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# AE3010

Aerodynamics Lecture 2
Thin Aerofoil Theory
04/10/12
Dr. Peter Barrington
Thin Aerofoil Theory
1. Review of Point vortex
2. Properties of a vortex sheet
3. Review of flow around an aerofoil
4. Idealied flow around an aerofoil
!. "utta #ondition
\$. %hin aerofoil assu&ptions
'. (ppl)ing thin aerofoil theor) *+,- 4.4.
Point Vortex
%he velo#it) due to a point vortex at
the origin is given /)0
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
y x
x
v
y x
y
u
+

Point Vortex
In polar #o1ordinates
r
v
v
r

2
0

Circulation,
2e #an show that this 3uantit) is
#onstant along a vortex.
s d v

Point Vortex
45et#h the variation of velo#it) as )ou
approa#h the point vortex.
Point Vortex
Point Vortex
Point Vortex
( point vortex in a free strea& #an /e
used to &odel the flow field around an
aerofoil in regions well awa) fro& the
aerofoil. %he #ir#ulation is related to
the lift per unit span of the aerofoil /)
the "utta16hu5ovs5) theore& *see
+,- pg1\$'.
Kutta!hu"o#s"y Theorem
n circulatio
velocity stream free V
density
span unit per lift
where

l
V l
\$lo% around an aerofoil
7
Vortex &heet
%he point vortex &odel is a good
idealiation of a s&all region of
rotational fluid. ( vortex sheet is a
&odel of a thin region of rotational
Vortex &heet
2e #an thin5 of a vortex sheet as a
set of point vorti#es
Vortex &heet
%he 5e) #hara#teristi# of a vortex
sheet is the #ir#ulation per unit length8
this is #o&&onl) given the s)&/ol 8
/ut +,- use k
Vortex &heet
%he velo#it) due to a vortex sheet
l)ing along the x1axis fro& to origin to
# is given /)0
( )
( )

c
c
ds s
y s x
s x
v
ds s
y s x
y
u
0
2 2
0
2 2
) (
) ( 2
1
) (
) ( 2
1

Vortex sheet
x
y
#
*x8).
s
*s.
Vortex &heet
2e #an show that is e3ual to the
9u&p in velo#it) when #rossing the
vortex sheet.
Vortex &heet
2e do this /) evaluating the general
expression for the velo#it) due to a
#onstant strength vortex sheet at an
ar/itrar) point and then exa&ining
what happens as the point
approa#hes the sheet
Vortex &heet
( si&ple spe#ial #ase is to #onsider
the x #o&ponent of velo#it) indu#ed
/) a #onstant strength vortex sheet
fro& 0 to #
Vortex &heet
In this #ase the velo#it) is given /)0
2e #an use the following0
( )

c
ds
y s x
y
y u
0
2 2
) ( 2
) (

,
_

C
a
x
dx
x a
a
1
2 2
tan
Vortex &heet
In this #ase the velo#it) is given /)0
[ ]
2 1
1 1
2
tan tan
2
) (

1
]
1

,
_

,
_

y
x
y
x c
y u
Vortex sheet
x
y
1
2
#
*x8).
Vortex &heet
:ust a/ove the sheet the velo#it) is
1/2 and 9ust /elow the sheet it is /28
so is the 9u&p in velo#it) a#ross the
sheet.
\$lo% around an Aerofoil
%he general pro/le& of solving the
;avier 4to5es e3uation around an
aerofoil re3uires -o&putational <luid
D)na&i#s *-<D.. +owever8 for
idealied flow we #an solve this
pro/le&.
\$lo% around an Aerofoil
'deali(ed flo% around an
aerofoil
If we assu&e that the flow is
irrotational and in#o&pressi/le8 the
pro/le& /e#o&es signifi#antl)
si&pler. 2hat are the re3uire&ents
for this to /e a valid approxi&ation=
'deali(ed flo% around an
aerofoil )*e+uirements,

?ow @

## ?ow angle of atta#5 *no separation.

'deali(ed \$lo% around an
aerofoil
2e &odel the /oundar) la)er as a
thin vortex sheet. %he pro/le&
/e#o&es finding the distri/ution of
along the surfa#e of the aerofoil whi#h
ensures the flow follows the aerofoil
#ontour
'deali(ed flo% around an
Aerofoil
Ane pro/le& with this approa#h is
that there is an infinite nu&/er of
solutions. 2e #an show this for the
si&ple #ase of flow around a #ir#ular
#)linder.
\$lo% around a circular cylinder
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2 ) (
y x
x
y x
xy
a V v
y x
y
x y
y x
a
V u
+

