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Project Time Management

Project Time Management is a group of processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. Processes There are following processes which are part of Project Time Management. Activity Definition Activity Sequencing

Processes
Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control

Activity Definition
Identify the activities that must be performed to produce the project deliverables. In other words activity definition defines the activities that must be performed to meet the project objectives The Activity Definition process will identify the deliverables at the lowest level in the work breakdown structure (WBS), which is called the work package. Activity Definition process is a part of "Project Planning Phase".

(1) Activity Definition - Inputs


(1.1) Enterprise Environmental Factors: Enterprise environmental factors that can be considered include availability of project management information systems and scheduling software tools. (1.2) Organizational Process Assets : Organizational process assets contain the existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines that are considered in developing the activity definitions. (1.3) Project Scope Statement: The project deliverables, constraints, and assumptions documented in the project scope statement are considered explicitly during activity definition.

(1) Activity Definition - Inputs


1.4) Work Breakdown Structure : The work breakdown structure is a primary input to schedule activity definition. (1.5) WBS Dictionary : The WBS dictionary is a primary input to schedule activity definition. (1.6) Project Management Plan: The project management plan contains the schedule management plan, which provides guidance on the development and planning of schedule activities and the project scope management plan.

(2) Activity Definition - Tools &


Techniques
(2.1) Decomposition: Subdividing project activities into smaller, more manageable components (2.2) Template : An activity list from a previous project or an activity list for a WBS element from the current project. (2.3) Rolling Wave Planning: Rolling wave planning is a form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of the WBS. The work to be performed within another one or two reporting periods in the near future is planned in detail as work is being completed during the current period.

(2.3) Rolling Wave Planning: Rolling wave planning is a form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of the WBS. The work to be performed within another one or two reporting periods in the near future is planned in detail as work is being completed during the current period. (2.4) Expert Judgment: Project team members or other experts who are experienced and skilled in developing detailed project scope statements, WBSs, and project schedules can provide expertise in defining activities.

2.5) Planning Component: Two planning components are: Control Account: A management control point can be placed at selected management points of the work breakdown structure above the work package level. These control points are used as a basis for planning when associated work packages have not yet been planned. All work and effort performed within a control account is documented in a control account plan. Planning Package: A planning package is a WBS component below the control account, but above the work package.

(3) Activity Definition - Outputs


(3.1) Activity list : A list of all the activities that will be performed on the project and a description of each activity. (3.2) Activity Attributes: These activity attributes are an extension of the activity attributes in the activity list and identify the multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity. (3.3) Milestone List: The list of schedule milestones identifies all milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory or optional. (3.2) Requested Changes : The Activity Definition process can generate requested changes that can affect the project scope statement and WBS.

Activity Sequencing
Establishing the activity logic and the dependencies needed to create a realistic and achievable schedule. Activity Sequencing process is a part of "Project Planning Phase".

(1) Activity Sequencing - Inputs


(1.1) Activity list: A list of activities, output from activities definition. (1.2) Activity Attributes: These activity attributes are an extension of the activity attributes in the activity list and identify the multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity. (1.3) Milestone List

(2) Activity Sequencing - Tools & Techniques


(2.1) Precedence diagramming method (PDM ): Nodes represent activities and arrows show dependencies. This technique is also called activity-on-node (AON) and is the method used by most project management software packages. PDM includes four types of dependencies or precedence relationships: Finish-to-Start: Activity A must finish before Activity B can start. Start-to-Start: Activity A must start before Activity B can start.

Finish-to-Finish: Activity A must finish before Activity B can finish. Start-to-Finish: Activity A must start before Activity B can finish.

Here first two type of dependencies are most frequently used and last two dependencies are least frequently used.

(2.2) Arrow Diagramming Method(ADM):


This method of constructing a project network diagram uses arrows to represent the activities and connects them at nodes to show their dependencies. This technique is also called activity-on-arrow( AOA) and less prevalent then PDM.

ADM uses only finish-to-start dependencies and may require the use of dummy activities to define all logical relationship correctly.

