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Enables the tv viewer to control the channel from distance without having to leave her or his seat. Function -changing of station -sound control with small steps -ON and OFF the RX -Brightness control, contrast control etc If requirement of function is increases the cost of the receiver is also increases.

Remote control signaling

TX-1 RX-1 Method 1- ultrasonic wave generated mechanically Method 2- or electrically

-Signal processing CKT -Mechanical or electronic control unit TX-2- IR transmission with LEDs RX-2 IR remote control receiver


TX-1-Method1Ultrasonic wave generated mechanically BONGER or CLICKER Generate 40Khz Ultrasonic wave Transducer in the RX-Microphone pick up this wave and converted in to electrical signal.

Different frequency generated by means of vibrating rods which has diff length Each rod with control button, by pressing them to vibrate the rods it generate diff frequency .

Ultrasonic wave generated mechanically


TX-1-Method2-Ultrasonic wave generated Electrically Q1 forms the Hartley oscillator If all switch is open the Q1 will not get any base and collector signal If particular switch is depressed the oscillator secondary is tuned to resonant frequency depending upon the capacitor value. It will fed to the piezo electric speaker to produce the ultrasonic wave.

Method 2-Ultrasonic wave generated Electrically


RX-1 Signal processing circuit gives required electrical signal fro US wave to drive mechanical or electrical circuit. Electro mechanical or electronic ctrl system or circuitry produce diff US signals for diff function.


TX-2 IR transmission with LEDs On any one key depression will activate special circuitry in encoder. It produce the pulse train and modulated by 48khz carrier After amplification fed to the D1 and D2 through the LED driver Q1 Radiation from the Led is IR region towards the TV RX. Signal from Q1 is again rectified and given to D3 to display a function indicator.

TX-2 IR transmission with LEDs



RX-2 The IR wave is picked up by remote IR sensor D1 then ac signal fed to Q1(FET) for amplification. Then fed to remote processor and pulse shaper via Q2(Emitter follower). Modulated signal is demodulated and produce the diff pulse train. Shaped pulse is fed to the dc coupled to the micro computer to produce diff function
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RX-2 The IR wave is picked up by remote IR sensor D1.



Turn on Rx control If we press turn ON button micro IC generate the control voltage in the one of its pin. Applied to the base of Q3 through 33k resistor. Lamp is glowing then coupled to the LDR it reduce the resistance of the LDR. Low resistance of the LDR enables the gate of the TRIAC to give the AC 230 supply.



Consist of Sweep gen, CRO, marker gen Using wobbuloscope we can test video response, tuner response, IF response etc.



Sweep gen produce two frequency -low frequency called wobbuloscope frequency <100hz -Centre frequency from IF 33.4Mhz and 38.9 Mhz One frequency is applied to the CRO directly another frequency fed to y plate of CRO through balun and tuner for impedance matching, then response curve is displayed in CRO
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Used for alignment, testing and servicing of TV TX which produce video signal ,direct and with RF modulation. The output is designed to produce Hori and vertical bar pattern, chequer board, dot pattern and cross catch pattern ,used for linearity and video amp adjustment. FM signal for align sound section
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Block diagram shown having two BAR generator(Hori and Vertical) to produce the bar pattern Each block consist of multlivibrator, divider and shaping Circuit. these two signal converted in to short duration of pulses then fed to video section in addition with synchronous pulses produce fine lines on the screen. Multivibrator produce the video signal m times at horizontal frequency to generate black and white bars at 15625Hz. After m cycle the horizontal blanking pulse trigger the multivibrator for synchronous the bar signal at every line. Similarly vertical bar gen is working for 50HZ
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If mV(vertical bar generator) and nV mV(Hori bar generator is OFF=blank white raster If mV =ON =vertical Bar (Vertical linearity) If nV ON =Horizontal bar(Hari linearity) If both ON = cross catch pattern (linearity adjustment) Preset control-if any bar rolls up and down this control helps to adjust the pattern stable Picture Centre and aspect ratio measured by counting the bars Pattern gen used to detect spurious oscillation like mixing of two oscillator, poor interlacing etc.
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CAMCORDER-Camera Recorder Camera cum sound section Used for -electronic news gathering -production od studio program -picture improvement Recording available in tape form Early model-betamax, half inch tape cassette - Two video heads one for recording chrominance info C, another one for Luminance info Y
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8mm CCD camcorders -image sensor, lens motor for zoom, aperture ,focus, recording system -analog information is converted in to digital by ADC(pattern of 0s and 1s) -3lak to 5 lakh photo sites for recording light intensity and store in the form of electrons.



