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Operations

Management

Maintenance and
Reliability
Chapter 11
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-1 OPM 533
Outline
♦ THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF
MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY
♦ RELIABILITY
♦ Improving Individual Components
♦ Providing Redundancy
♦ MAINTENANCE
♦ Implementing Preventive Maintenance
♦ Increasing Repair Capability
♦ TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE
♦ TECHNIQUES FOR ESTABLISHING
MAINTENANCE POLICIES

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-2 OPM 533


Learning Objectives
When you complete this chapter, you
should be able to :
Identify or Define:
♦ Maintenance
♦ Mean time between failures
♦ Redundancy
♦ Preventive maintenance
♦ Breakdown maintenance
♦ Infant mortality
Describe or Explain:
♦ How to measure system reliability
♦ How to improve maintenance
♦ How to evaluate maintenance
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-3 OPM 533
performance
Maintenance
Management
♦ All activities involved in
keeping a system’s
equipment working
♦ Objective: Maintain
system capability &
minimize total costs

© 1995 Corel Corp.

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-4 OPM 533


The Strategic
Importance of
Maintenance and
Reliability
♦ Failure has far reaching effects on a
firm’s
♦ operation
♦ reputation
♦ profitability
♦ customers
♦ product
♦ employees
♦ profits

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-5 OPM 533


Maintenance
Performance
Employee Maintenanc
Involvemen e
t Procedures

Maintenance ©
1995
Corel

Performance Corp.

© 1995 Corel Corp.

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-6 OPM 533


Good Maintenance &
Reliability Strategy
♦ Requires:
♦ Employee involvement
♦ Maintenance and reliability procedures

♦ To yield:
♦ Reduced inventory
♦ Improved quality
♦ Improved capacity
♦ Reputation for quality
♦ Continuous improvement

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-7 OPM 533


Employee Involvement

♦ Information sharing
♦ Skill training
♦ Reward system
♦ Power sharing

© 1995 Corel Corp.

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-8 OPM 533


Maintenance &
Reliability Procedures
Maintenanc
♦ Clean and lubricate e
♦ Monitor and adjust Procedures
♦ Minor repair
♦ Computerized
records
©
1995
Corel
Corp.

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-9 OPM 533


Maintenance Benefits
Lower
operating Faster, more
Reduced
costs dependable
inventory
throughput

Improved Maintenance Higher


capacity productivity

Continuous Improved
improvement quality

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-10 OPM 533


Tactics for
Reliability and
Maintenance
♦ Reliability Tactics
♦ improving individual components
♦ providing redundancy
♦ Maintenance Tactics
♦ implementing preventive maintenance
♦ increasing repair capabilities

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-11 OPM 533


System Reliability -
Components in Series
100
Reliability of the System (Percent)

n=1
80
n=10
60
n=
50
40
n=
10
20 0
n= n=
30
0 40 0 n=20
0 0
100 99 98 97 96
Average Reliability of all Components (Percent)

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-12 OPM 533


Evaluating
Maintenance
♦ Reliability
♦ Probability that an item will function for a
given time
♦ Reliability of Components in Series
R = R1 * R2 * R3 * ...
♦ Mean time between failures (MTBF)
♦ Average time between failures of a
repairable item
MTBF = 1 / Failure Rate (N)
♦ Failure rate
♦ Reciprocal of MTBF
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-13 OPM 533
Failure Rate
Number of failures
FR (%) =
* 100%
Number of units tested

FR (N) = Number of Failures


Number of unit-hours of
operating time

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-14 OPM 533


Lifetime Failure
Rates
“normal” failure Wearout
failure

Failure
rate Infant
mortality
and
improper use
failure

Lifetime
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-15 OPM 533
Providing Redundancy

Probabilit Probability Probabili


y of first of second ty of
compone + componen * needing = P(R)
nt t working second
working compone
nt

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-16 OPM 533


Maintenance Decisions
♦ How much preventive & breakdown
maintenance
♦ Who performs maintenance
♦ Centralized, decentralized, operator etc.
♦ Contract or in-house
♦ When to replace or repair
♦ How much to replace
♦ Individual or group replacement

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-17 OPM 533


Types of Maintenance
Preventive Breakdown
♦ Routine inspection ♦ Non-routine
& servicing inspection
♦ Prevents failures & servicing
♦ Bases for doing ♦ Remedial
♦ Time: Every day ♦ Basis for doing
♦ Usage: Every 300 ♦ Equipment failure
pieces
♦ Inspection: Control
chart deviations

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-18 OPM 533


Mean Time Between
Failure and Preventive
Maintenance

Candidate for preventive


maintenance will have
distribution with low
variability
Frequency
of failure

Mean Time Between Failure

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-19 OPM 533


Organizing the
Maintenance Function
♦ Centralized maintenance department
♦ Does all maintenance (PM & breakdown)
♦ Decentralized maintenance department
♦ Useful if different equipment used in different
areas of company
♦ Contract maintenance
♦ Used if little equipment or expertise
♦ Operator ownership approach

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-20 OPM 533


Operator-Ownership
Approach
♦ Operator does preventive maintenance
♦ Equipment condition is their responsibility
♦ Learns equipment better
♦ Increases worker’s pride
♦ Reduces repair time & PM costs
♦ Maintenance department is backup
♦ Handles non-routine problems
♦ Provides maintenance training
♦ Has plant-wide responsibilities

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-21 OPM 533


A Computerized
Maintenance System

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-22 OPM 533


Maintenance Costs
Traditional View
os t
Cost e C
n a nc
i nt e
lM a
t a C o st
To a n ce
i n t en
e M a
en tiv
Prev
Breakdown Cost

Optimal Maintenance
Commitment
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-23 OPM 533
Maintenance Costs
Full Cost View
Cost
Total costs

Full cost of
breakdowns
Preventive
maintenance
costs
Optimal
Maintenance
Commitment
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-24 OPM 533
Contract for Preventive
Maintenance
♦ Compute the expected number of
breakdowns without the service contract
♦ Compute the expected breakdown cost
per month with no preventive
maintenance contract
♦ Compute the cost of preventive
maintenance
♦ Compare the two options

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-25 OPM 533


Increasing Repair
Capabilities:Features of A
Good Maintenance Facility
♦ Well-trained personnel
♦ Adequate resources
♦ Ability to establish a repair plan and
priorities
♦ Ability and authority to do material
planning
♦ Ability to identify the cause of
breakdowns
♦ Ability to design ways to extend MTBF
Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-26 OPM 533
Determine How
Maintenance Will be
Performed
Operator Maintena Manufactu Depot Service
nce rer’s field (return
Departm service equipment)
ent
Competence is higher
as we more to the
Preventive right
maintenance costs
less and is faster as
we move to the left

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-27 OPM 533


Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM)
♦ Additional requirements of:
♦ Designing machines that are reliable, easy to
operate and easy to maintain
♦ Emphasizing total cost of ownership when
purchasing machines, so that service and
maintenance are included in the cost
♦ Developing preventive maintenance plans that
utilize the best practices of operators,
maintenance departments, and depot services
♦ Training workers to operate and maintain their
own machines

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-28 OPM 533


A Key To Success
♦ High utilization of facilities, tight scheduling, low
inventory and consistent quality demand
reliability - total preventive maintenance is the
key to reliability.

Techniques for Establishing


Maintenance Policies
♦ Simulation - enables one to evaluate the impact of
various maintenance policies
♦ Expert systems - can be used by staff to help
diagnose faults in machinery and equipment

Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP 11-29 OPM 533