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ME 445

INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

CNC TECHNOLOGY
and
CNC PROGRAMMING
2004 1
AUTOMATION IN MANUFACTURING
SYSTEMS

TRENDS IN INDUSTRY

THE OBJECTIVE:

TO BE CO MP ET ITIV THRO UGH


INCR EASING P RO DU CT IVIT Y AND T OTA L
QU ALIT Y ASSU RANC E

2004 2
COST = COST OF
MANUFACTURING AND
COST OF MATERIAL
HANDLING

EFF ICI EN CY OF PRODUCTIVITY =


MAN UFA CT URIN G AVERAGE OUTPUT PER
MAN-HOUR

PROFIT = INCOME - COST

2004 3
PROF IT increases as COS T decreases
and as PROD UCTIVITY increases.

PRODUCTIVITY through AUTOMATION

2004 4
any means of helping
the workers to perform
their tasks more
efficiently
AUTOMATION

transfer of the skill of


the operator to the
machine

2004 5
Transferred Results
skill
muscle power engine driven First industrial
machine tools revolution
manipulating mechanization hard automation
skill
vision skill use of position increase of
transducers, accuracy, part
cameras recognition
brain power cnc machines, industrial second industrial
robots, soft
automation, revolution
computer control of
manufacturing
2004 systems 6
Utilization of computers in
manufacturing applications has
proved to be one of the most
significant developments over the
last couple of decades in helping to
improve the productivity and
efficiency of manufacturing
systems.
2004 7
The metal cutting operations (also
called machining) is one of the
most important manufacturing
processes in industry today (as it
was yesterday).

2004 8
MACH INI NG IS THE R EMOVA L
OF MA TERIALS IN FO RMS O F
CH IP S FR OM THE WOR KPI ECE
BY S HE AR ING WITH A S HAR P
TOO L.

2004 9
The main function of a machine
tool is to control the workpiece-
cutting tool positional relationship
in such a way as to achieve a
desired geometric shape of the
workpiece with sufficient
dimensional accuracy.

2004 10
Machine tool provides:

work holding
tool holding
relative motion between tool
and workpiece

primary motion
secondary motion

2004 11
Primary motion

Relative motion
between tool and Secondary motion
workpiece

Cutting motion Feed motion

Cutting speed Feed rate

2004 12
machine control unit
position transducers

work holding device

tool holding device

2004 13
CLASSIFICATION OF THE CHIP REMOVING METHODS
ACCORDING TO THE RELATIVE MOTION

2004 14
CLASSIFICATION OF MACHINE TOOLS

THOSE USING THOSE USING THOSE USING


SINGLE POINT MULTIPOINT ABRASIVE
TOOLS TOOLS TOOLS
lathes drilling m/c’s grinding m/c’s
shapers milling m/c’s honing m/c’s
planers broaching m/c’s etc.
boring m/c’s hobbing m/c’s
etc. etc.

2004 15
ISO MACHINE TOOL AXIS DEFINITION

2004 16
ISO MACHINE TOOL AXES DEFINITIONS
AXIS MACHINE TOOL WITH SPINDLE MACHINE TOOL WITH
NO SPINDLE

Z axis of spindle, perpendicular to work


(+Z) as tool goes away from the work piece holding surface, (+Z) as
tool goes away from the
workpiece

MACHINE MACHINE TOOL WITH


TOOL WITH ROTATING TOOL
ROTATING
WORKPIECE

HORIZONT VERTICAL
AL AXIS AXIS

X radial and horizontal horizontal parallel to and positive in


parallel to and parallel and parallel the principal direction of
cross slide, to work to the work cutting (primary motion)
(+X) when holding holding
tool goes away surface, surface,
from the axis (+X) to the (+X) to the
of spindle right when right when
viewed viewed
from from
spindle spindle
towards towards
work piece column

Y apply right hand rules


2004 17
RIGHT HAND RULE
Vertical Machine Horizontal Machine

2004 18
STANDARD LATHE COORDINATE
SYSTEM

2004 19
STANDARD MILLING MACHINE
COORDINATE SYSTEM

2004 20
NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE
TOOLS:
An NC machine tool is functionally the same
as a conventional machine tool. The
technological capabilities NC machine tools
in terms of machining are no different from
those of conventional ones. The difference
is in the way in which the various machine
functions and slide movements are
controlled.