2.3) Conditional Diagramming Methods: Diagramming techniques such as Graphical Evaluation & Review Technique ( GERT) and System Dynamics models allow for non-sequential activities such as loops or conditional branches. Neither PDM nor ADM allows loops or conditional branches.

(2.4) Network Templates: Standardized networks can be used to expedite the preparation of Project Network Diagram. This can include an entire project or only a portion of it. Portion or a network are often referred to as subnet or fragments.

(2.5) Dependency Determination: Three types of dependencies are used to define the sequence among the activities. Mandatory dependencies (Hard logic): Determined by the nature of work to be done. Discretionary dependencies (Soft logic): Defined by the project management team. External dependencies : Relationships between project activities and non-project activities. E.g. delivery of hardware of an external supplier.

(2.6) Applying Leads and Lags: A lead allows an acceleration of the successor activity and A lag directs a delay in the successor activity

(3) Activity Sequencing - Outputs


3.1) Project Schedule network diagram : Schematic displays of project's activities and logical relationships (dependencies) between them A Project Network Diagram is often referred to as a PERT chart. Historically PERT( Program Evaluation and Revue Technique) was specific type of Network diagram. We will see complete formula for PERT in next process

(3.2) Activity list updates : Adding, dividing or redefining activities so that the relationships are correctly diagrammed. (3.3) Activity Attributes updates: The activity attributes are updated to include the defined logical relationships and any associated leads and lags.

(3.4) Requested Changes: Preparation of project logical relationships, leads, and lags might reveal instances that can generate a requested change to the activity list or the activity attributes.

Activity Resource Estimating


Estimating schedule activity resources involves determining what resources like persons, equipment, or materiel etc. and what quantities of each resource will be used, and when each resource will be available to perform project activities. Activity Resource Estimating process is part of "Project Planning Phase".

(1) Activity Resource Estimating Input


1.1) Enterprise Environmental Factors: The Activity Resource Estimating process uses the infrastructure resource availability information included in enterprise environmental factors (1.2) Organizational Process Assets: Organizational process assets provide the policies of the performing organization regarding staffing and the rental or purchase of supplies and equipment that are considered during activity resource estimating. (1.3) Activity List: The activity list identifies the schedule activities for resources that are estimated.

(1.4) Activity Attributes: The activity attributes developed during the activity definition process provide the primary data input for use in estimating those resources required for each schedule activity in the activity list. (1.5) Resource Availability: Information on which resources such as people, equipment, and materiel etc are potentially available is used for estimating the resource types. This knowledge includes consideration of various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available. (1.6) Project Management Plan: The schedule management plan is a component part of the project management plan that is used in Activity Resource Estimating.

(2) Activity Resource Estimating Tools & Techniques


(2.1) Expert Judgment: Expert judgment is often required to assess the resource-related inputs to this process. Any group or person with specialized knowledge in resource planning and estimating can provide such expertise. (2.2) Published Estimating Data: Several companies routinely publish updated production rates and unit costs of resources for an extensive array of labor trades, materiel, and equipment for different countries and geographical locations within countries. (2.3) Alternatives Analysis: Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools etc.

(2.4) Project Management Software: Project management software has the capability to help plan, organize, and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates. (2.5) Bottom-up Estimating: The resource needs of each lower, more detailed piece of work are estimated, and these estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the schedule activitys resources.

(3) Activity Resource Estimating Outputs


(3.1) Activity Resource Requirements: The output of the Activity Resource Estimating process is an identification and description of the types and quantities of resources required for each schedule activity in a work package (3.2) Activity Attributes updates: The types and quantities of resources required for each schedule activity are incorporated into the activity attributes. (3.3) Resource Breakdown Structure : The resource breakdown structure (RBS) is a hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type.

(3.4) Resource Calendar updates: A composite resource calendar for the project documents working days and nonworking days that determine those dates on which a specific resource, whether a person or materiel, can be active or is idle. (3.5) Requested Changes: The Activity Resource Estimating process can result in requested changes to add or delete planned schedule activities within the activity list.

Activity Duration Estimating


Estimating the number of work periods likely to be needed to complete each activity. Activity duration estimating is part of "Project Planning Phase".

