punmia & Ashok Jain; Luxmi publications; pg. 569 to 583 Your homes plumbing system, By Tim Oglesby, Home Check America Plumbing installations , Winnipeg, www. City.winnipeg.mb.ca/ppd International plumbing code, 2006

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