2004 21
The functions and motions such as;

turning the spindle on and off


setting cutting speeds
setting feed rate
turning coolant on and off
moving tool with respect to workpiece

are performed by Machine Control Unit


(MCU) in NC machine tools.

2004 22
INTRODUCTION TO CNC

2004 23
HISTORY
 US Air Force commissioned MIT to develop the
first "numerically controlled" machine in 1949. It
was demonstrated in 1952.
 At 1970-1972 first Computer Numeric Control
machines were developed.
 Today, computer numerical control (CNC)
machines are found almost everywhere, from
small job shops in rural communities to
companies in large urban areas.
2004 24
DEFINITION
 In CNC (Computer Numerical Control), the
instructions are stored as a program in a
micro-computer attached to the machine.
The computer will also handle much of the
control logic of the machine, making it
more adaptable than earlier hard-wired
controllers.

2004 25
CNC APPLICATIONS
 Machining
2.5D / 3D
Turning ~ Lathes, Turning Centre
Milling ~ Machining Centres
 Forming
2D
Plasma and Laser Cutting
Blanking, nibbling and punching
3D
Rapid Prototyping
2004 26
SAMPLE
CNC MACHINES

2004 27
CNC TURNING

28
CNC MILLING

29
CNC LASER CUTTING

2004 30
CNC PLASMA CUTTING

2004 31
CNC PRESS

2004 32
CNC RAPID PROTOTYPING

2004 33
INDUSTRIES MOST AFFECTED
by CNC
 Aerospace
 Machinery
 Electrical
 Fabrication
 Automotive
 Instrumentation
 Mold making
2004 34
SAMPLE PRODUCTS
OF
CNC MANUFACTURING

2004 35
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Engine Block

2004 36
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY(Cont’d)

Different Products

2004 37
AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
Aircraft Turbine Machined by
5-Axis CNC Milling Machine

2004 38
CNC MOLD MAKING

2004 39
ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY

2004 40
RAPID PROTOTYPING
PRODUCTS

2004 41
ADVANTAGES of CNC
 Produc tivi ty
Machine utilisation is increased because
more time is spent cutting and less time is
taken by positioning.
Reduced setup time increases utilisation
too.

2004 42
ADVANTAGES of CNC
 Qual it y
Parts are more accurate.
Parts are more repeatable.
Less waste due to scrap.

2004 43
ADVANTAGES of CNC

 Reduc ed invento ry
Reduced setup time permits smaller
economic batch quantities.
Lower lead time allows lower stock levels.
Lower stock levels reduce interest charges
and working capital requirements.

2004 44
ADVANTAGES of CNC
 Mac hi ning Co mplex s ha pe s
Slide movements under computer control.
Computer controller can calculate steps.
First NC machine built 1951 at MIT for
aircraft skin milling.

2004 45
ADVANTAGES of CNC
 Mana ge ment Co nt ro l
CNC leads to CAD
Process planning
Production planning

2004 46
DRAWBACKS of CNC
 High capital cost
Machine tools cost $30,000 - $1,500,000
 Retraining and recruitment of staff
 New support facilities
 High maintenance requirements
 Not cost-effective for low-level production on
simple parts
 As geometric complexity or volume increases
CNC becomes more economical
 Maintenance personnel must have both
mechanical and electronics expertise

2004 47
CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS

2004 48
CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS
A typical CNC system consists of the
following six elements
 Part program
 Program input device
 Machine control unit
 Drive system
 Machine tool
 Feedback system

