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Data Processing

Mrs. Rosemarie M. Coronejo 2nd Semester, SY 2011-2012

Data vs Information
Data is a collection of raw facts Examples: customer name, graphics, images, address, sound, and video segments, telephone number Data is not information Data without context is useless

Data vs Information
The terms data and information are closely related, and in fact are often used interchangeably. Information is data that has been processed in such a way that it can increase the knowledge of the person who uses it. Information is data that is organized and meaningful.
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Data vs Information
Data + Interpretation -> Information/Knowledge Example: Baker, Kenneth D. 2001-12345 Doyle, Joan E. 1999-67890 Finkle, Clive R. 2000-00001 Lewis, Clark C. 1998-01023
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Data vs Information
Converting data to information (by context)
Class List Course: Itconce Trimester: 1st 01-02 Section: e02 Name Student Number Baker, Kenneth D. 2001-12345 Doyle, Joan E. 1999-67890 Finkle, Clive R. 2000-00001 Lewis, Clark C. 1998-01023

Major SSE COE SSE CNE

GPA 3.5 3.0 2.5 3.5

Data vs Information
Converting data to information (summarized)
Percent of Enrollment by Major (200X) SSE 35% COE 30% CNE 35%

Data is a very powerful asset!

Four operation of the Information Processing Cycle Input Process Output Storage

Data

Input Stage

Process Stage

Output Stage Information

Process
Output Input

A computer accepts input What kinds of input can a computer use?

Computer input is whatever you put into a computer system. Input means to feed information into a computer.
words and symbols in a document numbers for a calculation pictures
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A computer processes data


In what ways can a computer process data?

Data refers to the symbols that represent facts and ideas. Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data.
performing calculations sorting lists and numbers drawing graphs

A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU).
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A computer stores data


Why does a computer store data?

A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing. Memory is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed. Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis.

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A computer produces output


What kinds of output does a computer produce?

Computer output is the results produced by the computer.


reports documents music graphs pictures

An output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing.


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What is the use of information?


Decision Making

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Data Processing
consists of gathering the data input, evaluating and bringing order to it, and placing it in proper perspective so that useful information will be produced.

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Data Processing Functions


Input
Recording, Validating, Communicating

Process
Classifying, Sorting, Summarizing, Calculating, Posting, Comparing

Output
Reporting, Communicating

Storage
Storing retrieving
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Classify
Input
John 40 Greg 42 Donna 39 Dave 40

Process

Output TNHW < 40 = 40 > 40

Count 1 2 1

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Sort
Input Schapiro Jones Martinez Aponte Powell Output Aponte Jones Martinez Powell Schapiro
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Process

Summarize
Input Enter Quiz Score: 95, 63, 75, 78, 85, 92, 70, 77, 95, 87

Process
(95 + 63 + 75 + 78 + 85 + 92+ 70+ 77+ 95+ 87) / 10

Output Average Score is: 81.7

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Calculate
Input How many units? 1500 Price? 6.85 Discount? 0.15

Process
1500 * 6.85 * .15 = 8733.75

Output Invoice 1500 units at 6.85 with 15% discount Balance Due $8733.75
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Compare and Post


Input Account no? 12345 This purchase? 54.82

Process
54.82 + 35.03 = 89.85 is less than 1000?

Output Credit OK
Storage: Account no: 12345 Previous: 35.03 Credit Limit: 1000 New Balance is: 964.97
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Two Types of Data Processing


Manual
use of tools and materials such as pencils, pens, multiplecopy forms, carbon paper and filing cabinets.

Computerized
mechanical use of mechanical equipment such as type writers and adding machines with constant human intervention. Electronic use of electronic computer with minimal human intervention.
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Manual Mechanical Devices


Abacus Napiers Bones Oughtreds Slide Rule Pascals Calculator Leibnizs Calculator Babbages Difference Engine Babbages Analytical Engine
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Electro-mechanical Devices
Holleriths Punched-Card Machine Electromechanical Accounting Machines
EAM

Automatic Sequence Control Calculator


Mark 1

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Electronic Devices
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator (EDVAC)
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Two Methods of Data Processing


Batch Processing - a data processing technique in which transactions are collected into groups, or batches, for processing. On-line Processing - a data processing technique in which transactions are processed directly for storing and retrieving data. (Inquiry, Menu, File Maintenance)
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