1) Activity Duration Estimating Input


(1.1) Enterprise Environmental Factors: One or more of the organizations involved in the project may maintain duration estimating databases and other historical reference data. This type of reference information is also available commercially. (1.2) Organizational Process Assets : Historical information on the likely durations of many categories of activities is often available. One or more of the organizations involved in the project may maintain records of previous project results that are detailed enough to aid in developing duration estimates.

(1.3) Project Scope Statement: The constraints and assumptions from the project scope statement are considered when estimating the schedule activity durations. (1.4) Activity List & Attributes (1.5) Activity Resource Requirements: Duration estimates are influenced by resource effort and assignments. (1.6) Resource Calendar: The composite resource calendar developed as part of the Activity Resource Estimating process, includes the availability, capabilities, and skills of human resources.

(1.7) Project Management Plan: The project management plan contains the risk register and project cost estimates Risk Register: has information on identified project risks that the project team considers when producing estimates of activity durations and adjusting those durations for risks. Activity Cost Estimates: The project activity cost estimates, if already completed, can be developed in sufficient detail to provide estimated resource quantities for each schedule activity in the project activity list.

(2) Activity Duration Estimating Tools & Techniques


(2.1) Expert judgment: Used with historical information. (2.2) Analogous estimates : Also called Topdown estimating, Uses duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis. Its form of expert judgement. (2.3) Parametric Estimating: Estimating the basis for activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by the productivity rate.

(2.4) Three-Point Estimates: Three-point estimates are based on determining three types of estimates: Most likely: The activity duration is based on a average-case scenario of what is described in the most likely estimate. Optimistic: The activity duration is based on a best-case scenario of what is described in the most likely estimate. Pessimistic : The activity duration is based on a worst-case scenario of what is described in the most likely estimate.

(2.5) Reserve Analysis ( Contingency ): Project teams may choose to incorporate an additional time frame, called time reserve, contingency or buffer, that can be added to the activity duration or elsewhere in the schedule as recognition of schedule risk.

(3) Activity Duration Estimating Output


(3.1) Activity Duration estimates : Quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods required to complete an activity. (3.2) Activity attributes updates: The activity attributes are updated to include the durations for each schedule activity, the assumptions made in developing the activity duration estimates, and any contingency reserves.

Schedule Development
Determining the start and finish dates of project activities. If start and finish dates are not realistic, the project is unlikely to be finished on schedule. Schedule development process is part of "Project Planning Phase".

(1) Schedule Development - Input


(1.1) Organizational Process Assets (1.2) Project Scope Statement (1.3) Activity List & Attributes (1.4) Project Schedule Network Diagrams

(1.5) Activity Resource Requirements (1.6) Resource Calendars (1.7) Activity Duration Estimates (1.8) Project Management Plan

(2) Schedule Development - Tools & Techniques


(2.1) Mathematical analysis: Calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all activities Critical Path Method (CPM): Calculates a single, deterministic early and late start and finish date for each activity, to be used to determine which activities must be completed on time to avoid impacting the finish date of the project. The focus of CPM is calculating float to determine which activities have the least scheduling flexibility.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): Uses a weighted average duration estimate to calculate duration. Uses the probability of an estimate.s accuracy. Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique ( GERT ): allows for probabilistic treatment of both network logic and activity duration estimates ( ie. some activities may not be performed at all, come may be performed only in part and others may be performed more than once. Expected Time = (Low + 4*Medium + High) / 6

(2.2)Duration Compression: Duration compression is a special case of mathematical analysis that looks for ways to shorten the project schedule without changing the project scope. Duration compression includes techniques such as: Crashing : Project crashing is a method for shortening the project duration by reducing the time of one or more of the critical project activities to less than its normal activity time. The objective of crashing is to reduce project duration while minimizing the cost of crashing.

CRASHING is reducing project time by expending additional resources. CRASH TIME is an amount of time an activity is reduced. CRASH COST is the cost of reducing activity. Fast Tracking: Doing activities in parallel that would normally be done in sequence ( eg. starting to write code on a software project before the design is complete). Fat tracking often results in rework and usually increases risk

(2.3) Resource Leveling Heuristics: Allocate scare resources to critical path activities first etc. (2.4) Project Management Software: MSP etc are widely used to prepare a project schedule (2.5) Applying Calendars: Project calendars and resource calendars identify periods when work is allowed. Project calendars affect all activities. (2.6) Adjusting Leads and Lags: Since the improper use of leads or lags can distort the project schedule, the leads or lags are adjusted during schedule network analysis to develop a viable project schedule.

