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CEMENT

8/23/2007

PROGRAM OUTLINE
A. AVAILABLE CEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
Definition of Common Terms Cement Standards in the Philippines Kinds, types of cement and intended use or applications Proportion of materials in Cement Cement Standard Specifications Types I, IS, IP and P

B.

TESTING OF CEMENT
Importance of Cement Testing Significance of Cement Testing Chemical Properties Physical Properties The importance of Testing Requirements Test Environment and Facilities Test Equipment Test Methods Manpower Technical Competence Laboratory Quality Control

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AVAILABLE CEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

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Hydraulic Cement
A material that sets and hardens by chemical interaction with water in air; A material that is capable of doing so under water.

Cement Clinker
A fused component of cement; A well-balanced, proportioned, homogenized raw materials of certain fineness fused by pyro-processing; A fused material consisting predominantly of crystalline hydraulic calcium silicates. A synthetically produced rock

GYPSUM
A mineral composed essentially of hydrated calcium sulfate in various hydration states, CaSO42H2O, CaSO41/2H2O (calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate); A mineral added to clinker that retards setting of cement
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CLINKER

ARTIFICIAL GYPSUM

NATURAL GYPSUM

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Pozzolan - a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material, which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture (H2O), chemically react with calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 at ordinary temperatures to form cementitious hydrates. Pozzolan exists in the natural or artificial forms.

WELDED TUFF

Fly Ash

NATURAL POZZOLAN

ARTIFICIAL POZZOLAN

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Blastfurnace slag a non-metallic product, consisting essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium and other bases, that is developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace.

BLAST- FURNACE SLAG

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KINDS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT


Portland Cement a hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing cement clinker and gypsum (Calcium Sulfate). Blended Cement a hydraulic cement consisting of two or more inorganic constituents (at least one of which is not Portland cement or Portland cement clinker) which separately or in combination contribute to the strength gaining properties of the cement Masonry Cement a hydraulic cement manufactured for NON-STRUCTURAL applications such as in mortars for masonry construction or in plasters, or both. Masonry cement is composed of clinker, gypsum, plasticizing material and other performance-enhancing addition(s).
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PORTLAND CEMENT

CLINKER

GYPSUM =

( GRINDING or PULVERIZING )

PORTLAND CEMENT
10

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TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT


Portland Cement Type I a hydraulic cement for use in general concrete construction when special properties specified for other type are not required.
Portland Cement Type II a hydraulic cement for use in general concrete construction more specially when moderate sulfate resistance or moderate heat of hydration is desired Portland Cement Type III a hydraulic cement for use in general concrete construction when high early strength is desired. Portland Cement Type IV a hydraulic cement for use in general concrete construction when low heat of hydration is desired. Portland Cement Type V a hydraulic cement for use in general concrete construction when high sulfate resistance is desired.

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KINDS OF BLENDED HYDRAULIC CEMENT


Portland-Pozzolan Cement a blended hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of Portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan produced by intergrinding portlandcement clinker and pozzolan, by blending portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement and finely divided pozzolan or a combination of intergrinding and blending, in which the amount of the pozzolan constituent is within specified limits. Portland Blast-furnace Slag Cement a blended hydraulic cement consisting of an intimately interground mixture of portland cement clinker and granulated blastfurnace slag or an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement and fine granulated blast-furnace slag in which the amount of slag constituent is within specified limits.
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TYPES OF PORTLAND-POZZOLAN CEMENT


TYPE I(PM) a hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan used in general concrete construction where the special characteristics attributable to the pozzolan will vary based on quantities contained within the blended cement.
TYPE IP a hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan used in general concrete construction when the Moderate Sulfate Resistance and Moderate Heat of Hydration are desired. TYPE P a hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine pozzolan used in general concrete construction not requiring high early strength and when High sulfate resistant and Low Heat of hydration are desired.

