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D, x

D
, h
D

B, x
B
, h
B

F
x
F

h
F

q
D

q
B

V
1

L
0

x
0

h
0

Over-all material balance:
F = D + B (1)
Component material balance:
F x
F
= D x
D
+ B x
B
(2)
F x
F
= D x
D
+ (F D) x
B
(3)
( )
B D
B F
x x
x x F
D

= (4)
ASSUMPTIONS:
Equimolal overflow
n 2 1
V V V = = =
m 2 F 1 F
V . . . V V = = =
+ +
n 1 0
L . . . L L = = =
m 1 F F
L . . . L L = = =
+
and
and
(5)
(6)
The two components have equal and constant AH
vap
.
The sensible enthalpy changes of the vapor and
liquid are negligible compared to the latent heats.
The binary mixture behaves as an ideal solution.
The stages are adiabatic except at designated
locations (condenser and reboiler).
The pressure is constant throughout the column.
ENRICHING SECTION
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
L
1
L
2
L
3
L
4
L
0
D
L
5
D is calculated using eq. (4)
Providing that R is fixed, L
0
is
calculated using the equation
defining reflux ratio:
D
L
R
0
= (5)
Material balance around condenser:
V
1
= L
0
+ D (6)
Since V
1
is in equilibrium with L
1
, the
composition (x
1
)

of L
1
is obtained
from equilibrium data.
V
1
Material balance around envelope A:
V
2
= L
1
+ D
(7)
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
L
1
L
2
L
3
L
4
L
0
D
L
5
A
Component balance:
V
2
y
2
= L
1
x
1
+ D x
D

D
2
1
2
1
2
x
V
D
x
V
L
y + =
(9)
(8)
The composition of V
2
, V
3
,. ..,
V
n
is calculated by
performing material balance
in envelope A:
V
n+1
y
n+1
= L
n
x
n
+ D x
D

(10)
v
F
L
F-1
D
x
D

A
'
F
L
F
x
F

n
L
n
V
n+1
n+1
D
1 n
n
1 n
n
1 n
x
V
D
x
V
L
y
+ +
+
+ =
(11)
Eq. (12) relates the composition of the vapor rising
to a plate to the composition of the liquid on the
plate.
Since the molar liquid overflow is constant, L
n
= L
and V
n+1
= V:
D n 1 n
x
V
D
x
V
L
y + =
+
(12)
Equilibrium equation:
Stage n
V
n
, y
n

L
n
, x
n

n , 1
n , 1
1
x
y
K =
( )
( )
n , 1
n , 1
n , 2
n , 2
2
x 1
y 1
x
y
K

= =
( ) ( )
n , 1 n , 1 2
y 1 x 1 K =
( ) ( )
n , 1 1 n , 1 2
x K 1 x 1 K =
( )
2 2 1 n , 1
K 1 K K x =
2 1
2
n , 1
K K
K 1
x

=
FEED PLATE
v
F
L
F-1
F
L
F
x
F

1 F
V
+
Material balance around feed plate:
F F 1 F 1 F
L V L V F + = + +
+
(13)
Component balance around feed plate:
(14)
VF+1 and LF are calculated using eqs. (13) along with the
information about thermal condition of the feed.

y
F+1
is calculated using eq. (14)
F F F F 1 F 1 F 1 F 1 F F
x L Y V x L y V Fx + = + +
+ +
STRIPPING SECTION
(15)
The composition of V
m
is calculated
by performing material balance in
envelope A:
B L V
m 1 m
=
+
B
x
B

A
F
x
F

m
L
m+1
m
1 m
V
+
B m m 1 m 1 m
x B x L y V =
+ +
B
1 m
m
1 m
m
1 m
x
V
B
x
V
L
y
+ +
+
= (17)
(16)
B
m
m
m
m
1 m
x
V
B
x
V
L
y =
+
(18)
EXAMPLE 1
Pertinent data on the binary system heptane-ethyl benzene at
760 mm Hg are as follows.
t, C x
H
y
H

