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Job Costing Chapter 20

Objective 1
Distinguish Between Job Costing and Process Costing.

Cost Systems
There are two basic systems used by manufacturers to assign costs to their products:
Job order costing Process costing

Process Costing Example


Laura Foods produces a garlic flavored tomato sauce. Production of the sauce requires two major processes:

Chopping

Mixing and Canning

Process Costing Example


Assume that Laura incurred $20,000 in the Mixing and Canning process to mix 100,000 pints of tomato sauce. What is the Mixing and Canning cost per pint? $20,000 100,000 = $0.20/pint

Job Costing
It is used by a manufacturer who produces products as individual units or in distinct batches or jobs.

Job Costing Example


David, Bryan, and Co. is a small furniture manufacturing business in Texas. They received an order for 10 chairs from a customer in Kansas City.

Job Costing Example


Total cost for the job was $500. How much was the cost per chair?

$500 10 = $50/chair

Job Costing
Job cost record is a document used to accumulate the costs of a job.

Job Cost Record Example

Job Number: J9738 Date Promised: 9/11/06 Customer: Miami Motors Date Started: 8/03/06 Job Description: 300 automobile engine valves Engineering Design Number: JJJ-100

Job Cost Record Example


Material Requisition Number Description 47624

Quantity

Rate $11.50 $38.00

Amount $ 8,280 11,020 $19,300

Bar steel 720 lbs stock 3 A35161 Subassemblies 290 units Total direct materials cost:

Job Cost Record Example


Dates 8/2,3,4,5 8/2,3,4,5 8/6,7,8,9,10 8/6,7,8,9,10 Hours M16 24 M18, M19, M20 64 A25, A26, A27 120 A32, A34, A35 61
269

Number

Rate Amount $28 $ 672 $26 1,664 $18 2,160 $17 1,037
$5,533

Total direct labor cost :

Job Cost Record Example


Manufacturing Overhead Amount 118 machine hours @ $40 per hour $ 4,720 269 direct labor hours @ 36 per hour 9,684 Total overhead cost: $14,404

Job Cost Record Example

Total cost $39,237 Number of units produced 300 Cost per unit $130.79

Objective 2
Trace Materials and Labor in a Manufacturers Job Costing System.

Materials Cost
Companies using job costing often use a perpetual system to account for direct materials. A materials requisition is used to request transfer of materials to the production floor.

Materials Cost Example


Alec Clothing Co. purchased raw materials on account for $15,000. Materials costing $10,000 were requisitioned for production. Of this total, $2,000 was indirect materials.

Materials Cost Example


Materials Inventory 15,000 10,000 Direct materials WIP Inventory 8,000

Manufacturing Overhead 2,000 Indirect materials

Labor Costs
Labor costs are accumulated using the payroll register and time records. Labor time records identify the employee, the amount of time spent, and the cost charged to each job.

Labor Cost Example


The company incurred $30,000 of manufacturing wages for all jobs. Assume that $25,000 can be traced directly to the jobs and $5,000 is for indirect labor.

Labor Cost Example


Manufacturing Wages 30,000 30,000 Direct labor WIP Inventory 25,000

Manufacturing Overhead 5,000 Indirect labor

Objective 3
Allocate Manufacturing Overhead in a Manufacturers Job Costing System

Manufacturing Overhead Costs


The company incurred $20,000 of plant equipment depreciation.
Manufacturing Overhead (Deprec.-Plant and Equipment) 20,000 Accumulated Depreciation (Plant and Equipment) 20,000 To record plant and equipment depreciation

Manufacturing Overhead Rate


At the beginning of the year, a predetermined manufacturing overhead application rate is computed. This rate is used to apply overhead to all jobs completed during the year. Estimated overhead Estimated base = Rate

Six Steps in Allocating Manufacturing Overhead Cost


1 Estimate total overhead for the period. 2 Select an overhead allocation base. 3 Estimate total quantity of the overhead allocation base. 4 Compute the predetermined overhead rate.

Six Steps in Allocating Manufacturing Overhead Cost


5 Obtain actual quantities of the overhead allocation base. 6 Allocate manufacturing overhead by multiplying the predetermined manufacturing overhead rate by the actual quantity of the allocation base that pertains to each job.

