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By Kovid

Kaushik
Roll-ece 087
acknowledgements
• my sincere thanks to Mr.ALOK
RANJAN, DSTE-TELE. I pay special
thanks to Mr. Sudheer Chawla, Mr.
Krishna Avatar, Ms Anisha Modak,
Mrs. Jyotsana Mr. Sumer Singh, Mr
Banty Kr Sao, who in spite of their
busy schedule have lent their
precious time for helping out me to
understand various systems used in
DMRC .
Need
• Delhi has more registered vehicle than the
total number of vehicles in Mumbai,
Calcutta and Chennai put together.
• Delhi has now become the fourth most
polluted city in the world,
• Need to improve both the quality and
availability of mass transport service.
• Is possible only if a rail-based mass transit
system,
Delhi MRTS Project
• a feasibility study for developing such a
multi-modal MRTS system was
commissioned by GNCTD (with support
from GOI) in 1989 and completed by
RITES in 1991.
• will cost approximately Rs 4860 crores
• 11 km to underground (METRO) corridor
along with 44.30 km of elevated / surface
(RAIL)
• a joint venture company (viz., Delhi Metro
Fiber Optics Transmission
System (FOTS) in DMRC
FOTS can be termed as the backbone
of DMRC telecommunications .Fiber
optical cables are on both sides of
the track.You can see as yellow The
number of fibers is determined in
order to comply with redundancy.
The fiber is redundant for security
and protection. In case of fiber optic
failure, communication can take
place via spare fiber while the fiber
that is down may be fixed.
The main components of the fiber optic transmition
1. Optical fiber cables
2. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
3. Digital Distribution Frame (DDF)
4. Flexible Multiplexer (FMX)
5. Optical Distribution Frame (ODF)
Optical Fiber Cables
Fiber cables are used for the transmission of
the data from one station to the other station.
An optical FIBRE has two concentric layers called
the core(n1, refractive index =1.48 to 1.5) and the
cladding (n2, refractive index=1.46 to 1.48). The
refractive index of core is slightly higher than that of
the cladding i.e. n1>n2.
This difference between n1 and n2 allows total
internal reflection.
Light ray enters the FIBRE and strike core cladding
surface at and angle greater than the critical angle.
This is totally reflected back into the core.
As angle of incidence and angle of reflection are
equal the reflected light will again be reflected. The
light will continue to travel in zigzag manner down
the length of the FIBRE.
SYNCHRONIZED DIGITAL
HIRARCHY (SDH)
In early 60’s the analog communication was
taken over by the digital communication.
There are number of advantages of digital
communication over analog system. With
the advent of semi conductor circuits and
the increasing demand for the telephone
capacity, a new type of transmission method
called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) made an
appearance. It allows multiple use of a single
line by means of digital time domain
multiplexing. The analog telephone signal is
sampled at a bandwidth of 300-3400Hz,
• Audio range =4khz
=4000hz
• Sampling frequency =2*4000
=8000hz
• No of bits / sample =8
⇒Bit rate =8000hz x 8 bits/sample
⇒ =64 Kbps
⇒ =
.Further the bandwidth of speech signals and
visible range is limited
.with the advancement in the needs of the
frequency bands, this bandwidth must be
utilized.
•So the frequencies must be multiplexed in order
to transmit maximum information through the
channel.
•The multiplexing is achieved by time division
multiplexing (TDM).
•In TDM, the time axis divided into slots and more
information can be transmitted. For an audio
signal the time period of the signal is 0.025ms.
•Time period of the sampled signal = 1/ 8000
=125 ms
•This implies that between two samples there is
gap of 125 ms. Between this time interval of
125 ms, we can multiplex number of signals.
• When 32 channels are multiplexed for a
transmission rate of 2.048 Mbps speed
also E1
• E2=4E1 E3=4E2=16E2 STM1= 63E1
Access-MUX
•D
PIDS (Passenger Information Display
System)

• There are 2 pids panel on each


platform plus 1on each side of
concorse .
• It gives us direction and countdown
ei. 4 means train is 4 stations behind
.
• Display panel consist of LEDs with
matrix display
• Panel cards 1 LED card 2
PAS( passenger addressing
system)
• Pas broadcasting of voice messages
• Exchanger net card –takes voice data
• SA2(Serial Address) card –decides in
which zone should announcement be
made .
OCC SERVER Zone 8M Shaper
Gatekeeper Amplifier Speaker
EBTS (Enhanced base
transceiver system)
• Remote site functionality
• Redundancy for fots (@128kbps)
• DMRC uses motorola dimetra having
benefit of TETRA standards range is
380-400MHz.
• Line Of Site usage 15 EBTS sites 25
to 75 miles apart
Breaker panel functions for power distributions
Overload protection circuit breakers provides
Manual on/off plus auto.
Junction panel cabinet grounding ,inter-cabling
Cable terminations
Cavity Combiner It combines TX and RX signals
Sends them to APM
Receiver Multi Coupler provides serial ports via
receiver in BR and combines them in TDM
Environment Alarm system
Analog power monitor measures incident and
reflected power via vswr ranges from zero to
infinity .
Filter tray contains band pass filter
Tetra site Controller site controller provides the
X.21 interface to master site and BR operations
Can control 7BRs folowing are the components
of
TCS 1 Power PC mother board
Site reference ISA card this uses GPS signal to
provide time or frequency reference .
X.21 interface card
Ethernet LAN PCI card
Flash memory card
Base Radio has 4channels
CLOCK SYSTEM
• Global Positioning System (GPS)
by Master Clock at OCC.
• gps>> srs>>master clock
>>Lan>>submasterclock
PL2QA

LNA TB

PL PL
TC
GPS TC
TB
EPABX (Electronics Private
Automatic Branch Exchange)
• self-sustained telephone exchange
• EPABX System at OCC:
• Telephone system shall interface to the radio
system to enable radio users to initiate and
receive calls to/ from EPABX extension or to
MTNL or TATA INDICOM telephones.
• Centralized Digital Recording System: The
telephone system is equipped with a CDRS for
recording of designed lines, emergency PAS
announcements and designated conversion
system.
• Network Management System: The telephone
Shelf 0 &Shelf 1
2 Power cards: This card distributes power to
wholerack
SF2X8 card: This card provides LAN ports for
monitoring of EPABX at other stations.
• 2 DXCXL cards: These are CPU cards used for
networking purposes.
• ADP: Administrative Data Processor. This is
also a CPU card performs controlling
information.
• HDMO card: Hard Disk Magneto Optical card
used for all software information backup.
Shelf 1
• 2 SLMAC cards: This card is for analog
phones. Maximum 24 phones can be
connected to each card.
• 2 SLM02 cards: This card supports
digital phones. Maximum 24 phones can
be connected to each card
• LTUCA card: This card connects shelf 1
and 0 in EPABX rack.
• 2 DIUN2 cards: This card takes E1
signal from DDF. Links one station to
other stations. There are 2 ports in each
card, one for analog and another for
Station 2
Station Station
1 2
EP D SD OD OD SD D EP
A DF H F F H DF A
BX BX

DDF-Digital Distribution Frame


SDH-Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
ODF-Optical distribution Frame
conclusion

• Through this presentation I would


conclude that in dmrc all the systems
are interdependent synchronization
is as important
• Dmrc has compiled all the new
technology
to make efficient company .
Thank You