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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGIES


Dr. Narayan H.Gandedkar

Ancient growth and development concepts

Garbha Upanishad From the conjugation of the blood and semen embryo comes into existence.during the period of conception, after the sexual inter course it becomes kalada (one day old embryo) after remaining seven nights it becomes a spherical mass, after two months the head is formed, after three months limb region is formed
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Greek scholars Hippocrates of Los


Aristotle of stagera Claudius Galen Talmud Leonardo da vinci To present sheep cloning in 1997 by Ian Wilmut

Definition of Growth
Growth refers to increase in size - Todd Growth usually refers to an increase in size

and number Proffit


Self multiplication of living substance-

J.S.Huxley.

Growth may be defined as the normal change

in the amount of living substance

Change in any morphological parameter

which is measurable- Moss.

Definition of Development
Development is a progress towards
maturity Todd

Development connotes a maturational


process involving progressive differentiation at the cellular and tissue

levels - Enlow

Development refers to all

naturally occurring progressive, unidirectional,

sequential changes in the


life of an individual from its existence as a single cell to its elaboration as a multifunctional unit

terminating in death
Moyers
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Definitions
Morphogenesis A biologic process having an underlying control at the cellular and tissue levels Differentiation It is a change from generalized cells or tissues to a more specialized kinds during development

Translocation
It is a change in position

Maturation
It is the emergence of personal characteristics and behavioural phenomenon through growth processes
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Timing and sequential change


a. Prenatal growth
b. Postnatal growth

c. Maturity
d .Old age

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Timing and sequential change Prenatal growth- rapid increase in cell no. Postnatal growth- 20 yrs- declining growthincreasing maturation

Maturity-period of stability
Old age

death
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Different types of growth


Size change Positional change Proportional change

Functional change

Maturational change

Compositional change

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Proportional change

Eg-Head of the infant

Functional change Eg-Secretion , production of enzymes, hormones


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Size change- height, weight, volume Positional change-

Migration of neural crest cells


Eruption of teeth

Dropping of diaphragm

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Maturational change stability and adulthood

Compositional change Eye pigmentation

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Major themes of development


Changing complexity Shifts from competent to fixation

Shifts from dependent to independent


Ubiquity of genetic control modulated by

environment

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Changing complexity
All level of organisation

- sub-cellular to

whole organism
Complexity

development

Orthodontics

Mixed dentition period

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Shifts from competent to fixation


Undifferentiated cells once differentiated become

fixed.

Shifts from dependent to independent


Development brings greater independence at most

levels of organisation.

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Ubiquity of genetic control modulated by environment


Genetic control of development is

constantly being modified by environmental interactions

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Increase in size

Growth decrease in size


eg- thymus gland after puberty

Development

process of inc complexity

Development=growth+differenciation+translocation

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Importance of growth and development to orthodontist


Etiology of malocclusion

Health and nutrition of children


comparison of growth

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identification - abnormal occlusal

development at an earlier stage


use of growth spurts Surgery initiation

Planning of retention regime

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Normal features of Growth & Development


pattern

-Differential Growth -cephalocaudal gradient of growth


Variability Timing, rate & direction
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PATTERN
Pattern in growth represents proportionality .It

refers not just to a set of proportional relationships at a point in time but to change in these proportional relationships over time
The physical arrangement of the body at any

one time is a pattern of spatially proportioned parts.


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DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH
Different organs grow at different rates amount and at different times.

Scammons curve of growth -Richard scammon

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SCAMMONS CURVE OF GROWTH


LYMPHOID NEURAL GENERAL

GENITAL

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CEPHALOCAUDAL GRADIENT OF GROWTH

Changes , part of normal growth pattern reflect Cephalocaudal gradient of growth

Axis of increased growth

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CEPHALOCAUDAL GRADIENT OF GROWTH

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Growth of head and face

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It illustrates the change in overall body proportions during normal growth and development.

Imp aspect of pattern is its predictability.

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Predictability
Predictability of growth pattern is a specific

kind of proportionality that exists at a particular time and progresses towards another, at the next time frame with slight variations.
Change in growth pattern indicates some

alteration in the expected changes in body proportions.


