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for the Small Enterprise

Systems Analysis and Design

section II Analysis

object-oriented methodology object models use case modeling unified modeling language the data dictionary the cornucopia case portfolio project

Chapter Objectives

When you complete this chapter you will be able to: Differentiate between object-oriented and traditional methodologies Identify objects and construct an elementary object model Identify the elements in a use case model Identify the elements in four of the most common UML models Define, construct, and maintain data dictionaries

Object-Oriented Methodology
Object-oriented systems analysis and design (OOSAD) evolved to accommodate the increasing popularity of object-oriented programming languages If you plan to implement your design with object-oriented development tools, you should seriously consider using OOSAD As the name implies, OOSAD revolves around objects

Object-Oriented Methodology
Information system objects derive their definition from our understanding of realworld objects Just as real-world objects are organized into classifications, enterprise objects are members of a class While a specific object is distinguished by its particulars, it inherits its general makeup from its class

Object-Oriented Methodology
By definition, a class embodies two important information processing concepts:
Data attributes Behaviors

After enterprise objects are created from their class blueprint, their data attributes are assigned values and their behaviors are tailored to fit their specific circumstance Objects interact with one another through a messaging system

Object-Oriented Methodology
The object-oriented methodology involves familiar phases: analysis, design, and implementation
Analysis: Identify the classes from which enterprise objects are created and the interactions between these classes
Design: Refine class definitions and interactions based on the requirements of the new information system Implementation: Create a working information system using object-oriented languages and tools

Object Models

In the OOSAD methodology, the object model serves the same purpose as do the DFD and ERD in the traditional SDLC methodology

The object model is focused on data and software, showing classes and class interactions

The Object Model and the Six CIS Components

Object People Procedures Data Hardware Software Networks Class Attributes Methods

Object Models

Object Identification: Use case modeling is the preferred technique for identifying enterprise objects

Another way to identify classes is to use the DFD and ERD models as a springboard, where each of the DFDs data stores and ERDs entities are potential classes


Anatomy of an Object
Class: a two-part abstraction (attributes and methods) of a real-world person, place, thing, or activity Instance: a specific object created from the class blueprint Encapsulation: describes the enveloping, membrane-like environment in which an object exists Messages: means by which objects communicate with each other Polymorphism: allows a method to behave differently when encapsulated in different classes Inheritance: imprints class definitions on new generations of the class Class relationships: describes the way classes interact with one another

Object Model Symbols

Reference Figure 5-2: Silhouette Sea Charters Object Model


Silhouette Sea Charters Object Model

This aggregate relationship allows for one or more customers to signup for the same charter

This specialization relationship indicates that there are two subsets of the Boat class


Comparing Silhouettes Object Model and Data Model

Object Model

Data Model


Use Case Modeling

Use case modeling provides a systematic way to identify objects
A use case is a detailed description of what happens when someone or something interacts with the information system The nouns used to title the use case scenarios provide a basis for object identification The interactions between use cases provide the basis for defining the relationship between the objects underlying class

Unified Modeling Language

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has emerged as the generally accepted modeling standard for object-oriented methodologies and techniques Four of the numerous UML diagrams serve the same function as the traditional DFD, ERD, and walk-through models:
Use case diagram Class diagram Interaction diagrams Statechart diagrams


Nine UML Modeling Diagrams

Class Diagram Object Diagram

Use Case Diagram

Interactive (Sequence) Diagram Interactive Collaborative Diagram Statechart Diagram Activity Diagram

Component Diagram
Deployment Diagram

Silhouettes UML Use Case Diagram


Silhouettes UML Class Diagram


Silhouettes UML Interactive sequence Diagram


Silhouettes UML Statechart Diagram



Inflatable Labor Charges

What action would you recommend if you discovered that your most talented analyst had consistently inflated the labor hours charged to a project?


The Data Dictionary

A data dictionary is an ordered catalog of data elements and their definitive characteristics
Form Symbols multiple entries permitted {}

optional entry
key field data structure composition attribute separator

underline =


Illustrated Data Dictionary Form and Symbols

Element Name: customer
Type: data store Description: customer master file Contents: customer = custid+ name+ address+ phone Usage Cross-Reference: DFD, USD, ERD, system flowchart Storage reference: customer.dbf



The analysts do not intend to use an objectoriented programming language to implement the new system. Even the objectlike features of 4Gl software do not require object identification or use case modeling.
Cornucopias object model is derived from the ERD.


Cornucopia Existing System Object Model


Chapter Summary (1/3)

The object model is an alternative to the traditional SAD methodology It is important to understand the object model, even if the analyst does not intend to use object-oriented development tools Objects are created from a class blueprint


Chapter Summary (2/3)

Objects are characterized by their attributes and behaviors Objects communicate with one another through messaging


Chapter Summary (3/3)

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides a collection of modeling tools for OOSAD
Use case diagram Class diagram Interaction diagrams Statechart diagram

The data dictionary provides a systematic procedure to keep track of the names, definitions, associates, and existing or proposed uses of data