Community Antenna television used for rural areas those living in shadow zone. Program received by CATV antennas, microwave link, optical link satellite link PAY-TV N/W -used to wide number of programs which is free from interference, shadow zone ,ghost image effects. Program choice -easy local program -two way interactive communication by video text, HDTV -OFF AIR terrestrial or SAT reception provide exclusive programs, wide choice of educational and entertainment program
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CABLE type -Co-axial Easy interfacing Low cost Larger diameter with lower attenuation Aluminum and copper with polyethylene foam provide water proof and strength. Flexible Nominal impedance is 75ohm Fiber optic Very thin than copper cable Carrying vast amount of data with intensity modulated Single mode , multimode, graded index High speed Greater transmission efficiency Data security Immunity from interference
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-Subscriber N/W Tree, branch and switched N/W for distributing of TV programs -Bi directional N/W



Bidirectional N/W used to upstream and down stream communication like shopping , survey , marketing and PAY per view. 5 to 35MHZ upstream, 50MHZ down stream frequency Single line is splitted in to two by band splitter filter. Path contain amp, equalizer, attenuator to take care the up/down stream signal.




Head End All the TV signal originate at Head end where they are frequency multiplexed and combined over the cable. Antennas used is microwave or satellite antennas called elaborate antenna system High gain aerial antennas for distant reception. Low noise pre Booster amplifier used to pick up the weak signal and improve the signal strengths Filters used to reject adjacent CH interference For satellite TV RX -Television Receive Only (TVRO) station are used to pick up the signal(consist of parabolic disc ant, low noise front end conversion)
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Head processor Convert incoming signal to IF carrier Before mixing the audio and video IF is level amplified, filtered and level controlled called up conversion. Two pilot carrier act as a reference freq transmitted near the cable end spectrum for wide amp trunk distribution system. All the signals are freq multiplexed in combining N/W and send to the common cable. Demodulation
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scrambling and conditional access systems

Traps Scrambling Conditional access Traps Cable tv offer basic service for minimum fee. Extra charge for special programs To authorize the subscriber two techniques - +ve notch method --Inserting interfering carrier in the pay channel and notching it out by suitable sharp filter. - -ve notch method --Introducing sharp notch filter On the pic carrier of the premium CH , installed outside at the drops of the not authorized subscriber.
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Scrambling (security tech) Suppress the sync signal at transmitting head end. That is pic without any info(H and V , loss of AGC) can not a study state pic like rolling, bars De-Scrambling A pilot carrier containing sync info transmitted on a separate carrier which is used to re insert the sync signal to the video. Base band Scrambling -polarity of random line in inverted. -in decoder section Scrambled line code re inserted the inverted line. Off premises or addressable convertor -used to recognized user by allotting the address.
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Conditional access Features like . -Equipment compatibility -Access -Support -User system interface -Telephone comm module By encrypted messages and key-card 3 operational scenario in cable and satellite systems 1. Fixed duration 2. Pay per view with pre selected choice 3. Pay per view without pre selection
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Satellite Television system

Microwave and co-axial cable expensive Geostationary comm satellite for tv program transmission for national and international Three satellite place in 1200 phase diff in equatorial orbit. Advantage High gain and BW High directivity Occupy more 1000 of telephone CH Solar battery Working Transmitter in satellite is a suitable reflector to direct and re radiate the beam to a narrow region. Process in satellite is demodulation, amplification, re modulation and transmission to earth.
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INTELSAT 40 gnd station Frequency modulation for up/down stream For larger BW and good noise immunity, less power consumption Freq allocation -620 to 790Mhz,2.5 to 2.69Ghz and 11.7 to 12.2Ghz
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Extended coverage of television

Used to Distributing national pgm over a extended region Three ways. 1) Rebroadcast system. -Emission from low power satellite is received With help of high sensitivity medium size antenna on a high sensitivity low noise station. -The received satellite pgm, is relayed over high power terrestrial antenna. This method is suitable for metropolitan city.
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2)Limited rebroadcast system -Low power transmitter used to cover the limited area in case of rural area where cluster of village and town exist and receiver density is moderate. -this reduce gnd segment cost, need for special front end equipment, dish antenna, convertor etc





3) Direct transmission Transmission is possible -Area remote from terrestrial antenna system Cost of reception is high becoz need for front end convertor, special antenna. JAPAN first country launch medium scale satellite YURI n 1978 towards direct reception for experimental purpose(2 color CH, 12Ghz band,1.6 m parabolic disc) .