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Variability
No two individuals with the exception of

siamese twins are like.


Hence it is important to have a normal

variability before categorizing people as

normal or abnormal

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Normality
Normality refers to that which is usually

expected, is ordinarily seen or typical Moyers


Normality may not necessarily be ideal.

Deviation from usual pattern can be used to express

quantitative variability
This can be done by using growth charts

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TYPES OF NORMALITY
STATISTICAL EVOLUTIONARY FUNCTIONAL

ESTHETICAL
CLINICAL

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Growth chart

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Applications of growth charts.


Location of an individual relative to the group

can be established.
Can be used to follow a child over time and

note for any unexpected change in growth pattern.

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Timing of Growth
One of the factors for variablity in growth. Timing variations arise because biologic clock of

different individuals is different.


It is influenced by: genetics sex related differences physique related environmental influences
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Distance curve Vs Velocity curve

Height

Distance curve

Age

Velocity curve

Distance Curve (cumulative curve): In this curve growth can be plotted in height or weight recorded at various ages. Velocity Curve(incremental curve): In this by amount of change in any given interval that is growth increment is plotted.

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Growth spurts
Defined as periods of growth acceleration Sex-linked

Normal spurts are

Infantile spurt at 3 years age

Juvenile spurt 7-8 years (females); 8-10 years (males)


Pubertal spurt 10-11 years(females); 14-15 years (males)

Growth modulation can be done

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GROWTH STUDIES AND METHODS OF STUDYING GROWTH.

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If I have seen further, it is by standing on the

shoulders of giants
_ SIR ISAAC NEWTON , ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN 1643- 1727

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Longitudinal growth studies

Methods of studying bone growth Types of growth data Methods of gathering growth data
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Types of .growth data


Opinion Observations. Ratings and rankings. Quantitative measurements. direct data. indirect data. derived data.
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Types of growth data.


Opinion clever guess based on experience. crudest form of scientific knowledge. Observations: for studying all or none phenomenon limited way use quantitative data is must.
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RATING

comparison RANKING value

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Quantitative measurements: Includes expressing an idea or fact as a meaningful quantity or numbers.

Direct data: measurements ,living persons or cadaver -measuring device. Indirect data: images or reproductions of actual person.
Derived data comparing at least two measurements.

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Methods of gathering growth data.


Longitudinal studies . Cross sectional studies. Overlapping or semi longitudinal studies.

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Longitudinal studies.
measurements of same person or groupregular intervals through time. Advantage: problems are smoothed with time, Variability,serial comparison makes study of specific developmental pattern of individual possible. Disadvantages: time consuming, expensive, sample loss or attrition,averaging.

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Cross sectional studies


ADVANTAGES repeating Quicker Less costly Statistical treatment made easier

DISADVANTAGES
Variation amongst individuals cannot be studied

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Semi longitudinal studies.


Merger of either studies

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LONGITUDINAL GROWTH STUDIES.

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Longitudinal growth studies


Bolton brush growth study Burlington growth study Michigan growth study

Denver child growth study


Iowa child welfare study Forsyth twin study Meharry growth study
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Montreal growth study


Krogman philadelphia growth study Fels growth study Implant studies

The mathews implant collection The hixon oregon implant study Cleft palate study

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Bolton Brush growth study.


Prof T Wingate Todd - 1926 skeletal development . Dr Holly Broadbent Sr- 1929. development of facial skeleton. 5000 normal healthy children. Records

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Bolton Brush Growth Study


merged in 1970. 1975 - published - Dr Holly Broadbent jr. standards of averages that represent optimum facial and developmental growth baseline for understanding and assessing craniofacial growth.

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Burlington growth study


AIM Malocclusion preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment. growth records as a database for future studies. Sample size:1632 .

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BURLIGTON GROWTH STUDY

Records original concept - Robert Moyers records-Frank Popovich.

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Burlington growth study


247 investigations & 322 studies - based on this growth study Longitudinal studies by Thompson & Popovich to derive cephalometric norms of a representative sample was based on 210 children followed for 15 years at the Burlington growth center. age sex and growth type specific craniofacial templates were derived and static and dynamic analysis were proposed on the basis of this study.
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The Iowa child welfare study.