Manufacturing Overhead Example


Alec Clothing Co.s total estimated overhead for the year equals $243,000. The predetermined overhead rate is based on 4,500 direct labor hours. What is the predetermined overhead rate?
$243,000 4,500 = $54

Manufacturing Overhead Example


Assume that Job 51 used 200 direct labor hours. What is the journal entry to record the manufacturing overhead applied?
Work-in-Process Inventory 10,800 Manufacturing Overhead 10,800 To record overhead applied to Job 51

Objective 4
Account for Completion and Sales of Finished Goods, and Adjust for Under-orOverapplied Manufacturing Overhead

Accounting for Finished Goods, Sales, and Cost of Goods Sold


As jobs are completed they are transferred to finished goods inventory. In addition to the overhead applied to Job 51, direct labor was $4,000 and direct materials totaled $30,000. How much was transferred to Finished Goods Inventory?

Accounting for Finished Goods, Sales, and Cost of Goods Sold


Direct materials Direct labor Manufacturing overhead $30,000 4,000 10,800 $44,800

Work in Process 44,800

Finished Goods 44,800

Accounting for Finished Goods, Sales, and Cost of Goods Sold


Assume that Job 51 was sold for $74,800. What are the journal entries? Accounts Receivable 74,800 Sales Revenue Cost of Goods Sold 44,800 Finished Goods Inventory To record sale of Job 51

74,800

44,800

Accounting for Finished Goods, Sales, and Cost of Goods Sold


Work in Process 44,800 Finished Goods 44,800 44,800

Cost of Goods Sold 44,800

Disposing of Underallocated or Overallocated Overhead


Suppose that the company incurred $232,000 of actual manufacturing overhead during the year, and that actual direct labor hours worked were 4,000. The actual manufacturing overhead rate would have been $232,000 4,000 = $58. The predetermined rate was $54.

Disposing of Underallocated or Overallocated Overhead


How much overhead was allocated to the various jobs? 4,000 direct labor hours $54 = $216,000 What is the underallocated amount? $232,000 actual $216,000 allocated = $16,000

Disposing Underallocated Overhead to Cost of Goods Sold


Manufacturing Overhead 232,000 216,000 16,000 0
Cost of Goods Sold 16,000

Disposing Overallocated Overhead to Cost of Goods Sold


Assume the opposite situation in which allocated overhead is $232,000 and actual overhead is $216,000. How do we dispose of overallocated overhead? Debit the Manufacturing Overhead account and credit the Cost of Goods Sold account to decrease the costs that went to the income statement.

Disposing Overallocated Overhead to Cost of Goods Sold


Manufacturing Overhead 216,000 232,000 16,000 0
Cost of Goods Sold 16,000

Objective 5
Assign Noninventoriable Costs in Job Costing.

Job Costing in a Nonmanufacturing Company


How is direct labor traced to individual jobs in a nonmanufacturing company? Employees complete a weekly time record. Jim, Abby, and Associates is a firm specializing in composing and arranging music parts for different clients. Musician Judy Lopezs salary is $80,000 per year.

Job Costing in a Nonmanufacturing Company


Assuming a 40-hour workweek and 50 workweeks in each year gives a total of 2,000 available working hours per year (40 hours 50 weeks). What is her hourly rate?

80,000 2,000 = $40

Job Costing in a Nonmanufacturing Company


Jim and Abby estimated the indirect costs that will be incurred in 2006.
Advertising Depreciation Maintenance Office rent Office support Travel Total indirect costs $ 15,000 6,000 12,000 60,000 47,000 20,000 $160,000

Job Costing in a Nonmanufacturing Company


Assume that they estimate that the musicians will work 8,000 direct labor hours in 2006. What is the predetermined indirect cost rate?
160,000 8,000 = $20

Job Costing in a Nonmanufacturing Company


Records show that Judy Lopez worked 25 hours servicing Los Abuelos Music Co. What is the total cost assigned to this client?
Direct Labor: Indirect costs: Total costs: 25 hours $40 = 25 hours $20 = $1,000 500 $1,500

End of Chapter 20