2004 49
NC SYSTEM ELEMENTS

2004 50
OPERATIONAL FEATURES of CNC
MACHINES

2004 51
PART PROGRAM
 A part program is a series of coded instructions required
to produce a part. It controls the movement of the
machine tool and the on/off control of auxiliary functions
such as spindle rotation and coolant. The coded
instructions are composed of letters, numbers and
symbols and are arranged in a format of functional
blocks as in the following example
N10 G01 X5. 0 Y2. 5 F15 .0
| | | | |
| | | | Feed rate (15 in/min)
| | | Y-coordinate (2.5")
| | X-coordinate (5.0")
| Linear interpolation mode
Sequence number

2004 52
PROGRAM INPUT DEVICE
 The program input device is the
mechanism for part programs to be
entered into the CNC control. The most
commonly used program input devices are
keyboards, punched tape reader, diskette
drivers, throgh RS 232 serial ports and
networks.

2004 53
MACHINE CONTROL UNIT
The machine control unit (MCU) is the heart of a CNC
system. It is used to perform the following functions:

 Read coded instructions


 Decode coded instructions
 Implement interpolations (linear, circular, and helical) to
generate axis motion commands
 Feed axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for
driving the axis mechanisms
 Receive the feedback signals of position and speed for
each drive axis
 Implement auxiliary control functions such as coolant or
spindle on/off, and tool change

2004 54
TYPES of CNC CONTROL
SYSTEMS

 Open-loop control
 Closed-loop control

2004 55
OPEN-LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM
 In open-loop control system step motors are
used
 Step motors are driven by electric pulses
 Every pulse rotates the motor spindle through a
certain amount
 By counting the pulses, the amount of motion
can be controlled
 No feedback signal for error correction
 Lower positioning accuracy

2004 56
CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL
SYSTEMS
 In closed-loop control systems DC or AC
motors are used
 Position transducers are used to generate
position feedback signals for error
correction
 Better accuracy can be achieved
 More expensive
 Suitable for large size machine tools
2004 57
DRIVE SYSTEM
 A drive system consists of amplifier
circuits, stepping motors or servomotors
and ball lead-screws. The MCU feeds
control signals (position and speed) of
each axis to the amplifier circuits. The
control signals are augmented to actuate
stepping motors which in turn rotate the
ball lead-screws to position the machine
table.
2004 58
STEPPING MOTORS
 A stepping motor provides open-loop, digital
control of the position of a workpiece in a
numerical control machine. The drive unit
receives a direction input (cw or ccw) and pulse
inputs. For each pulse it receives, the drive unit
manipulates the motor voltage and current,
causing the motor shaft to rotate bya fixed angle
(one step). The lead screw converts the rotary
motion of the motor shaft into linear motion of
the workpiece .

2004 59
STEPPING MOTORS

2004 60
RECIRCULATING BALL SCREWS
Transform rotational motion of the motor
into translational motion of the nut attached to
the machine table.

2004 61
RECIRCULATING BALL SCREWS
 Accuracy of CNC
machines depends on
their rigid
construction, care in
manufacturing, and
the use of ball screws
to almost eliminate
slop in the screws
used to move portions
of the machine.

2004 62
2004 63
POSITIONING
 The positioning resolution of a ball screw drive
mechanism is directly proportional to the
smallest angle that the motor can turn.
 The smallest angle is controlled by the motor
step size.
 Microsteps can be used to decrease the motor
step size.
 CNC machines typically have resolutions of
0.0025 mm or better.

2004 64
MACHINE TOOL
 CNC controls are used to control various
types of machine tools. Regardless of
which type of machine tool is controlled, it
always has a slide table and a spindle to
control of position and speed. The
machine table is controlled in the X and Y
axes, while the spindle runs along the Z
axis.
2004 65
FEEDBACK SYSTEM
 The feedback system is also referred to as
the measuring system. It uses position
and speed transducers to continuously
monitor the position at which the cutting
tool is located at any particular time. The
MCU uses the difference between
reference signals and feedback signals to
generate the control signals for correcting
position and speed errors.
2004 66
CNC MACHINES FEEDBACK
DEVICES

2004 67
POTENTIOMETERS

2004 68
POTENTIOMETERS

2004 69
ENCODERS

 A device used to convert linear or


rotational position information into an
electrical output signal.