Sample size: 20 males and 15 female 4 year old subjects. Followed till 17 years of age. Non orthodontical-European Records:lateral and PA views and dental casts. Samir Bishara.
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changes in facial dimensions ,standing height

The dentofacial relationships of 3 normal facial types (long, average, short) from 5-25 yrs of age was described & compared.

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CLEFT PALATE STUDIES.


LANCASTER PA: 850 record sets - birth to 15 years/annually HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN(Toronto):over 4000 - 5-20 years .CENTER FOR CRANIOFACIAL ANOMALIES(Chicago); 1000 subjects. Records: x-ray films, casts, medical and orthodontic treatment records. All subjects: surgical repair, minor - extensive ortho treatment.
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METHODS
OF STUDYING GROWTH

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Ancient Greek Studies On Growth


-- According to Galen et al.

-- Pattern Intelligence / Specific areas of Skull Specific Growth Perfection / Dumbness etc.....

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Greek Mythology on Growth Studies

-- Constellations, Sun, Moon etc... determine the growth of the body.

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Methods of studying Growth


measurement approaches. experimental approaches.

craniometry. anthropometry.

at microscopic level. mineralised sections.

at macroscopic level. implant markers

at both levels. vital staining.

cephalometry.

microradiography. fluorescent labels.


polarised light. radioisotopes.

finite element modeling.

comparative anatomy. natural markers.

nuclear volume morphometry. autoradiography.


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CRANIOMETRY. measurements of skull


Neanderthal and Cro-magnon skull. information of extinct population ,growth pattern

Advantages: Precise measurements. Disadvantages:All growth data must be cross sectional.

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ANTHROPOMETRY:

soft tissue pts over bony landmarks- living individuals. variation in soft tissue thickness - different rslts individual growth directly measured

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CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY: direct measurement - bony skeletal dimensions follow up same individual over time .

Disadvgs precise orientation of head ,precise control of magnification. 2D of 3D structure

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Mineralized sections.
less processing distortions , both organic and inorganic matrix- studied simultaneously. Cellular details , resolutions - enhanced reduce thickness of the sections. Special stains Thin sections- quench- rapidly

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Microradiography.
High resolution of images of bone sections Differential density btwn pri and seco bone. Bone strength -proportional to degree of mineralisation. seco bone more strength than pri bone. Seco mineralisation process- 8 months to form minimum retention : 6-8 months.

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THERMOGRAPHY

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Scintigraphy

Hot Spots.

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MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Depicts- soft tissue growth

contrast with hard tissue.

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Fluorescent labels.
in vivo calcium binding labels anabolic time markers of bone formation. Mechanism of bone growth determined by analysis of label incidence and interlabel distance. Sequential use of different colored labels assess bone growth,healing and functional adaptation. Tetracycline,calcein green,xylenol orange,alizarin complexone,demeclocycline and oxytetracycline

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Radioisotopes.

Radioisotopes of certain elements or compounds are often used as in vivo markers labeled material injected and located within the growing bone by autoradiographic techniques.
1. Technetium 99 2. Calcium 45 3. Potassium 32

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RADIOISOTOPES

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Autoradiography.
Histological sections are coated with a nuclear track emulsion to detect radiographic precursor for structural and metabolic material. Specific radioactive labels for protein carbohydrates or nucleic acids are injected.

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Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the label uptake is a physiologic index of cell activity. Commonly used autoradiographic labels are: A. 3 H thymidine. B. 3 H proline. C. Bromodeoxyuridine.

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Polarized light.
indicates the orientation of collagen fibers within the bone matrix. Most lamellar bone consists of collagen fibers oriented at right angles. However 2 other configurations can also be noted:longitudinally aligned(L osteons).

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And mixed fiber pattern. Loading condition at the time of bone formation dictate the orientation of collagen fibers . Thus bone formation can adapt to different loading conditions by changing the internal lamellar organization of bone tissue.

