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FLOW MEASUREMENT

Flow Rate Flow rate is an indication of how fast a substance moves through a conduit from one place to another. Flow rate can also be used to determine the distance a substance moves over a period of time. Flow rate is usually expressed as Volume flow rate Mass flow rate
Volume Flow Rate represents the volume of fluid that passes a measurement point over a period of time. An example measurement unit is kg per hour. The volume flow rate can be calculated if the average flow velocity and inside pipe diameter are known. The calculation is based on the formula Q=Axv where Q = volumetric flow rate A = cross-sectional area of the pipe v = average flow velocity (flow rate)

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Mass Flow Rate represents the amount of mass that passes a specific point over a period of time. Mass flow rates are used to measure the weight or mass of a substance flowing through a process operation. If the volumetric flow rate and density are known, the calculation is based on the formula W=Qxr where W = mass flow rate Q = volumetric flow rate r = density (r = density rho )

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Laminar Flow: Streamlined flow of a fluid where viscous forces are more significant than inertial forces, generally below a Reynolds number of 2000. Turbulent Flow: When forces due to inertia are more significant than forces due to viscosity. This typically occurs with a Reynolds number in excess of 4000. Volume Flow Rate: Calculated using the area of the full closed conduit and the average fluid velocity in the form, Q = V x A, to arrive at the total volume quantity of flow. Q = volumetric flowrate, V = average fluid velocity, and A = cross sectional area of the pipe. Differential Pressure: The difference in static pressure between two identical pressure taps at the same elevation located in two different locations in a primary device. Static Pressure: Pressure of a fluid whether in motion or at rest. It can be sensed in a small hole drilled perpendicular to and flush with the flow boundaries so as not to disturb the fluid in any way.

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Flow Element
Differential Pressure
Orifice Plate Venturi Advantages: Simple, no moving parts Disadvantages: Susceptible to wear in dirty services except vertically Orifice edge sharpness affects accuracy

Turbine
Rotor Advantages: Accuracy Disadvantages: Moving parts can wear

Vortex
Bluff Body Advantages: No moving parts Disadvantages: Bluff body can corrode

Flow Element
AC Field DC Field

FLOW MEASUREMENT

Magnetic Field (Magmeter)


Advantages: Low maintenance element Very low maintenance

ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT


An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate. Either a volumetric or mass flow rate may be determined, depending on the calculation associated with the orifice plate. It uses the same principle as a Venturi nozzle, namely Bernoulli's principle which states that there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. When the velocity increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa. Orifice Plate are most commonly used primary elements for flow measurement in pipelines based on the principle of measurement of differential pressure created when an obstruction is placed in the fluid flow, due to increase in fluid velocity.

ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT

ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT

ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT

Venturi FLOW MEASUREMENT


The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. When a fluid such as water flows through a tube that narrows to a smaller diameter, the partial restriction causes a higher pressure at the inlet than that at the narrow end. This pressure difference causes the fluid to accelerate toward the low pressure narrow section, in which it thus maintains a higher speed. The Venturi meter uses the direct relationship between pressure difference and fluid speeds to determine the volumetric flow rate.

Venturi FLOW MEASUREMENT

Vortex FLOW MEASUREMENT


In fluid dynamics, a vortex is a region within a fluid where the flow is mostly a spinning motion about an imaginary axis, straight or curved. That motion pattern is called a vortical flow. when a fluid flows past a bluff body, an alternating series of vortices is shed from each side, creating areas of fluctuating pressure. The frequency of the vortices is directly proportional to fluid velocity. In commercial vortex flow meters, the bluff body is called a "shedder bar". The common trait of all shedder bars is sharp corners, which enhance the energy of the vortices.

