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CHAPTER

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

STATICS
Analysis of structure -Trusses -Frames

Topic Outcomes (TO)


It is expected that students will be able to:

Analyze the equilibrium of structures made of several parts, using the concept of the equilibrium of a particle or of a rigid body, in order to determine the forces acting on various parts.

Contents:

1. Definition of a truss.
2. Examples of trusses. 3. Simple trusses. 4. Analysis of trusses by the method of joints. 5. Analysis of trusses by the method of sections.

6. Frames - Structure containing multiforce members.


7. Analysis of a frame.

1. Definition of a truss. A truss is a structure consisting of straight members connected at their extremities (the outermost or farthest region or point) only. a truss may thus be assumed to consist of pins and two-force members. pin two-force member pin

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Truss Bridge

Pre-fabricated steel bow string roof trusses built in 1942 for war department properties in Northern Australia.

Truss roof of Cluny abbey, France

Auckland Harbour Bridge, Auckland, New Zealand

Old Little Belt Bridge in Denmark

Vierendeel bridge at Grammene Belgium

HK HSBC Main Building

HK Bank of China Tower

A large post and beam style Howe truss cantilevered well away from the main building.

Transmission tower

Diagram of a planar space frame such as used for a roof

Four tetrahedons form each the two lower base structures of this power pylon

3. Simple trusses B

A truss is said to be rigid if designed that it will not greatly deform or collapse under a small load.

A triangular truss consisting of three members connected at three joints is clearly a rigid truss.

3. Simple trusses D B B

A truss obtained by adding two new members to the first one and connecting them to a new joint (D ) will also be rigid. Trusses obtained by repeating this procedure are called simple trusses. We may check that in a simple truss the total number of members is m = 2n - 3, where n is the total number of joints.

4. Analysis of trusses by the method of joints.

B
The forces can be determined by the method of joints. The free-body diagram of each pin is drawn, A showingthe forces exerted on the pin by the members The force exerted by a member on the pin is directed along that member, the magnitude of the force is unknown. In a simple truss to draw the free-body diagrams only 2 unknown forces are included in each diagram.

These forces can be obtained from the 2 equilibrium equations or if only three forces are involved - the force triangle.

Tension (T)

Compression (C) A C C C

Force exerted by a member on a pin is

directed toward that pin, the member is in compression ;


if it is directed away from the pin, the member is in tension.

The analysis of a truss is sometimes expedited by first recognizing joints under special loading conditions.

5. Analysis of trusses by the method of sections. P1


A B

P2
n

P3
D

The method of sections is preferred to when the force in only one member - or very few members - of a truss is desired. To determine the force in member BD of the truss shown, pass a section through members BD, BE, and CE, remove these members, and use the portion ABC of the truss as a free body.

P1
A B

P2

P1

P2
B n

P3
D G

FBD
FBE

FCE

Writing SME = 0, we determine the magnitude of FBD, which represents the force in member BD. A positive sign indicates that the member is in tension; a negative sign indicates that it is in compression.

The method of sections is useful in the analysis of compound trusses (not from the basic triangular but by several simple trusse If the component trusses have been properly connected (e.g., 1 pin) and if the resulting structure is properly supported (e.g., 1 pin and 1 roller), the compound truss is statically determinate, rigid, and completely constrained. The following necessary - but not sufficient - condition is then satisfied: m + r = 2n,

P1
B

P2 FBD FBE
C
E

m number of members, r number of unknowns representing the reactions at the supports, and n number of joints.

FCE

6. Frames Structure containing multiforce members. Frames and machines are structures which contain multiforce A members, i.e., members acted upon by three or more forces. Frames are designed to support loads and are usually stationary, fully constrained structures. M

Machines are designed to transmit or modify forces and always contain moving parts.

To analyze a frame, we first consider the entire frame as a free body and write three equilibrium equations.

Dx Dy

If the frame M remains rigid when Ex Ey detached from its supports, the reactions involve only three unknowns and may be determined from these equations. On the other hand, if the frame ceases to be rigid when detached from its supports, the reactions involve more than three unknowns and cannot be completely determined from the equilibrium equations of the frame.

Then dismember the frame and identify the members as either two-force members or multiforce members; pins are assumed to form an integral part of one of the members they connect. B
B A B C D

Dx B Dy

We draw the free-body diagram of each of the multiforce members, noting that when two Ex Ey multiforce members are connected to the same two-force member, they are acted upon by that member with equal and opposite forces of unknown magnitude but known direction. When two multiforce members are connected by a pin, they exert on each other equal and opposite forces of unknown direction, which should be represented by two unknown components. M

The equilibrium equations obtained from the free-body diagrams of the multiforce members can then be solved for the various internal forces. The equilibrium equations can also be used to complete the determination of the reactions at the supports. Actually, if the frame is statically determinate and rigid, the free-body diagrams of the multiforce members could provide as many equations as there are unknown forces. However, as suggested above, it is advisable to first consider the free-body diagram of the entire frame to minimize the number of equations that must be solved simultaneously.