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Nuclear volume morphometry.


cytomorphometric procedure to measures the nuclear size for assessing the stages of differentiation of osteoblastic precursor cells. Pre osteoblasts have significantly larger nuclei than their precursors. used in determining the relative differentiation of PDL and other bone living cells.
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Teleradiology.
Introduced in 1982 at international conference

of PACS. Universal method of storing and transporting digital images . Currently American college of radiology have developed DICOM to allow the transmisssion of images over the internet.

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Vital staining
reported by Belchier in 1796 John Hunter- alizarin dye Other dyes : tetracyline trypon blue lead acetate procion
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Vital staining aids in studying:


Manner in which bone is laid down site of bone growth the direction and amount of growth

and the timing and relative duration of growth at different sites.

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Natural markers.
developmental features - serial radiography. trabaculae,nutrient canals, lines of arrested growth cephalometric landmarks.

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Implant markers.
Bjork- tantalum or biologically inert alloys into growing bone radiographic reference markers for serial cephalometric study. The method allows precise orientation of serial cephalograms and information on the amount and sites of bone growth.

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B O N E :-

L : ost

Gr : osteon

Definition : Modified connective tissue.

Elements comprising bone tissue.


Cells of Bone 1. osteoprogenitor 2. osteoblast 3. osteocytes 4. osteoclasts 5. bone lining cells

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Osteoprogenitor Cells
-- Stem cells of mesenchymal origin.

Osteoblast cells
-- Bone forming cells. -- varied shape - oval - triangular - cuboidal -- increased RER, golgi apparatus -- Lay down organic matrix and calcification.
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Osteocytes
-- imprisoned osteoblast --keep intact lacunae & canaliculli

-- keep open channel for diffusion


-- removal or deposition of matrix and calcium when reqd.

Osteoclasts
-- Bone removing cells -- resorption bay or Howships lacunae -- 2-100 um -- nuclei-20 or more -- acid phosphatase and lizosomes
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Bone Lining Cells


-- present on ndosteal and periosteal layer -- can form bone when called for

-- dual function - resorption and deposition.

Periosteum
-- outer layer-fibrous -- inner layer-cellular

Function nutritive -- supportive-sharpeys fibers -- reparative-protective-osteoprogenitor cells -- protective-limiting membrane -oldage exostosis due to tear of periosteum

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Ossification Intramembraneous

endochondral

Intramembranous Ossification

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Endochondral ossification

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Comparison of physiologic properties of bone and cartilage


Characteristic Calcification

cartilage

bone
Calcified Vascular Essential Sensitive Inflexible Appositional

Non calcified Vascularity Avascular Surface membrane Nonessential Pressure resistance Tolerant Rigidity Flexible Modes of growth Interstitial and appositional

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TYPE OF BONES
Lamellar bone Non lamellar bone Fine cancellous bone

Coarse cancellous bone


Woven bone Bundle bone Composite bone
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Clinical significance
Full strength of lamellar bone supporting an

orthodontically moved tooth is not attained for upto a year after completion of active treatment.

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Non Lamellar bone


Makes up fine cancellous bone tissue No distinct stratification in fibre orientation

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Woven bone
Type of non lamellar bone Weak , disorganised, poorly mineralised Not found in adult human skeleton under

normal conditions First bone formed in response to orthodontic loading.

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Bundle bone
Present adjacent to periodontal ligament Presence of perpendicular striations called

sharpeys fibres. Formed on depository side of socket, laid dowm in the direction toward the moving tooth root.

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Composite bone
Predominant bone type during early retention

phase Most rapid means of producing strong bone Formed by deposition of lamellar bone within a woven bone lattice.

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Fine cancellous bone tissue


Formed by periosteum and endosteum Marrow spaces are fine It is located in cortex e.g. posterior border of a

growing ramus in a child Fastest growing of all bone types

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Coarse cancellous bone


Produced by endosteum only Irregular marrow spaces containing red or

yellow marrow Irregularly arranged trabeculae Present in medulla

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Mechanisms of bone growth


Deposition and resorption
Growth fields Modelling Remodelling Growth movements

drift displacement
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Deposition and resorption


Bone sides which face the

direction of growth are subject to deposition (+) and those opposite to it undergo resorption(-) surface principal

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Deposition and resorption


Bone produced by

covering membraneperiosteal bone comprises about half of the cortical bone tissue: bone laid down by the lining membrane-endosteal bone makes up the other half.