(2.7) Schedule Model: Schedule data and information are compiled into the schedule model for the project. (2.8) Critical Chain Method: Critical chain is another schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. Critical chain combines deterministic and probabilistic approaches. (2.9) What-If Scenario Analysis: This is an analysis of the question .What if the situation represented by scenario .X. happens?"

(3) Schedule Development - Outputs


(3.1) Schedule Development: Includes planned start and expected finish dates for each activity. (3.2) Schedule Model Data : Supporting data for the project schedule includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints.

(3.3) Schedule Baseline: A schedule baseline is a specific version of the project schedule developed from the schedule network analysis of the schedule model. It is accepted and approved by the project management team as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. (3.4) Resource requirement updates : Updates based on the results of resource leveling. (3.5) Activity Attributes updates

(3.6) Project Calendar updates (3.7) Requested Changes: The Schedule Development process can create requested changes that are processed for review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process (3.8) Project Management Plan updates

Schedule Control
Schedule control is concerned with, Determining the current status of the project schedule Influencing factors that cause schedule changes ensuring these are agreed upon

Determining that the schedule has changed Managing the changes when and as they occur. Schedule Control process is a part of "Project Controlling Phase".

(1) Schedule Control - Input


(1.1) Schedule management plan: Defines how changes to the schedule will be managed. (1.2) Schedule Baseline : The approved project schedule is called the schedule baseline; provides the basis for measuring and reporting schedule performance. (1.3) Performance reports : Provide information on schedule performance, such as which planned dates have been met and which have not. (1.4) Approved Change requests: Change request may occur in many forms - oral or written , direct or indirect, externally or internally.....

(2) Schedule Control - Tools & Techniques


(2.1) Progress Reporting: The progress reporting and current schedule status includes information such as actual start and finish dates, and the remaining durations for unfinished schedule activities. (2.2) Schedule change control system : Defines the procedure for changing the project schedule. It includes the paper work, tracking system, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes. Schedule change control should be integrated with the integrated change control system.

(2.3) Performance measurement (Earned Value): Assessment of schedule variations to determine whether they require corrective actions. For example, a major delay on a noncritical activity may have little effect on the overall project while a much shorter delay on a critical activity may require immediate action. (2.4) Project Management software: For tracking planned dates against actual dates and forecasting. Useful tool for Schedule Control.

(2.5) Variance Analysis : Comparing target dates with the actual/forecast start and finish dates. (2.6) Schedule Comparison Bar Charts : To facilitate analysis of schedule progress, it is convenient to use a comparison bar chart, which displays two bars for each schedule activity. One bar shows the current actual status and the other shows the status of the approved project schedule baseline.

(3) Schedule Control - Output


(3.1) Schedule Model Data updates : A schedule update is any modification to the schedule information that is used to manage the project. Revisions are special category of schedule updates. (3.2) Schedule Baseline updates: Schedule revisions are a special category of project schedule updates. Revisions are changes to the schedule.s start and finish dates in the approved schedule baseline.

(3.3) Performance Measurements: The calculated schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) values for WBS components, in particular the work packages and control accounts, are documented and communicated to stakeholders. (3.4) Requested Changes: Schedule variance analysis, along with review of progress reports, results of performance measures, and modifications to the project schedule model can result in requested changes to the project schedule baseline.

(3.5) Corrective action : Anything done to bring expected future schedule performance back in-line with the project plan. (3.6) Organizational Process Assets updates: Lessons learned documentation of the causes of variance, the reasoning behind the corrective actions chosen, and other types of lessons learned from schedule control are documented in the organizational process assets (3.7) Activity List & Attributes Updates (3.8) Project Management Plan updates

Last Moment Revision


Activity : An element of work performed during the course of a project. (Normally has duration, cost, and resource requirements.) Baseline : The original plan plus or minus approved changes. Arrow Diagram Method (ADM) : A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start and the head of the arrow represents the end of the activity. Activities are connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence in which activities are expected to be performed. Also called Activity-On-Arrow (AOA).