2004 70
ENCODERS

2004 71
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS of
ENCODERS

2004 72
RESOLVERS

 A resolver is a rotary
transformer that
produces an output signal
that is a function of the
rotor position.

2004 73
SERVOMOTOR with RESOLVER

2004 74
VELOCITY FEEDBACK
 Tac ho meters :
Electrical output is proportional to rate of
angular rotation.
 Enc oders , Res ol ve rs ,
Pot ent io meters:
Number of pulses per time is proportional
to rate change of position.

2004 75
CNC CUTTERS

 Turning center cutters


 Machining center cutters

2004 76
TURNING CENTER CUTTERS

Types of cutters used on CNC turning


centers
 Carbides (and other hard materials) insert

turning and boring tools


 Ceramics

 High Speed Steel (HSS) drills and taps

2004 77
STANDART INSERT SHAPES
 V – used for profiling, weakest
insert, 2 edges per side.
 D – somewhat stronger, used for
profiling when the angle allows it,
2 edges per side.
 T – commonly used for turning
because it has 3 edges per side.
 C – popular insert because the
same holder can be used for
turning and facing. 2 edges per
side.
 W – newest shape. Can turn and
face like the C, but 3 edges per
side.
 S – Very strong, but mostly used
for chamfering because it won’t
cut a square shoulder. 4 edges
per side.
 R – strongest insert but least
commonly used.
2004 78
TYPICAL TURNING,
THREADING and PARTING TOOLS

2004 79
MACHINING CENTER CUTTING
TOOLS
 Most machining centers
use some form of HSS or
carbide insert endmill as
the basic cutting tool.
 Insert endmills cut many
times faster than HSS,
but the
 HSS endmills leave a
better finish when side
cutting.

2004 80
MACHINING CENTER CUTTING
TOOLS (cont’d)
 Facemills flatten large
surfaces quickly and
with an excellent
finish. Notice the
engine block being
finished in one pass
with a large cutter.

2004 81
MACHINING CENTER CUTTING
TOOLS (cont’d)
 Ball endmills (both
HSS and insert) are
used for a variety of
profiling operations
such as the mold
shown in the picture.
 Slitting and side
cutters are used when
deep, narrow slots
must be cut.

2004 82
MACHINING CENTER CUTTING
TOOLS (cont’d)
Dri ll s, Tap s, and Rea mers
 Common HSS tools such as
drills, taps, and reamers are
commonly used on CNC
machining centers. Note that a
spot drill is used instead of a
centerdrill. Also, spiral point or
gun taps are used for through
holes and spiral flute for blind
holes. Rarely are hand taps
used on a machining center.

2004 83
TOOL HOLDERS
 All cutting tools must be held in a holder
that fits in the spindle. These include end
mill holders (shown), collet holders, face
mill adapters, etc. Most machines in the
USA use a CAT taper which is a modified
NST 30, 40, or 50 taper that uses a pull
stud and a groove in the flange. The
machine pulls on the pull stud to hold the
holder in the spindle, and the groove in
the flange gives the automatic tool
changer something to hold onto. HSK tool
holders were designed a number of years
ago as an improvement to CAT tapers,
but they are gaining acceptance slowly.

2004 84
CNC PROGRAMMING

2004 85
CNC PROGRAMMING
 Of fl in e pr ogra mmi ng linked to CAD
programs.
 Conv ers ati ona l pr ogra mmi ng by the
operator.
 MDI ~ Manual Data Input.
 Man ual Contr ol using jog buttons or
`electronic handwheel'.
 Word-A ddr ess Codi ng using standard G-
codes and M-codes.
2004 86
Basics of NC Part Programming:

During secondary motion, either the tool


moves relative to the workpiece or the
workpiece moves relative to the tool. In NC
programming, it is always assumed that the
tool moves relative to the workpiece no
matter what the real situation is.