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Transverse histologic section of bone: A.Periosteal surface reorptive,endosteal surface depository. B.New endosteal bone addedon inner surface. C.Endosteal layer produced covered by periosteal layer following outward reversal. D.Cortex made entirely of periosteal bone.outer surface depository and inner surface resorptive.
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Growth fields
Inside and outside of

every bone is covered by growth fields which control the bone growth. They are both resorptive and depository types..

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About one half of the bone is periosteal and the other half endosteal.If endosteal surface is resorptive then periosteal surface would be depository. Provides two growth functions: Enlargement of any given bone Remodelling of any given bone

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Growth sites
Growth

fields having

special role in the growth of the particular bone are called growth sites e.g. mandibular condyle, maxillary tuberosity, synchondrosis of the basicranium, sutures and the alveolar process.
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Growth sites
Such

special sites do not out the entire carry growth process but the entire bone takes part

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Growth centers
Special areas which are

believed to control the overall growth of the bone e.g.mandibular condyle. Force, energy or motor for a bone resides primarily within its growth centre. Now believed that these centers do not control the whole growth process.

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MODELING

Bone modeling involves independent sites of resorption and formation that change the size and

shape of a bone.

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CONTROL FACTORS FOR BONE MODELING


Mechanical Peak load in Micro strain. 1. Disuse atrophy <200. 2. Bone Maintenance 2002500. 3. Physiological Hypertrophy 25004000. 4. Pathological Overload >4000.

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Endocrine.
1. 2. 3.

Bone metabolic hormones-PTH,Vit D,Calcitonin. Growth Hormones-Somatotropin,IGF 1,IGF 2. Sex steroids-Testosterone,Estrogen.

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Remodelling
Required differential growth activity required for bone shaping. It involves deposition and resorption occuring on opposite ends Four types Biochemical remodelling Haversian remodelling Pathologic remodelling Growth remodelling

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E.g. The ramus moves

posteriorly by the combination of deposition and resorption. so the anterior part of the ramus gets remodeled into a new addition for the mandibular corpus.

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Functions of Remodeling
1.

Progressively change the size of whole bone

2. Sequentially relocate each component of the

whole bone
3. Progressively change the shape of the bone to

accommodate its various functions

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Functions of Remodeling
1.

Progressively change the size of whole bone Sequentially relocate each component of the whole bone Progressively change the shape of the bone to accommodate its various functions
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2.

3.

4. Progressive fine tune fitting of all the separate bones to each other and to their contiguous ,growing, functioning soft tissues 5. Carry out continuous structural adjustments to

adapt to the intrinsic and extrinsic changes in


conditions .

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Drift
It is remodeling process

and a combination of deposition and resorption. If an implant is placed on depository side it gets embedded.eventually marker becomes translocated from one side of cortex to other.

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Displacement
Displacement is a physical movement of the

whole bone as it remodels Two types: primary displacement secondary displacement

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Primary displacement
It is a physical

movement of a whole bone and occurs while the bone grows and remodels by resorption deposition E.g. in maxilla

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Secondary displacement
It is the movement of a

whole bone caused by the separate enlargement of other bones

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Combination of remodeling & displacement


Both these mechanisms carries out two

general functions
Positions each bone
Designs and constructs each bone

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Balloon Anology

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Hand Anology

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Tripod Chair Anology

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Rotation
According to Enlow,

growth rotation is due to diagonally placed areas of deposition and resorption Two types

Remodelling rotations Displacement rotations

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Principle of Area relocation


Both remodeling and displacement together cause a shift in existing position of a particular structures with reference to another

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Growth equivalent principle


This principle proposed by Hunter & Enlow
relates the effects of cranial base growth on

the facial bone Growth.

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Counter Part Principle


Donald H Enlow

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Regional Change (Stage 1)


Two reference line

Horiz Verti
PTM

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Stage 2
Displacement. Amt of forward displacement equals the amt of post length. PTM returns to same line. Class 2 position of maxilla.
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Stage 3
What are counterparts of maxillary

arch. - NMC - ACF - Palate - Corpus of mandible. mandible described. - Corpus - Ramus Why separate bcoz has separate counterparts.
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Bony mandi arch cp of

max arch. Body of max arch cp of max arch. Corpus remodels, what was ramus at once becomes body. however still cl 2.

