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Measurement of Pressure

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Measurement of Static Pressure

Static pressure is uniform in all directions so pressure measurements are independent of direction in an immovable fluid , in simple words pressure measured in static system is static pressure. It can only be measured accurately by measuring it in a manner such that the velocity pressure has no influence on the measurement at all. This is carried out by measuring it through a small hole at the wall of duct or a series of holes positioned at right angles to the flow in a surface lying parallel to the line of flow. The pitot static tube is an example of it.

Measurement of dynamic pressure

Dynamic pressure is associated with velocity or flow of the fluid. They are more complex than static pressures and are more difficult to measure. It is in fact used to measure flow rates and air speeds. It can be measured by taking the differential pressure between instruments parallel and perpendicular to the flow

Introduction Of Transducers

Transducer is a device, usually electrical, electronic, or electromechanical, that converts one type of energy to another for various purposes including measurement or information transfer.

It must produce the output which depends on some way on the input quantity/measurand. Transducers are divided into two types: Active Transducer Passive Transducer

Active Transducers
An active transducer does not require an external power supply to provide an output signal. These transducers usually rely upon magnetic inductance or piezoelectric effects to produce their output signals. Ex. Piezoelectric crystal used for acceleration measurement

Measurand is converted into output without any other form of energy requirements.
They are also called self generating type transducers.

Piezoelectric sensor
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure changes in pressure ,acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical charge Piezoelectric Pressure Sensors measure dynamic pressures. They are generally not suited for static pressure measurements. Dynamic pressure measurements including turbulence, blast, ballistics and engine combustion under varying conditions may require sensors with special capabilities Internal generation of electric charge resulting from an applied mechanical force.

Passive Transducers

Passive transducers need an external power supply in order to amplify the input and generate an output signal. All passive transducers change one of, or a combination of, the three general circuit parameters; resistance, inductance, or capacitance. Ex. Potentiometer is used for measurement of pressure, displacement and position.

These transducers produce the output signal in the form of variation in resistance, capacitance, inductance or some other electrical parameter in response to the quantity to be measured


Variable Resistance Type Transducer

The variable resistance transducers are one of the most commonly used types of transducers. The variable resistance transducers are also called as resistive transducers or resistive sensors. They can be used for measuring various physical quantities like temperature, pressure, displacement, force, vibrations etc. These transducers are usually used as the secondary transducers, where the output from the primary mechanical transducer acts as the input for the variable resistance transducer. The output obtained from it is calibrated against the input quantity and it directly gives the value of the input.

The variable resistance transducer elements work on the principle that the resistance of the conductor is directly proportional to the length of the conductor and inversely proportional to the area of the conductor. Thus if L is the length of the conductor (in m) and A is its area (in m square), its resistance (in ohms) is given by: R = L/A.

L is the length ,A is cross sectional area and p is resistivity of the resistance material. So resistance can be changed if any of these value p ,L or A is changed.

Measurand is connected to the resistance in such a way that it varies any one of its parameters. A change in the value or R is proportional to the measurand. Thus the measurand can be measured by measuring the change in resistance Where is called as resistivity of the material and it is constant for he materials and is measured in ohm-m.

The resistance of some materials also changes with the change in their temperature. This principle is primarily used for the measurement of temperature

Some of the variable resistive transducers are: Sliding wire(potentiometer) Strain gauge Load cell RTD Thermistor Hot wire anemometer Carbon microphone Humidity sensor

Variable Capacitance Type Transducer

A capacitor is a pair of parallel plates with some insulating dielectric material between them, which can be used to store an electrostatic charge. Capacitive transducer is a passive transducer used for sensing pressure. It is a primary transducer Capacitive Transducers/Sensors are extensively used in industrial and scientific applications. They are based on changes in capacitance in response to physical variations. These sensors find many diverse applications but main are related to the measurements of displacement and pressure.

Capacitive Transducers measure the pressure by measuring the change in capacitance. Where capacitance is given by, C= A/D.
Where C= Capacitance in Farads A=Area of cross section of plates in square meters

D=Distance between two plates in meters

=Dielectric Constant

Two types: Single plate & Double plate Accuracy up to 0.1 to 0.2% of span Pressure range: 0.8kpa to 35kpa Second to strain gauges Elastic element: Ni, stainless steel Exposed to process pressure on one side and reference pressure on the other.

The variable capacitance used to convert physical phenomena into electrical signals is called a variable capacitance transducer.
As there is no movement so there is no wear and the life expectancy quoted is 200 years.

The major problem with these transducers is their high impedance which makes them very suspectible to noise.

Advantages Of Capacitive Transducer

Low Hysteresis Good linearity Highly sensitive Stability Repeatability Resolution as small as 0.003mm can be obtained

Static pressure measurement capability

Disadvantages Of Capacitive Transducer

High impedance output. High temperature sensitivity. Need for complex electronics. Dirt may vary the output.

Variable Inductance Type Transducer

Inductance is another property of electric circuits which can be used in transducers. If a length of wire is wound into a coil and an electrical current passes through it a magnetic field is generated. If the current varies the magnetic field varies and this induces other currents in the coil which tend to oppose the original. Process pressure moves the magnetic iron core inside a coil which alters self inductance of coil. As the core moves into solenoid, the induction of coil increases in proportion to metal inside coil. Ration inductance transducers are better than variable