Last Moment Revision


Backward Pass : The calculation of late finish and start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the project's end date. Concurrent Engineering: Generally speaking, an approach to project staffing that calls for the implementers to be involved in the design phase. (sometimes confused with fast tracking.) Critical Activity : An activity on a critical path.

Last Moment Revision


Critical Path : The series of activities which determines the earliest completion of the project. The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value (usually zero). Control Account: A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance management. Control points are places at selected management points of the WBS. Each control account may include one or more work package but each work package may be associated with only one control account. Discretionary dependencies (Soft logic): Defined by the project management team.

Last Moment Revision


Dummy Activity: An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with regular activity arrows. Dummies are shown graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow. Early Finish Date (EF): In the critical path method, the earliest possible date in which the uncompleted portions of an activity or project can complete. Can change as the project progresses.

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Early Start Date (ES): In the critical path method, the earliest possible date in which the uncompleted portions of an activity or project can start Can change as the project progresses. External dependencies : Relationships between project activities and non-project activities. E.g. delivery of hardware of an external supplier.

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Float: The amount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. (Also called slack, total float, and path float). Forward Pass : The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities.

Last Moment Revision


Free Float (FF): The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately succeeding activities. Gantt Chart: A graphic display of schedulerelated information using bars. GERT is another type of network diagram. It can support looping. Hammock: An aggregate or summary activity.

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Hanger: An unintended break in a network path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing logical relationships. Lag: A modification of a logical relationship which directs a delay in the successor task. Lags are inserted waiting times in between tasks. For example Task B cannot start until three days after task A completes.

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Late Finish Date (LF): In the critical path method, the latest possible date that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date). Late Start Date (SF): In the critical path method, the latest possible date that an activity may begin without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).

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Lead : A modification of a logical relationship which allows an acceleration of the successor task. For example, in a FS relationship with a 10 day lead, the successor can start 10 days prior to the completion of the predecessor. Mandatory dependencies (Hard logic): Determined by the nature of work to be done.

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Master Schedule: A summary level schedule which identifies the major activities and milestones. Milestone: A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable. Milestone Schedule: A summary level schedule which identifies the major milestones.

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Path Convergence: In mathematical analysis, the tendency of parallel paths of approximately equal duration to delay the completion of the milestone where they meet. Precedence Diagram Method (PDM): A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by nodes. Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

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Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): An event-oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty with the individual activity duration estimates. Project Network Diagram: Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project chronology. Often incorrectly referred to as a "PERT chart".

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Resource Leveling: Any form of network analysis in which start and finish dates are driven by resource management concerns.Resource leveling refers to keeping the resources same across the duration of the project. Resource-Limited Schedule: A project schedule whose start and finish dates reflect expected resource availability. The final project schedule should always be resource limited.

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Resource pool: Description of the available resources and the times they are available to work on the project Scheduled Finish Date (SF): The point in time work was scheduled to finish on an activity. The scheduled finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early finish date and the late finish date.

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Scheduled Start Date (SS): The point in time work was scheduled to start on an activity. The scheduled start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early start and late start dates Simulation: involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions. The most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis, in which a distribution of probable results is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of probable results for the total project.

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Time-Scaled Network Diagram: Any project network diagram drawn is such a way that the positioning and length of the activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes network logic. Work Item: Synonymous with activity.

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If a project has more than one critical paths then the risk to the project increases. Longest path through the network diagram is called the critical path. The activities on the critical paths are called critical activities. Slack or Float is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project. Tasks on the critical path have zero float.

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Bar charts (or Gantt charts) are used to display tasks and their dates in a graphical fashion. They are used to display information of the type task 1 is scheduled from date A to date B. Typically the date range is displayed in the X-axis and the tasks on the Y-axis. Bar charts do not show task dependencies. They are generally used to track progress and show to the team. Milestone charts are similar to bar charts but display only major events. They display major milestones (for example bridge design completed). They are used to report status to Management.