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Stage 4
remodelling and disp of

mandi. condyle and post part of ramus remodels. process not to increase width of ramus. but to relocate it postly for lengthening the corpus.
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stage 5
whole mandible displaced

ant by amt ramus has relocated. post- primary displ. ramus lengthening remains same. only corpus horizontal dimension change. cl 1 returned. separation of occlusion.
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stage 6
dimension of temporal

lobe and MCF.


Spheno-occipital

synchondroses- maj growth site.

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stage 7
vertical line moves ant. forehead cheekbone ACF Palate Max arch all move in ant

direction.
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stage 8
Effect of MCf on mandi.-

secondry disp. less than max effect. bcoz MCF grows in front and between the condyle and maxi tuberosity. SOS lies between condyle and ant boundary of MCF.

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MCF counterpart ?

ramus and pharyngeal

stage 9

space. skeletol function of ramus - bridge pharyngeal space and span of MCF. A-P breadth of ramus is critical. - too narrow- retrusive. wide- protrusive.
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stage 9
floor of ACF & forehead grow by endocranial

depostition & ectocranial resorption. nasal bone ant displaced. enlarging bone displaces calvaria by sutural growth. depositing new bone at contact edges. 1. frontal. 2. parietal. 3. occipital. 4. temporal.

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stage 10
NMC vertical

lengthening. remodelling depo and reso. prim disp. resorption of superior (nasal side). deposition of inferior (oral side).
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stage 11
Downward mvmt of

palate & max arch. 2-3 downward pri disp & suture grow 1-2 remodelling. 2-3 downward disp. 1-2 teeth own mvmnt ( vertical drift). can be clinically influenced by appliances.

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Stage 12
upward / superior drift

of each mandi tooth. max teeth drift more than mandi teeth. less growth to work with in mandi. curve of spee.

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stage 13
remodelling also

- incisor alveolar region. - chin. - corpus of mandi. differential growth timing.

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stage 14
rationale of growth of

zygo process. zygo remodels post more deposition ant less resorption hence forward growth.

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Enlows V principal
Most useful and basic

concept in facial growth as many facial and cranial bones have a V- shaped configuration. Bone deposition(+) occurs on the inner side and resorption (-) occurs on the outer surface.

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Example with V oriented vertically


When bone added on

lingual side of coronoid process,growth proceeds and this part of the ramus increases in vertical dimension.

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Example of V oriented horizontally


Same deposits of bone

also bring about a posterior direction of growth movement. This produces a backward movement of coronoid processes even though deposit is on the lingual side.

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Same deposits carry

base of bone in medial direction as in fig 1.


Hence, the wider part

undergoes relocation into a more narrow part as the whole v moves towards the wide part (fig 2)
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REFERENCES:
Proffit:contemporary orthodontics. Moyers:handbook of orthodontics. An inventory of United states and Canadian

growth record sets.S.Hunter , Baumrind S AJO 1993. Craniofacial imaging in orthodontics :S Kapila et al AO 1999:69 Essays in honour of Robert moyers CFGS.monograph 24.
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References
Bone biodynamics in orthodontics:CFGS.27 Atlas of craniofacial growth in Americans

of African descent CFGS.26 Growth changes in the nasal profile from 78 yrs AJO 1988:94 Meng H ,R Nanda Longitudinal changes in 3 normal facial types .S Bishara,AJO1985:88 S Bishara,J R Peterson, changes in the facial dimensions & relationships between the ages 5-25yrs.AJO 1984:85
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References
Lewis A B, Roche AF pubertal spurts in

cranial base & mandible AJO 1985:55 Popovich.Thompson. Craniofacial templates for orthodontic case analysis. Baumrind S,Korn EL,quantitation of maxillary remodeling. AJO 1987:91 Atlas of craniofacial growth CFGS monograph 2. Moyers,Van Der Linden standards of human occlusal development CFGS:5 B Grayson 3D cephalogram theory,technique and clinical application.
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