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Re-Entry Missile
K.Raghava, Pranav Nath, Parag jyothi Garg, Rudranarayan Dash


Carry a nuclear warhead from an orbit around Earth targeting any location A great boom to national defense

ICBMs has a max. range 5500km

Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry vehicle has range of about 13000km


Ideal 7.612km/s delta V (non-realistic) 500km polar orbit (minimum time) Time period= 1 hr 35 min 3hr time, plane change maneuver Crudely 30min to 4hr 45min


V achievable is 1.884km/s V of 0.144km/s for reaching opposite corner V left is 1.47km/s able to provide 130 plane change maneuver.







, Q = = = = 177194.39 W/m^2 1873.254 Pa 24436183 J 27g m/s^2

= 29.331923

Vehicle specifications

Reentry module : 1300 kg

1. 2.

Structure heat shield

400 kg, 400 kg,

4. 5. 6.

reaction control system

warhead disintegration system navigation equipment (GPS) electrical equipment

50 kg, 60 kg, 120 kg,


communication system

25 kg,
35 kg

De-boosting module : 1700 kg Propulsion system: 4-20 N attitude control thrusters, 10000 N main engine Warhead: Thermonuclear : 500 kg Estimated unit cost : Rs. 60crores


trade-off b/n warhead size & optimized shapes -used RVs like Apollo, Beagle-2 and Gemini capsule. minimum possibility of length to place warhead and parachute subsystem so that the whole payload can be minimized. four surfaces: a sphere segment, a torus segment, a conical frustum and another sphere segment. shape is axially symmetric.


nose radius -RN,

side radius -RS,

rear cone half-angle -c, mid radius- Rm and rear conical part length- Lc. length -L auxiliary angle N-angular extent of the nose sphere.

Optimized range of values

The Minimum and maximum shape parameter values . shoulder radius & D - chosen intuitively - range of values specified for the optimized shapes of RVs.

Parameter RN RS C Rm

Minimum value 2.0 m 0.02 m 50 Fixed value

Maximum Value 7.0 m 0.40 m 600 Fixed value

Selected capsule geometry

Aerodynamic constants

For the selected capsule,- Cd and max. Cp values using Re-entry Newtonian software is found. Good agreement with conventionally used RVs.
D RN Rs Rs N(deg) C(deg) = = = = = = 3 2 0.2 0.2 24.905 35

Alpha(deg) L Cpmax Area Volume Cd

= = = = = =

0 3.75502 1.83 26.2586 11.0157 1.28772

Computational Analysis
computational grid modeled -3 regions each with different grid flux. Fine grid cells were made in the vicinity of capsule boundaries. The grid is coarsened gradually with the distance away from capsule.

2-D , axis-symmetric assumed to descent at zero angle of attack to attain high drag force. Model - Autodesk Inventor Professional

Meshing- Pointwise meshing software


Grid was extended in the axial direction - the subsonic wake extends significantly farther downstream compared to supersonic and hypersonic wakes. Initially, the computation analysis -unstructured meshing in the region away from the capsule. The convergence criteria couldnt be achieved for lower CFL (Courant-Freidrichs-Lewy) no.s. Structured grids - used - superior convergence and accurate results.

Approximately 0.3 million quadrilateral cells.

Boundary conditions
Grid was made large enough around the capsule to study the overflow. Pressure-far-field condition is used for the extreme grids.

Mach number = 5 free stream conditions

P = 1000 Pa
operating pressure= 0kPa, to decrease the chance of numerical error due to the low pressures resulting from the solution. The free stream temp. = 287K.

Computational Methods

NavierStokes simulations(i.e., energy model was used).

Spalart-Allamaras Viscous model with default values.

Density based solver - absolute velocity formulations. The gravitational effect was neglected as there are high deceleration values comparatively in the reentry phase. Ideal-gas law - determine the air density, Sutherlands law to calculate the air viscosity with the default values as defined in FLUENT.

Computational Methods

checked for Roe-FDS flux type solver

observed to be converging for the density based solver with CFL number as 0.005.
Later, AUSM flux-type solver with the same CFL number for accurate results. Least square cell-based discretization gradient technique . first-order upwind approximations discretization scheme for both flow and modified turbulent viscosity convergence residuals has been set for 10-6 .

Convergence criteria

mass flow rates across the pressure-far-field aft the capsule has been observed for the convergence criteria. Solution Steering with FMG initialization up to 5 levels for hypersonic flow has done with hybrid initialization of iterations. 50000 iterations

Net mass flow rates throughout the domain is observed to be less than 0.06% of the inlet mass flow rate.

Boundary Inlet Outlet Net

Mass flow rate (Kg/s) 6449.0937 -6452.9462 -3.85248

Contours of Temperature

Contours of Velocity Magnitude

For higher Mach numbers :

Repeated with the same solving techniques for different free-stream conditions. For a free-stream Mach number of 9, the convergence criteria is not obtained for density based solver with lower courant numbers also. Results were observed to be diverging for higher mach number flows.

Propulsion system

Selection of propellant

Hydrazine monopropellant- space storability, lower maintenance equipment.

Difficulty of using cryogenic propellant for long durations.

Gives velocity impulses as required.

Situations for maximum performance used for designing.

Deboosting engine


Attitude Control system

4- 20 N thrusters generating about 20 N-m moment on the vehicle.

Inside the reentry module. 40 kg of propellant

Blowdown type, BR=4

Zero-g propellant control - Bladder tank

Astrium 20 N thruster Works on hydrazine mono propellant Canted nozzle


Heating system : Propulsion system

Hydrazine must not freeze, freezing point 2 C. Line rupture can occur due to thawing if liquid is trapped behind the frozen hydrazine. Radiative heaters near lines, valves and tanks. Catalyst beds are also heated to increase performance and bed life.