Cost sate comm Cost lower if life is limited. Becoz sate need position and altitude control in turn require more fuel capacity for long life. It is advantage also becoz successive generation of comm sate with advance tech in electronics and comm with much more packing capacity. We hope, in future direct reception is possible for reasonable cost
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Tele text of video text systems

It is refers to the messaging system used for social service, business transaction, banking, education, training entertainment etc. It is visual text or graphic information on the unused TV CH or vertical blanking interval. Commonly called video text-Services via telephone, satellite cable Tv etc Two forms of video text - Teletext -one way comm - View data -Two way switched interactive services (interactive or pseudo interactive)
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- Teletext -one way comm, user receive pre-scaled info in predetermined order called open channel teletext. -It is a technique to transmit block of digital data containing alpha numeric or graphical info , teletext decoder available in TV RX in to a series of display called pages of an electronic magazine -Magazine contain- weather report, forecast, programs, airline schedule, stock exchange, news headlines etc -Index page and page no selection key pad option available.
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TELETEXT development UK 1972-Ceefax(see facts) of BBC and Oracle(optical reception of announcement by coded line electronic) of IBA French-Antiope (integrate teletext and view data in 1974 by using VBI(verti blanking interval) Japan-Captain(character pattern telephone access info) Caneda-Telidon system high resolution colour graphics USA-asyn and seven layer transmission, video presentation level protocol
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Bit rate and eye height of teletext data

Before transmission the digital data is converted in to square pulses at the max bitrate Bandwidth limitation , reflection, ringing, ghost affect the shape of this square pulse called ISI(inter symbol interference). Quality of the data can be determined by obtaining EYE PATTERN using lissajous pattern in the CRO.
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- View data -Two way switched interactive services (interactive or pseudo interactive) - Using color TV RX, video display unit independent CRT terminal/VDU - Data send through the public subscriber network, and telephone line - Stock exchange, money markets, reservation ,messaging topical news, reviews etc called TELE SOFTWARE - Public can access via keypad - Analog voice signal through modem - View data as in integrated circuit form-LSI IC SAA 5070 - View data terminal-CRT, Computer, TV, intelligent terminal with micro computer , Video display unit
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Digital TV system
High-definition television (HDTV) provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that of standarddefinition television. All the signal in the form of digital that is encoded data Higher resolution, less interference, security, high quality TV programs Allow viewing about at 3 times the picture height Large screen display, cinema quality picture more than 1000 lines Resolution is twice than TV system.
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NHK system-JAPAN from 1970 they are working in HDTV development. Studio production standard 1125/60 HDTV world standard motion picture Features high definition and transmission motion pic production Cinematography Video theatre Film processing Image printing and publishing Medical diagnosis etc
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HDTV broadcasting system has 3 Basic parts 1)studio equipment camera, VCR 2)Tx and Transmitter link-MW or Satellite link 3)Large Screen TV RX or projector



3D view by binocular effect Left and right eye seeing same object but different angle so that two image produces in our retina is different. Our brain processes and interprets the two overlapping 2D images as a 3D object with depth. Two camera are used with two complementary color(left-yellow, right-blue) These two camera produce the respective image in shadow mask tube having yellow and blue phosphor dots . When vied through corresponding filter glasses, 2 binocular images are super imposed to produce the stereoscopic black and white image effect.
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Abdy 3D system -3D illusion in a 2D color TV signal-1982-west Germany - Rolt Canes. Red info bits are delayed by 600ns with help of electronic ckt This produce double image being formed on the TV screen, when viewed through the glasses enable the viewer to perceive the third dimension depth. Patented by Abdy company in west Germany
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VCR and Video disc system

VCR-video cassette recorders 1970 sony and philips 3 hrs play Sony U-matic -Semiprofessional field-3/4 inch tape -Domestic purpose-1.2 inch tape



Video disc system Developed in 1970 for domestic use. Gramophone record-audio Audio and video-laser optical and capacitance principle Optical type -Reflected light from the microscopic pits in the disc surface which correspond to video and audio signal. -pits-etched out and coated with reflective aluminum. -play back-helium neon laser light-spectrum red light -Types- active play and long play
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Capacitance type Spiral V grooves are cut on which a diamond stylus rides. Information recorded by varying depth of the groove The capacitance decreases when groove is deep Trailing edge of the stylus act as a one plate of the capacitor Di-electric is space between electrode on the pick up and groove If capacitance varies resonant freq also varies provide varied output signal
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