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Part 2 Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning)

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Operant Conditioning: the type of learning in which behaviours are emitted from own self to earn rewards or avoid punishments.

Operant Behaviour: behaviour designed to operant on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant.

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Example of Operant Conditioning

Child says doll, duh, dat to get doll. On Day 1, parents give doll only when child says doll By Day 20, child only says doll to get doll

Skinner Box (conditioning chamber)

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Apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals

Basic Process of Operant Conditioning

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1.Acquisition 2.Extinction 3.Generalization 4.Discrimination

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Reinforcement & Punishment


Reinforcer: a stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response. Reinforcement: process by which the probability of a response is increased by the occurrence of a reinforcer. Punisher: a stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response. Punishment: the process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the occurrence of a punisher.

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Types of Reinforcers
Primary Reinforcer: Unlearned and natural; satisfies biological needs (e.g., food, water, sex)
Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer (e.g., money, grades, approval, praise) Token Reinforcer: Tangible secondary reinforcer (e.g., money, gold stars, poker chips) Social Reinforcer: Provided by other people (e.g., learned desires for attention and approval)

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Reinforcement
Reinforcement strengthens a behavior. Reinforcement can be either positive or negative. Example: If your teacher gives you $5 each time you complete your homework, you are more likely to repeat this behavior in the future thus strengthening the behavior of completing your homework. This is called as positive reinforcement.

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Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience. Example: If you do not complete your homework you will be fined for $5. You will complete your homework to avoid paying $5, thus strengthening the behavior of completing your homework.

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Punishment
The opposite of reinforcement. Punishment weakens behavior. Decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Example: You complete your homework to avoid being slapped by the teacher.

THE END!