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MUHAMMAD DANIAL BIN IDRIS 2012165999

One of the most successful branches of journalism Involvement of war correspondent Profit & propaganda oriented journalism of conflict value bias towards violence and violent groups Bias toward reporting only differences between parties, and assuming that one side's needs can only be met by the other side's compromise or defeat

is the act of a citizen, or group of citizens, playing an active role in collecting, reporting, analysing and disseminating news and information, in order to provide independent, reliable, accurate, broad and relevant information.

Bowman & Willis, 2003

Individuals, group of citizens carried by driven motives or objectives subject-matter specialist or opinionated commentators, or also everything in between

Journalism is in the middle of an epochal transformation, as momentous probably as the invention of the telegraph or television.

Project for Excellence in Journalism, Columbia University

Professional journalists face precarious position, feeling threatened Online audience able to become active participant in creating / disseminating news and information Sept. 11 incident, generated most traffic to traditional news sites in the history of the Web During first few days of the Iraq War, 17% of Americans used Internet for principal source of information about the war Following the Columbia shuttle disaster, NASA called upon the public immediately to submit eyewitness accounts and photographs

Open Publishing, Collaborative Editing, Distributed Content Amateurs + tools of modern technology, global distribution of Internet

Triggered by three critical elements:

Audience participation (user comments on news stories, blogs, photographs or video footage from personal mobile cameras, or etc.) Independent news and information Websites (Consumer Reports, the Drudge Report) Full-fledged participatory news sites (one:convo, NowPublic, OhmyNews) Collaborative and contributory media sites (Slashdot, Newsvine) Various "thin media" (mailing lists, email newsletters) Personal broadcasting sites

Challenges Media Hegemony

The institutional press as the exclusive, privileged, trusted, intermediary of the news.

Citizens As Stakeholders In Journalistic Process

no more accepting news or stories passively making their opinions heard by sending e-mails, posting criticism They are now also supporting or funding independent editorial enterprise.

Freelance web blogger & journalist received $14,334 from 320 people who funded his trip to Iraq to report his firsthand observations of the war zone. Filed daily dispatches on his website, about the fall of Tikrit and reported on the regions ethnic tensions.

information plays a pivotal role in running the world today at all levels The progress of technology, Internet, and emergence of the new media all have contributed to the rise of citizen journalism. More and more people are stepping into this direction by taking matters into their own hands to gain first hand info on all the events occurring. unimpressed with the roles that citizen journalists played, it is the current reality. They have to adapt because citizen journalism will keep expanding as long as technology and Internet grows.