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WORLD AND RIZAL

American Civil War: Negro Slavery America: re-opened Japan (after 214) Napoleon III & France : Mexico Italy vs Austrians & France Germans vs. France

SPAIN

Latin America
Central America Continued: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines
COLONIAL POWER OF SPAIN:
INSTABILITY OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION CORRUPT OFFICIALS (Gov. Generals) NO PHILIPPINE REPRESENTATION IN THE SPANISH CORTES HUMAN RIGHTS ARE DENIED NO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW MALADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION FRAILOCRACY FORCED LABOR HACIENDAS OWNED BY THE FRIARS GUARDIA CIVIL

England: worlds leading imperialist power


Hong Kong, India, Burma, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Egypt, Malaysia, etc. Germany vs Spain Pope Leo XIII

Hong Kong, India, Burma, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Egypt, Malaysia, etc.

CHURCH
Enlightened Authority: Education Knowledge as Power Consultant of the

King

INSTABILITY OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION 2) CORRUPT OFFICIALS 3) NO PHILIPPINE REPRESENTATION IN THE SPANISH CORTES 4) HUMAN RIGHTS ARE DENIED 5) NO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW 6) MALADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 7) RACIAL DISCRIMINATION 8) FRAILOCRACY 9) FORCED LABOR 10) HACIENDAS OWNED BY THE FRIARS 11) GUARDIA CIVIL
1)

INSTABILITY OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

struggles between the forces of despotism (single entity

rules with absolute power/ one power/ one master)and liberalism

BRIBERY

NEPOTISM

CORRUPT OFFICIALS (Gov.

Generals) Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo Gen. Fernando Primo de Rivera Gen. Valeriano Weyler Gen. Camilo de Polavieja

penniless Spaniards came to the Philippines Immediate appointment to higher offices:

skin color They were either relatives or protgs of civil officials and friars. They became rich by illegal means or by marrying the heiresses of rich Filipino families.

Spain granted locals from their

colonies representation in the Cortes, thus Spanish parliament government. (functions: representation, legislation, hearings or inquiries)
To win the support of her overseas

colonies during the Napoleonic Invasion


the Philippine conditions

worsened because:

there was no means by which the Filipino people could expose the anomalies perpetrated by the colonial officials.

Result: Propaganda Movement

that led to Philippine Revolution

Result of no

Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes Freedom for Filipinos was denied

Missionaries:
All men, irrespective of color

and race, are equal before God. Brown-skinned Filipinos

are inferior beings: subjects to be exploited Brown Filipinos and white Spaniards may be equal before God, but not before the law and certainly not in practice.

Justice was costly, partial, and

slow.
Poor Filipinos had no access to

the courts because they could not afford the heavy expenses of litigation. Wealth, social, prestige, and

color of skin were preponderant factors in winning a case in court. Justice delayed is justice denied: Juan de la Cruz (18861898) 12 yrs

brown-skinned and flat-

nosed Filipinos as:

INDIOS (Indians) BANGUS (Milkfish)

Spaniards as:

A Spaniard, no matter how

stupid he was, always enjoyed political and social prestige and superiority. Fr. Jose Burgos: complained the Spanish misconception that a mans merit depended on the pigment of his skin

union of Church and State government of friars tremendous political power,

influence, and riches. Condemn a filipino filibustero (traitor) Autonomy of education portrayed by Rizal in his novels as Padre Damaso and Padre Salvi

POLO:

forced labor imposed on Filipinos in the construction of infrastructures and public works sum of money paid to government to be exempted from the polo.

Falla:

ABUSES: FIRST: Spanish residents, contrary to law, were not recruited for polo SECOND: Laborers received only a part of their supposed original stipend. Worse, they got nothing. (Gratis) THIRD: this caused inconvenience and suffering because : common laborers are disturbed from their work in farms, shops, far from homes and towns.

The rural folks became:

tenants.

loss of their lands which belonged

to their ancestors since preSpanish times FRIARS obtained royal titles of ownership from: the Spanish Crown. Rizal and agrarian reforms --Retaliation:
rentals are raised

INDOLENCE (lack of concern)

OF FILIPINOS:
Deceptions made by friars making the local folks believe that plantations are prospering because they were under their care.

Constable: Law Enforcement (to serve and to protect) Supposed to maintain peace and order in the society

They dont observe their duty: maltreating innocent people, looting their livelihoods, raping women

Rizal directed his stinging satire against the hatred Guardia Civil, through Elias in Noli Me Tangere.