2004 87
The position of the tool is described
by using a Cartesian coordinate
system. If (0,0,0) position can be
described by the operator, then it is
called floating zero.

2004 88
In defining the motion of the tool
from one point to another,
either
absolute positioning mode or
incremental positioning mode
can be used.

2004 89
1. Absolute positioning. In this mode, the
desired target position of the tool for a
particular move is given relative to the origin
point of the program.

2. Incremental positioning. In this mode, the


next target position for the tool is given
relative to the current tool position.

2004 90
Structure of an NC Part Program:
Commands are input into the controller in
units called blocks or statements.

Block Format:
1. Fixed sequential format
2. Tab sequential format
3. Word address format

2004 91
EXAMPLE:
Assume that a drilling operation is to be
programmed as:

1. The tool is positioned at (25.4,12.5,0) by a


rapid movement.
2. The tool is then advanced -10 mm in the z
direction at a feed rate of 500 mm/min., with the
flood coolant on.
3.The is then retracted back 10 mm at the rapid
feed rate, and the coolant is turned off.

2004 92
1. Fixed sequential format
0050 00 +0025400 +0012500 +0000000 0000 00
0060 01 +0025400 +0012500 -0010000 0500 08
0070 00 +0025400 +0012500 +0000000 0000 09

2. Tab sequential format


0050 TAB 00 TAB +0025400 TAB +0012500 TAB +0000000 TAB TAB
0060 TAB 01 TAB TAB TAB -0010000 TAB 0500 TAB 08
0070 TAB 00 TAB TAB TAB -0000000 TAB 0000 TAB 09

3. Word address format


N50 G00 X25400 Y125 Z0 F0
N60 G01 Z-10000 F500 M08
N70 G00 Z0 M09

2004 93
Modal commands: Commands issued in the
NC program that will stay in effect until it is
changed by some other command, like, feed
rate selection, coolant selection, etc.

Nonmodal commands: Commands that are


effective only when issued and whose
effects are lost for subsequent commands,
like, a dwell command which instructs the
tool to remain in a given configuration for a
given amount of time.
2004 94
CNC PROGRAMMING

2004 95
INFORMATION NEEDED by a CNC
1. Preparatory Information: units, incremental or absolute
positioning
2. Coordinates: X,Y,Z, RX,RY,RZ
3. Machining Parameters: Feed rate and spindle speed
4. Coolant Control: On/Off, Flood, Mist
5. Tool Control: Tool and tool parameters
6. Cycle Functions: Type of action required
7. Miscellaneous Control: Spindle on/off, direction of
rotation, stops for part movement
This information is conveyed to the machine through a set
of instructions arranged in a desired sequence – Program.

2004 96
BLOCK FORMAT

Sample Block
N135 G01 X1.0 Y1.0 Z0.125 F5

 Restrictions on CNC blocks


 Each may contain only one tool move
 Each may contain any number of non-tool move G-codes
 Each may contain only one feedrate
 Each may contain only one specified tool or spindle
speed
 The block numbers should be sequential
 Both the program start flag and the program number
must be independent of all other commands (on
separate lines)
 The data within a block should follow the sequence
2004shown in the above sample block 97
WORD-ADDRESS CODING
Examp le CN C
Prog ram Each instruction to the machine
 N5 G90 G20 consists of a letter followed by a
 N10 M06 T3 number.
 N15 M03 S1250
 N20 G00 X1 Y1 Each letter is associated with a
 N25 Z0.1
 N30 G01 Z-0.125 F5 specific type of action or piece of
 N35 X3 Y2 F10 information needed by the machine.
 N40 G00 Z1 Letters used in Codes
 N45 X0 Y0
 N50 M05 N,G,X,Y,Z,A,B,C,I,J,K,F,S,T,R,M
 N55 M30