Electric Components :

Gyroscope sensor :

To establish an inertial reference coordinate frame.

To measure angular rotation (position and rate) of the space vehicle about the reference axis. Lithium ion batteries 150 kWh inside the re-entry module and 70 kWh in the de-booster module will be used. As an inertial measurement of velocity and position.

Power source :

Accelerometer :

As a sensor of inclination, tilt or orientation in 2-3 directions, as referenced from the acceleration due to gravity.
As a vibration or impact sensor.

Electric Components

3-axis models of both accelerometer and gyroscope sensors have been used to get a 6 degree of freedom motion. ANTENNA :

converts electrical power into radio waves

used with radio transmitter and radio receiver

designed for point-to-point operation . to provide stabilization about all three axes Astrium thrusters ; attitude or velocity control of a RV. limitations are fuel usage, engine wear, and cycles of the control valves.

Thrusters :

Electric Components

Communication with RV through modulated plasma :

Signal antennae are mounted on the casing wall between forward nose and trail ends of an aerospace launched vehicle for radio communication through a radiation conducting sheet of plasma re-entry path is maintained by vehicle guidance at a steep angle in response to data transmitted to the antennae to enhance data transmission to provide three dimensional position of the vehicle at any time and place GPS receiver measures its distance from the satellite based on the travel time of the radio signals intervening medium effects the signals due to unavoidable causes leading to errors.



Huge aerodynamic loads (high deceleration) Withstand max. deceleration and dynamic pressure Provide safe compartment for warhead Adequate ejection mechanism for the warhead



From historical data Titanium for the support structure Aluminium honeycomb for covering A proper base since most load is experienced and heat shield should not collapse


Max. Stress less than tensile stress Displacement 0.09mm Total weight 13000kg, pre-decided - 700kg Circular beams converted to smaller cross-section, thickness of the bottom plate reduced

Name Volume Mass Von Mises Stress 1st Principal Stress 3rd Principal Stress Displacement Safety Factor X Displacement Y Displacement Z Displacement Equivalent Strain

Minimum 39713300 mm^3 179.10684 Kilogram 0 MPa -18.0792 MPa -62.0645 MPa 0 mm 5.40288 ul -0.933833 mm -0.967126 mm -0.903069 mm 0 ul


51.0098 MPa 46.4904 MPa 11.6888 MPa 1.09837 mm 15 ul 0.93195 mm 0.889766 mm 0.000655074 mm 0.000463033 ul

1st Principal Strain

3rd Principal Strain

-0.000000021521 ul
-0.000523155 ul

0.000358405 ul
0.000000506277 ul


Further work to be done

Structure able to bear 27g load with 1mm displacement Outer cover of aluminium honeycomb structure to sustain maximum dynamic pressure


A cap at the top removed Launching a parachute from inside attached to the warhead Due to drag, warhead comes out and capsule continues in its path Parachute attachment is removed and warhead hits the target



Thermonuclear warhead - high explosive destructive force. Warhead - loaded on to the Re-entry module. structure for holding & supporting the warhead : protecting from heat load & vibrations. Nuclear bomb carries out three levels of destruction.
b) c)

By direct blast that will account for about 40 % of total energy.

Thermal radiations comprising of 30 % energy By Ionizing and residual radiations


similar to B28 developed by the United States. Warhead : 80 cm in diameter & 200 cm long. Uses fission bomb in the primary zone to activate fusion reactions in the secondary zone.


Fired about 20 s from the release from reentry capsule. Destruction range of about 1 Megatons of TNT. After falling 2 km from the release, timer would switch on the closed part of the warhead circuit. Other sequential switches will be opened to charge the batteries to charge a number of capacitors and turn on the radar fuses. Radar signals is to be reflected from the surface of earth and trigger the stored current to the detonation signal.

Thermal Design

In-orbit control and Atmospheric entry

Thermal environment requirements of various subsystems

In-orbit: Average spacecraft temperature 299 K

Qsun the heat transfer by direct sunlight, Qer be the heat transfer due to earth reflected sunlight,

Qi be the internally generated heat,

Qss be the net power radiated to space and Qse be the net power radiated to earth.

Qsun = 1400* * An 1400(0.7)(13.4) 13132W

Qer =(zero) assuming zero view factor from sunlit earth Qi = 30 W (internal heaters)

The view factor for spacecraft in 500 km orbit, Fs,e= 3.9309/ = 0.3128

s As (Ts )4 s As Fs ,e (Te )4 Qsun Qer Qi

(Ts ) 4 Fs ,e (Te ) 4 Qsun Qer Qi s As

Multi-layer insulation
Each layer is of Mylar material almost 7 micrometer thick, coated on both sides by aluminium using vapor deposition methods. Outer layers- 120 micrometers thick Small holes for venting gases trapped. Spacers of Dacron Nearly 20 layers


Patch heaters at required places ~ 1 W each Electrical resistance element sandwiched between two sheets of flexible electrically insulating material Kapton. Fuses and relays provided Thermistors sense temperature

Thermal protection system

Maximum heating rate: 508 kW/m2

Total Heat load: 24436.183 kJ

Ablative Heat shield PAN Carbon-Carbon composite as TPS material. Estimated Weight = 400 kg

Estimation of Heat Shield thickness

= Heat of fusion = 200 kJ/kg Density of ablative material is 1500 kg/m3 From above equation, t = 8.14 cm.

24436.183 x A = 200 x 1500 x A x t

Half the thickness for rear-body

Further optimization required.

Vehicle geometry

Length: 6 m Max. diameter: 3 m Surface area: 26 m2 Ballistic coefficient: 38.46 Center of gravity

1m from fore body shell,

1.5m from attitude control thruster position towards main propulsion system.