+
+

+

+
+

## \$lo% around a circular cylinder

\$lo% around an aerofoil
Kutta Condition
%he solution that we o/serve in
pra#ti#e is the one where the trailing
edge is a stagnation point. %his fixes
the #ir#ulation and hen#e lift per unit
span.
'deali(ed flo% around an
aerofoil
%he pro/le& /e#o&es finding the
distri/ution of along the surfa#e of
the aerofoil whi#h ensures the flow
follows the aerofoil #ontour and
satisfies the "utta #ondition that the
trailing edge is a stagnation point.
'deali(ed flo% around an
aerofoil
An#e we have deter&ined 8 we #an
deter&ine the velo#it) outside the
/oundar) la)er and hen#e the
pressure distri/ution fro& BernoulliBs
e3uation.
'deali(ed flo% around an
aerofoil
2e #an use nu&eri#al &ethods
*panel &ethods. to deter&ine *s. for
an aerofoil shape. %he predi#ted
pressure distri/utions agree with
experi&ental results at low angles of
atta#5 and high Re)nolds nu&/er.
*+,- 3.!.
Thin Aerofoil Theory
%hin aerofoil theor) is an older
si&plif)ing assu&ption that the
aerofoil is thin and the vortex sheets
representing the /oundar) la)er #an
/e #ollapsed onto a vortex sheet
along the #hord line.
Thin Aerofoil Theory

1
]
1

c
c
s x
ds s
dx
dy
V
0
) (
2
1

## Thin Aerofoil Theory

In thin aerofoil theor) we tr) to solve
for the fun#tion *s. whi#h ensures
that the #a&/er line of the aerofoil is
a strea&line. %he details are given in
+,- se#tions 4.314.!
Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e #an show that the pressure
differen#e a#ross a vortex sheet is
C whi#h is the lift per unit span per
unit length of the sheet. %his agrees
with the "utta16hu5ovs5) law given in
the first le#ture
Thin Aerofoil Theory
An#e we have solved for *s. we #an
deter&ine the lift per unit span and
the aerod)na&i# &o&ent a#ting on
aerofoil
Thin Aerofoil Theory
%hin aerofoil theor) a##uratel)
predi#ts the lift #urve slope8 the effe#t
of #a&/er line on the lift at ero angle
of atta#5 and the &o&ent #oeffi#ient.
It #an also /e used to esti&ate the
effe#t of a flap on lift8 pit#hing &o&ent
and hinge &o&ent.
Thin Aerofoil Theory
It #an /e &odified to in#lude the
thi#5ness effe#t of the aerofoil *+,-
4.D. /ut panel &ethods *+,- 4.10.
are re3uired to deter&ine the detailed
pressure distri/ution
A--lyin. Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e nor&all) transfor& the varia/le of
integration /) the following relation0
( )

d
c
dx
c
x
sin
2
cos 1
2

,
_

,
_

## A--lyin. Thin Aerofoil Theory

2e also express the slope of the
#a&/er line as a <ourier #osine
series0

+
1
0
cos
n
n
c
n A A
dx
dy

## A--lyin. Thin Aerofoil Theory

%he re3uire&ent that the #a&/erline
is a strea&line /e#o&es0
( )

1
]
1

0
1
1
0
cos cos
sin ) (
2
1
cos
d
n A A V
n
n
A--lyin. Thin Aerofoil Theory
%wo useful integral relations are0
( )
( )
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
cos
cos cos
sin sin
sin
sin
cos cos
cos

n
d n
n d n

## A--lyin. the first relation/

( )
( )

0
1
0
1
cos cos
cos
1 n case For the
0
cos cos
0 n case For the
d
d
Thin Aerofoil Theory

,
_

sin
1 cos
) ( C
%his produ#es a #onstant downwash -/2 and
also gives 70 at x7# *7.. %his &eans0
-72C*1(o.
Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e use the other integral relation to
get the higher order ter&s. %he final
result is0
( ) ( )
1
]
1

+
+

1
0
sin
sin
1 cos
2
n
n
n A A V

Ex-ansion Coefficients

d n
dx
dy
A
d
dx
dy
A
c
n
c

0
0
0
cos
2
1
Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e #an now deter&ine the lift
( )
( )( )
????
sin sin 1 cos
sin
2
0
1
0
2
0
0

1
]
1

+ +

d n A A c V
d
c V
dx V l
n
n
c
Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e #an now deter&ine the lift
( )
( )( )
( )
1
]
1

+
1
]
1

+ +

1 0
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
2
sin sin 1 cos
sin
2
A A c V
d n A A c V
d
c V
dx V l
n
n
c

## Thin Aerofoil Theory

In non1di&ensional ter&s0
( ) 2 2
0 1
+ A A C
l
Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e also deter&ine the &o&ent
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
????
cos 1 sin sin 1 cos
2
sin cos 1
4
0
1
0
2 2
0
2
0

1
]
1

+ +

d n A A
c V
d
c V
dx x V M
n
n
c
LE
Thin Aerofoil Theory
2e also deter&ine the &o&ent
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
1
]
1

1
]
1

+ +

2 4
cos 1 sin sin 1 cos
2
sin cos 1
4
2
1 0
2 2
0
1
0
2 2
0
2
0
A
A A
c V
d n A A
c V
d
c V
dx x V M
n
n
c
LE

## Thin Aerofoil Theory

In non1di&ensional ter&s0
( )
1
]
1

+
2 2
2
1 0
A
A A C
LE
M

## Thin Aerofoil Theory

<or an ar/itrar) referen#e point0
2e #an use this expression to
deter&ine the #entre of lift and the
aerod)na&i# #entre.
l M Mx
C
c
x
C C
LE

,
_

+
Thin Aerofoil Theory
%he Aerodynamic Centre is the point
where the &o&ent is independent of
angle of atta#5. <ro& the
expressions given a/ove we #an
show that the (erod)na&i# -entre is
at the 3uarter #hord point.