2004 98
G & M Codes
Examp le CN C
Prog ram • G-codes: Preparatory Functions
 N5 G90 G20 involve actual tool moves.
 N10 M06 T3
 N15 M03 S1250 • M-codes: Miscellaneous
 N20 G00 X1 Y1 Functions – involve actions
 N25 Z0.1
 N30 G01 Z-0.125 F5 necessary for machining (i.e.
 N35 X3 Y2 F10 spindle on/off, coolant on/off).
 N40 G00 Z1
 N45 X0 Y0
 N50 M05
 N55 M30

2004 99
G Codes
 G0 0 Ra pi d tra ver se
 G0 1 Lin ea r in te rpola ti on
 G40 Cutter compensation –
cancel
 G0 2 Cir cu lar in te rpola ti on ,
CW  G41 Cutter compensation –
 G0 3 Cir cu lar in te rpola ti on , left
CC W  G42 Cutter compensation-
 G0 4 Dwe ll right
 G0 8 Acc ele ra ti on  G70 Inch format
 G0 9 Dece ler ation  G71 Metric format
 G1 7 X- Y Pla ne  G74 Full-circle programming
 G1 8 Z-X Pla ne off
 G1 9 Y- Z Plane  G75 Full-circle programming
 G2 0 Inch Un it s (G 70) on
 G2 1 Met ric Unit s (G7 1)  G80 Fixed-cycle cancel
 G81-G89 Fixed cycles
 G90 Absolute dimensions
2004  G91 Incremental dimensions 100
Modal G-Codes

 Most G-codes set the machine in a “mode”


which stays in effect until it is changed or
cancelled by another G-code. These
commands are called “modal”.

2004 101
Modal G-Code List
 G0 0 Ra pid T ransverse  G4 3 Tool leng th comp ensat io n
 G0 1 Linea r Int erp ol at ion (p lus)
 G0 2 Ci rc ul ar Int erp ol at ion, CW  G4 4 Tool leng th comp ensat io n
 G0 3 Ci rc ul ar Int erp ol at ion, (m inus)
CCW  G4 9 Tool leng th comp ensat io n
cancel
 G1 7 XY Pl ane  G8 0 Cancel canned cyc les
 G1 8 XZ Plane  G8 1 Dri llin g cyc le
 G1 9 YZ Plane  G8 2 Cou nt er b or ing cy cle
 G2 0/ G7 0 Inc h uni ts  G8 3 Deep hol e dril ling cycl e
 G2 1/ G7 1 Met ri c Uni ts  G9 0 Ab sol ut e p osi tio ni ng
 G4 0 Cut ter co mpensat io n
cancel  G9 1 Inc rem ent al posi tioni ng
 G4 1 Cut ter co mpensat io n left
 G4 2 Cut ter co mpensat io n ri ght
 G4 3 Tool leng th co mpensat io n
(p lus)

2004 102
M Codes
 M00 Program stop
 M01 Optional program stop
 M02 Program end
 M03 Spindle on clockwise
 M04 Spindle on counterclockwise
 M05 Spindle stop
 M06 Tool change
 M08 Coolant on
 M09 Coolant off
 M10 Clamps on
 M11 Clamps off
 M30 Program stop, reset to start

2004 103
N Codes
 Gives an identifying number for each block
of information.

 It is generally good practice to increment


each block number by 5 or 10 to allow
additional blocks to be inserted if future
changes are required.

2004 104
X,Y, and Z Codes
 X, Y, and Z codes are used to specify
the coordinate axis.
 Number following the code defines the
coordinate at the end of the move relative
to an incremental or absolute reference
point.

2004 105
I,J, and K Codes
 I, J, and K codes are used to specify the
coordinate axis when defining the center
of a circle.

 Number following the code defines the


respective coordinate for the center of the
circle.

2004 106
F,S, and T Codes
 F-c ode : used to specify the feed rate

 S-c ode : used to specify the spindle speed

 T-c ode : used to specify the tool


identification number associated with the
tool to be used in subsequent operations.

2004 107
Application of Some Codes
G01 Linear Interpolation
For mat : N_ G01 X_ Y_ Z_ F_

 Linear Interpolation results in a straight


line feed move.

