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SISTEM OTOT (2)

Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Manubrium and medial third of clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process Fungsi: memutarkan kepala kepada arash bertentangan, extends head, and flexes vertebral column
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Trapezius
Origin: External occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line and spinous process of C7-T12 Insertion: Anterior border of scapular spine, acromion process, lateral third of clavicle Action: Elevates, adducts, and depresses scapula
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Deltoid
Action: Abducts(menggera kan) humerus; aids in flexion, extension, and internal and external rotation

Supraspinatus
Action: Abducts humerus

Infraspinatus
Action: Rotates humerus laterally

Teres Minor
Action: Rotates humerus laterally

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Teres Major
Action: Extends, adduction and medial rotates humerus.

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Subscapularis
Action: Rotates humerus medially

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Action: Flexes radius and humerus, and supinates forearm

Biceps Brachii
Short Head

Long Head

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Triceps Brachii
Action: Extends humerus and ulna

Long Head

Lateral Head

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Brachialis
Origin: Anterior distal two-thirds of humerus Insertion: Coronoid process of ulna Action: Flexes ulna

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Anconeus
Action: Weak extensor of ulna, stabilizes elbow joint in extension

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Abductor Pollicis Brevis


Action: Abducts thumb and aids in flexion

Palm

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Pronator Teres
Action: Pronates and flexes forearm

Anterior, Superficial Layer

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Flexor Carpi Radialis


Action: Flexes wrist and elbow and abducts wrist

Anterior, Superficial Layer

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Flexor Carpi Ulnaris


Action: Flexes and adducts wrist

Anterior, Superficial Layer

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Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Insertion: Middle phalanges of fingers Action: Flexes fingers and wrist

Anterior, Middle Layer

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Brachioradialis
Action: Flexes forearm

Posterior, Superficial Layer

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Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Action: Extends and abducts hand

Posterior, Superficial Layer

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Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Third metacarpal Action: Extends and abducts hand

Posterior, Superficial Layer

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Extensor Digitorum

Action: Extends fingers and hand

Posterior, Superficial Layer

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Supinator
Action: Supinates forearm

Posterior, Deepest Layer

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Latissimus Dorsi
Action: Extends, rotates humerus medially, draws shoulder down and backward

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Serratus Anterior
Action: Holds scapula to chest wall, medially rotates scapula in abducting or extending humerus

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Quadratus Lumborum
Insertion: Lower border of 12th rib, transverse process of upper lumbar vertebrae Action: Depresses rib cage inferiorly and laterally flexes trunk

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External Intercostal
Action: Elevates rib cage during inspiration

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Internal Intercostal
Action: Depresses rib cage during expiration

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Pectoralis Major
Action: Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates humerus, draws body upward in climbing

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Pectoralis Minor
Origin: Anterior surface of ribs 3 to 5 Action: Draws scapula down and forward and elevates ribs

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Rectus Abdominus
Action: Tenses abdominal wall and flexes vertebral column

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External Abdominal Oblique


Action: Compresses abdomen, contralaterally rotates and flexes vertebral column

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Gluteus Maximus
Origin: Upper portion of ilium, the sacrum and coccyx Action: Principal extensor and lateral rotator of femur

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Gluteus Medius
Action: Abducts femur, stabilizes contralateral hip while standing on one leg

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Piriformis
Action: Rotates femur laterally

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Psoas Major
Action: Flexes trunk and flexes and laterally rotates thigh

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Iliacus
Action: Flexes and laterally rotates femur

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Biceps Femoris
Insertion: Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia Action: Extends femur and flexes leg

Long Head

Short Head

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Sartorius
Action: Flexes both femur and tibia

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Rectus Femoris
Action: Extends tibia and flexes femur

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Gastrocnemius
Action: Flexes tibia and plantar; flexes foot

Superficial

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Soleus
Action: Flexes foot

Second Layer
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Tibialis Posterior
Action: Adducts and inverts foot and aids in plantar flexion

Third Layer

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Tibialis Anterior
Action: Dorsiflexes and inverts foot

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Fibularis Longus
Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot

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Sistem Otot dan Umur


ATP dan kreatin fosfat berkurang pada umur 80 thn , separuh daripada jisim otot hilang . Otot akan mengecut Sel-sel adipos dan tisu penghubung akan menggantikan tisu otot .

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