Vortex FLOW MEASUREMENT


This characteristic is responsible for the extraordinary linearity of the frequency of vortex shedding over a wide velocity range. A piezoelectric sensor to measure the frequency of the vortices. This results in an intrinsically linear measurement of fluid velocity over a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

Vortex FLOW MEASUREMENT

ROTAMETER
A rotameter consists of a tapered tube, typically made of glass with a 'float', actually a shaped weight, inside that is pushed up by the drag force of the flow and pulled down by gravity. A rotameter requires no external power or fuel, it uses only the inherent properties of the fluid, along with gravity, to measure flow rate. A rotameter is also a relatively simple device that can be mass manufactured out of cheap materials, allowing for its widespread use. Due to its use of gravity, a rotameter must always be vertically oriented and right way up, with the fluid flowing upward. Due to its reliance on the ability of the fluid or gas to displace the float, graduations on a given rotameter will only be accurate for a given substance at a given temperature.

ROTAMETER

ROTAMETER

TURBINE TYPE
The turbine flow meter translates the mechanical action of the turbine rotating in the liquid flow around an axis into a user-readable rate of flow. The turbine wheel is set in the path of a fluid stream. The flowing fluid impinges on the turbine blades, imparting a force to the blade surface and setting the rotor in motion. When a steady rotation speed has been reached, the speed is proportional to fluid velocity. The rotational speed is a direct function of flow rate and can be sensed by magnetic pick-up, photoelectric cell, or gears. Electrical pulses can be counted and totalized

TURBINE TYPE
The number of electrical pulses counted for a given period of time is directly proportional to flow volume. A tachometer can be added to measure the turbine's rotational speed and to determine the liquid flow rate. Turbine meters, when properly specified and installed, have good accuracy, particularly with low-viscosity liquids. A major concern with turbine meters is bearing wear.

TURBINE TYPE

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER
Magnetic flow metersuse a magnetic field applied to the metering tube, which results in a potential difference proportional to the flow velocity perpendicular to the flux lines. The potential difference is sensed by electrodes aligned perpendicular to the flow and the applied magnetic field. The fluid flowing has a minimum value of electrical conductivity, the movement of the fluid through the pipe acts as a conductor moving across the magnetic field. There is an induced change in voltage between the electrodes, which is proportional to the flow velocity.

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER

ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER
Transit time flow meters utilize two transducers which function as both ultrasonic transmitters and receivers. The flow meters operate by alternately transmitting and receiving a frequency modulated burst of sound energy between the two transducers. The burst is first transmitted in the direction of fluid flow and then against fluid flow. Since sound energy in a moving liquid is carried faster when it travels in the direction of fluid flow (downstream) than it does when it travels against fluid flow (upstream), a differential in the times of flight will occur. The sound's time of flight is accurately measured in both directions and the difference in time of flight calculated.

ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER
The liquid velocity (V) inside the pipe can be related to the difference in time of flight (dt) through the following equation: V = K * D * dt, where K is a constant and D is the distance between the transducers.

ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER
V-Mount is the STD installation method, it is convenient and accurate, Reflective type (transducers mouthed on one side of the pipe) of installation used primarily on pipe size in the(50mm~400mm) internal diameter range attention transducer designed parallel on the centre line of installing the pipeline. The actual transducers spacing should be as close as possible to the spacing value. The transducer spacing is from the end of one transducer to another sensor

ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER
Z-MOUNT is the Direct type (transducer mounted on opposite sides of the pipe)of installation used primarily on pipe size in the 100mm~2500mm internal diameter range.

ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER
Reflective type (transducers mounted on one side of plastic pipe size in the 25mm~65mm internal diameter range

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Liquid Flow Measurement
Place taps to the side of the line to prevent sediment deposits on the Transmitters process isolators. Mount the transmitter beside or below the taps so gases can vent into the process line. Mount drain/vent valve upward to allow gases to vent.

Gas Flow Measurement


Place taps in the top or side of the line. Mount the transmitter beside or above the taps so liquid will drain into the process line.

Steam Flow Measurement


Place taps to the side of the line. Mount the transmitter below the taps to ensure that the impulse piping will stay filled with condensate. Fill impulse lines with water to prevent the steam from contacting the Transmitter directly and to ensure accurate measurement at start-up.

FLOW MEASUREMENT