 Unless tool compensation is used, the


coordinates are associated with the
centerline of the tool.
2004 108
Application of Some Codes
G01 Linear Interpolation
 . As an example, for the motion that occurs in
x-y plane with the same maximum speed for the
x- and y-axis, initial motion is at an angle of 45o
to the axes until motion in one of

 the axes is completed and then the balance of


the motion occurs in the other axis. This is called
point-to-point motion.

2004 109
Application of Some Codes
G01 Linear Interpolation

25
B C
20

15

10 Positioning motion from A to C


A N10 G00 X30000 Y20000 F0
5

5 10 15 20 25 30
2004 110
Application of Some Codes
G01 Linear Interpolation
G01 is another preparatory function to specify
that the tool should be moved to a specified
location along a straight line path. It is referred
to as linear interpolation.

This function is typically used to specify


machining of straight features such as turning
a cylindrical surface in turning, cutting a slot in
milling, etc.

2004 111
Application of Some Codes
G01 Linear Interpolation
Linear interpolation from A to C
25 N10 G01 X30000 Y20000 F2500
C
20

15

10
A
5

5 10 15 20 25 30
2004 112
G01 Linear Interpolation

N10 G00 X1 Z1
X
N15 Z0.1
N 20 G0 1 Z -0 .12 5 F5
N 2 5 X2 Z2 F1 0
Z

2004 113
G02 Circular Interpolation
 G02 is also a preparatory function to specify that
the tool should be moved to a specified location
along a circular path in a clockwise direction. In
order to specify the path to the MCU, the end
point of the arc and the location of the center of
the arc should be specified. Within the block in
which the G02 code is programmed, the center
of the arc is given by specifying its location
relative to the start of the arc.

2004 114
G02 Circular Interpolation (CW)

 The G02 command requires an


endpoint and a radius in order
to cut the arc.
 I,J, and K are relative to the
start point.

N_ G02 X2 Y1 I0 J-1 F1 0
or
N_ G02 X2 Y1 R1

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G02 Circular Interpolation (CW)
Circular interpolation from A to B
about a circle centered at C
N10 G02 X20000 Y10000
25 I5000 J15000 F2500
I=5 A C
20

15
J=15
10 B
C
5

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Canned Cycles
The sequence of some machining
operations is may be the same for any
part and for any machine. For example,
drilling a hole involves the following steps:

Position the tool above the point where


the hole will be drilled

Set the correct spindle speed

Feed the tool into the workpiece at a


controlled feed rate to a predetermined
depth

Retract the tool at a rapid rate to just


above the point where the hole started
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Some Commonly Used Canned Cycle
Code Function Down feed At bottom Retracti
on
G81 Drilling Continuous No action Rapid
feed
G82 Spot face, Continuous Dwell Rapid
counterbore feed
G83 Deep hole drilling Peck No action Rapid
G84 Tapping Continuous Reverse Feed
feed spindle rate
G85 Through boring(in Continuous No action Feed
& out) feed rate
G86 Through boring(in Continuous Stop Rapid
only) feed spindle
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G81 ILLUSTRATION

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Three Main parts of a CNC program

Part 1- Program Petup

 N5 G90 G21 (Absolute units, metric)

 N10 M06 T2 (Stop for tool change, use


tool # 2)
 N15 M03 S1200 (Turn the spindle on CW to
1200 rpm)
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Three Main parts of a CNC program

Part 2- Chip Removal

 N20 G00 X1 Y1 (Rapid to X1,Y1 from origin


point)
 N25 Z0.125 (Rapid down to Z0.125)
 N30 G01 Z-0.125 F100 (Feed down to Z-0.125 at
100 mm/min)
 N35 G01 X2 Y2 (Feed diagonally to X2,Y2)
 N40 G00 Z1 (Rapid up to Z1)
 N45 X0 Y0 (Rapid to X0,Y0)

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Three Main parts of a CNC program

Part 3- System Shutdown

 N50 M05 (Turn the spindle off)

 N55 M00 (Program stop)

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EXAMPLE OPERATION on CNC
MILLING MACHINE

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G-CODE PROGRAM
 First pass : conventional mill to
a depth of 0.125 around edge
profile. Tool 1 is a ½ inch dia.
end mill.