H

EB
136.2 0.000 0.000 -- 1.00
129.5 0.080 0.233 1.23 1.00
122.9 0.185 0.428 1.19 1.02
119.7 0.251 0.514 1.14 1.03
116.0 0.335 0.608 1.12 1.05
110.8 0.487 0.729 1.06 1.09
106.2 0.651 0.834 1.03 1.15
103.0 0.788 0.904 1.00 1.22
100.2 0.914 0.963 1.00 1.27
98.5 1.000 1.000 1.00 --
A feed mixture composed of 42 mole % heptane, 58
mole % ethyl benzene is to be fractionated at 760 mm Hg
to produce distillate containing 97 mole % heptane and a
residue containing 99 mole % ethyl benzene. Using (L/D)
= 2.5, determine the number of equilibrium stages
needed for a saturated liquid feed and bubble-point
reflux.
SOLUTION
Since x
n
is calculated using equilibrium relationship, it is
necessary to develop an equation correlating x
n
and y
n
.
Based on the available data, an equation is established:
y 334 . 0 y 104 . 0 y 771 . 0 x
2 3
+ =
Assume 100 mole of feed is introduced:
( ) ( )
71 . 42
01 . 0 97 . 0
01 . 0 42 . 0 100
x x
x x F
D
B D
B F
=

=
B = F D = 100 42.71 = 57.29
L
0
= R D = (2.5) (42.71) = 106.77
L
1
= L
2
= . . . . = L
0
= 106.77
V
1
= L
0
+ D = 106.77 + 42.71 = 149.48
V
1
= V
2
= . . . . = 149.48
( ) 97 . 0
48 . 149
71 . 42
x
48 . 149
77 . 106
x
V
D
x
V
L
y
1 n D
n
n
n
n
1 n
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
+
ENRICHING SECTION
n
2
n
3
n n
y 334 . 0 y 104 . 0 y 771 . 0 x + =
277 . 0 x 7143 . 0 y
n 1 n
+ =
+
n y
n
x
n
1 0.970 0.930
2 0.941 0.865
3 0.895 0.769
4 0.826 0.640
5 0.734 0.494
6 0.630 0.362
FEED PLATE
Feed is a saturated liquid:
77 . 206 100 77 . 106 F L L
L 5 F
= + = + =
F
L
= F
F
V
= 0
77 . 206 L L
7 6
= =
F F 1 F 1 F
L V L V F + = + +
+
Material balance around feed plate (envelope A):
77 . 206 48 . 149 77 . 106 V 100
7
+ = + +
48 . 149 V
7
=
6 6 5 7
L V L V F + = + +
6
5
7
F
V
6

L
5

'
7
V
'
6
L A
Component balance around feed plate:
F F F F 1 F 1 F 1 F 1 F F
x L y V x L y V x F + = + +
+ +
6 6 6 6 5 5 7 7 F
x L y V x L y V x F + = + +
7
5 5 F 6 6 6 6
7
V
x L x F x L y V
y
+
=
( )( ) ( )( )
48 . 149
362 . 0 77 . 206 63 . 0 48 . 149
y
7
+
=
y
7
= 0.497
( )( ) ( )( )
48 . 149
494 . 0 77 . 106 42 . 0 100 +

( ) 01 . 0
48 . 149
29 . 57
x
48 . 149
77 . 206
x
V
B
x
V
L
y
m B
m
m
m
m
1 m
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+
STRIPPING SECTION
m
2
m
3
m m
y 334 . 0 y 104 . 0 y 771 . 0 x + =
0038 . 0 x 3833 . 1 y
m 1 m
=
+
m y
m
x
m
7 0.497 0.235
8 0.321 0.122
9 0.165 0.056
10 0.073 0.024
11 0.030 0.010
1.383261975 0.5729
Number of equilibrium stages = 11