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EARTHING SYSTEMS

ROHIDAS MASKE Chief Engineer, MSETCL, Aurangabad

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What is Earthing/Grounding?
The term Earthing and grounding has same

meaning, which means an electrical connection with a conductor of negligible resistance to the general mass of earth to provide safe passage to fault current to enable the protective devices to operate and provide safety to personnel and Equipments

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WHY EARTHING IS REQUIRED?


Safety to the humans & animals shocks & fire. Protection of buildings, installations & power system equipments against lightning. Surge protection, (lightning/ switching) Interference in Communication circuit. System security / voltage stabilization. Correct operation of electricity supply network and to ensure good power quality
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HUMAN HEART

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Effects of electric current with increasing magnitude


Dalziels classical experiment: (28-Womens,134-mens)

1mA 10.5mA (women) 16 mA (men) up to 25 mA


For higher currents

Perception, slight tingling effect. Let go current, unpleasant to sustain, releases the object away. Painful, impossible to releases the object.
Muscular contraction can make breathing difficult, unconsciousness such cases can respond to resuscitation Ventricular fibrillation, stoppage of heart, respiration stoppage might occur & causes injury or death. Burning

60-100 mA
29-Oct-13than 100 mA More

The effect of electric current passing through vital organs of the body depends on:-

magnitude, duration and frequency of current. The most dangerous consequence is a heart condition known as ventricular fibrillation, which results in stoppage of blood circulation.

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VOLTAGE RISE ON TOWERS Consider a Tower having a DC resistance of 5 and inductance of 50H subject to a typical lightning with peak current and rise time of 50 kA/10S for 1st pulse and 25 kA / 0.5S for repeat pulse (as is the case with 75% of lightning condition)

The Voltage rise is sum of Resistive and Inductive term giving a peak voltage rise of 500 kV

For the repeat pulse, the results are even more dramatic with a total voltage rise of being over 2600 kV, 2500 kV of which is due to inductive term alone. Thus it is very important to measure impedance of the tower rather than measuring resistance alone
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Normal Pipe type Earthing for trans. line

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Counter-poise Earthing

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Components of earthing system in Sub-stn.

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Earthing of LA
Straight risers Separate earth rod per phase Rods connected to each other & to Earth-grid. No G.I. pipe for riser.

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Touch potential:-

The potential difference between a point on the ground and a point on an object likely to carry fault current (e.g., frame of equipment) which can be touched by a person 29-Oct-13

Step potential: The potential difference shunted by a human body between two accessible points on the ground separated by a distance of one pace assumed to be equal to one meter
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Step & Touch Voltages

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Transferred Potential

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MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESISTANCE AND GROUND RESISTIVITY

Objectives of Tests
Measurements of ground resistance or impedance and potential gradients on the surface of the earth due to ground currents are necessary to: 1) Verify the adequacy of a new grounding system 2) Detect changes in an existing grounding system 3) Determine hazardous step and touch voltages 4) Determine ground potential rise (GPR) in order to design protection for power and communication circuits. Scale-model tests are useful in studying or developing new designs for grounding systems which cannot be adequately studied by analytical methods (complex shape or complex soil structure).

Why Earth resistivity measurements ?


1) Estimating the ground resistance of a proposed substation or transmission tower 2) Estimating potential gradients including step and touch voltages 3) Computing the inductive coupling between neighboring power and communication circuits 4) Designing cathodic protection systems 5) Geological surveys

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Methods of Measuring Earth Resistivity


TWO POINT METOD THREE POINT METHOD FOUR POINT METHOD

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Earth Resistivity Variations (a) Salt (b) Moisture (c) Temperature

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STATUTARY PROVISIONS

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Why 1m x 1m x 3m Earth pit


What should be the distance between two electrodes.

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Any dam QUESTION PLEASE

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THANK U

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