%
:1002
N5 G90 G20
N10 M06 T1
N15 M03 S1200
N20 G00 X0.125 Y0.125
N30 Z0.125
N35 G01 Z-0.125 F5
N40 X3.875
N45 Y4.125
N50 X0.125
N55 Y0.125
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 Second pass:
conventional mill to a
depth of 0.25 around
edge profile.

N35 Z-0.250
N40 X3.875
N45 Y4.125
N50 X0.125
N55 Y0.125
N60 Z0.125

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 Third pass:
conventional mill to a
depth of 0.125
around pocket profile.

N65 G00 X1.25 Y1.0


N70 G01 Z-0.125 F5
N75 X1.75
N80 Y2.5
N85 X1.25
N90 Y1.0
N95 Z0.125

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 Fourth pass: climb
mill to a depth of
0.125 across
remaining material.

N100 Y2.125
N105 X2.625
N110 Z0.125
N115 G00 X-5 Y-5 Z5
N120 M05
N125 M30

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Advanced features:

 Execution of the part of the program in a


rotated or mirrored position.
 Ability to scale the program and produce
larger or smaller programs.
 Three dimensional circular interpolation
which produces a helical shape.
 Parabolic and cubic interpolation.

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Program Loading:

 Through keyboard
 Through punched tape reader
 Through diskette drive
 Through RS 232 serial port
 Through network interface card

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Direct Numerical Control (DNC):

 A system in which a central computer


downloads the NC programs block by block
to many NC machine tools simultaneously is
called Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
system.

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Direct Numerical Control (DNC):

 This system used to work with the early NC


machine tools which can not read more than a
block of information at a time. The central
computer feed the program information one
block at a time. When the machine execute the
information, the next block of information
would be fed.

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Distributed Numerical Control (DNC):

 Distributed NC is known by the same acronym


as Direct Numerical Control (DNC). After the
introduction of CNC, the machine tools have
had the capability of storing large amount of
information. Therefore, there have been no
need to have drip feed information system,
like, Direct Numerical Control. Instead,
Distributed Numerical Control is introduced. In
such a system, a host computer communicate
with many CNC machine tools via networks and
download or upload programs.

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Distributed Numerical Control (DNC):

 With Distributed Numerical Control systems, it


is possible to monitor the activities in individual
CNC machine tools on host computer.
 Therefore, better shop floor control can be
achieved.

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Computer Aided Part Programming:

 NC program preparation may be tedious and


difficult if the part to be machined has a
complex geometry. The main difficulty is to
find out the cutter locations during the
machining. Computers may be used to assist
the programmers in preparing the NC codes.

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Advantages of applying computer-aided part
programming include the following:

 1. It reduces the manual calculations


involves in determining the geometric
characteristics of the part.
 It provides the cutter path simulation.
 It provides tool collision checking.
 It shortens the program preparation time.
 It makes the program preparation easier.
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 The Aerospace Industries Association
sponsored the work that led to the first part
programming language, developed in MIT in
1955.
 This was called: Automatically Programmed
Tools (APT).
 APT is an English like simple programming
language which basically produce the Cutter
Location (CL) data.
 Using the cutter location data, the program can
generate the actual NC codes by using a
postprocessor .

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CAD/CAM Based Part Programming:

 The output of any CAD package include the


geometric data of the part to be machined.
Therefore, many CAD/CAM package can
produce cutter location (CL) data to be used
for NC code generation.
 There is still to be a process planning module
for a workable NC code generation.
 Some of the CAD/CAM packages that have the
NC code generation capabilities are
Computervision, CATIA, CADAM, ProEngineer,
MechanicalDesktop (Auto Desk).
2004 137