TYPES OF PORTLAND BLAST-FURNACE SLAG CEMENT


TYPE I(SM) a hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement and fine granulated blast-furnace slag used in general concrete construction where the special characteristics attributable to slag will vary based on quantities contained within the blended cement. TYPE IS a hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement and fine granulated blast-furnace slag used in general concrete construction when the Moderate Sulfate Resistance and Moderate Heat of Hydration are desired. TYPE S a hydraulic cement consisting of an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement and fine granulated blast-furnace slag used in general concrete construction not requiring high early strength and when High Sulfate Resistant and Low Heat of hydration are desired. 10/20/2013 13

PORTLAND-POZZOLAN CEMENT
NATURAL POZZOLAN

CLINKER

GYPSUM

MIXING BY INTER-GRINDING and / or BLENDING

PORTLAND CEMENT

ARTIFICIAL POZZOLAN

PORTLANDPOZZOLAN CEMENT

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CLINKER

PORTLAND BLAST-FURNACE SLAG CEMENT


GYPSUM

MIXING BY INTER-GRINDING and / or BLENDING

+
PORTLAND CEMENT BLAST- FURNACE SLAG

PORTLAND BLASTFURNACE SLAG CEMENT

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SETTING OF CEMENT
The condition by which the cement paste, mortar or concrete mix starts to lose its plasticity and gain a certain degree of rigidity.

HARDENING OF CEMENT
The condition by which the mortar or the concrete starts to develop and gain its strength

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KINDS AND TYPES OF CEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

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KIND OF CEMENT

TYPE TI T - II T - III T - IV T-V

HOW TO IDENTIFY
ONE (1) RED COLORED BAND n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

INTENDED USE OR APPLICATION


For general concrete construction use when the special properties specified for any other type are not required

PORTLAND CEMENT

For general concrete construction when moderate sulfate resistance or moderate heat of hydration is desired
For general concrete construction when High early strength is desired For general concrete construction when Low heat of hydration is desired For general concrete construction when High sulfate resistance is desired For general construction use when the special properties specified for any other type are not required

White Portland Cement

T-I

BLENDED CEMENT
TI(PM)
TW0 (2) BRIGHT YELLOW COLORED BANDS THREE (3) BRIGHT YELLOW COLORED BANDS ONE (1) BRIGHT YELLOW COLORED BAND TWO (2) BLUE COLORED BANDS
ONE (1) TWO (2) BROWN COLORED BAND(S)

For general concrete construction use when special characteristics attributable to the larger quantities of pozzolan in the portlandpozzolan cement are not required.

PORTLANDPOZZOLAN

T IP

For general concrete construction use when moderate sulfate resistant or moderate heat of hydration is desired For general concrete construction use not requiring high early strength and when High sulfate resistant and Low Heat of hydration are desired For general concrete construction when moderate sulfate resistant or moderate heat of hydration is desired Specifically used for NON-STRUCTURAL applications such 18 as masonry preparations and plastering.

TP PORTLAND BLASTFURNACE SLAG

T - IS
T-N T-S

MASONRY 10/20/2013 CEMENT

CEMENT COMPOSITION (Proportion by mass)


DESIGNATION CEMENT TYPE Type I V Type I

CLINKER + GYPSUM
100 100

BLENDERS POZZOLAN 0 0 SLAG 0 0

Portland Cement
White Portland Cement

Blended Cement
Pozzolan-Modified Portland Cement
Type I(PM) Type IP Type P Type IS 85 min. 60 85 60 85 30 99 Less than 15 40 - 15 40 - 15 0 0 0 0 70 1
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Portland-Pozzolan Portland-Pozzolan Portland BlastFurnace Slag


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CEMENT STANDARDS IN THE PHILIPPINES

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CEMENT STANDARDS OF THE PHILIPPINES


DESCRIPTION OLD CURRENT DRAFT ASTM STANDARD STANDARD STANDARD EQUIVALENT

PORTLAND CEMENT
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Moderate Heat of Hydration / Moderate Sulfate Resistance Cement High Early Strength Cement Low Heat of Hydration Cement High Sulfate Resistance Cement White Portland Cement PNS 53:1984 PNS 53:2005 NONE ASTM C150

PNS 07 :2005

PNS 07 :2005 Amendment 1 :2008

W/ AMENDMENTS

ASTM C150

BLENDED CEMENT
Portland-Pozzolan Cement Portland-Pozzolan Cement Portland Blast-furnace Slag Cement Masonry Cement
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PNS 63 :2006 PNS 69 :2005


PNS 75:1986

PNS 63 :2006 PNS 69 :2005


PNS ASTM C91:2005

W/ AMENDMENTS
W/ AMENDMENTS NONE

ASTM C595

ASTM C91
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CEMENT STANDARDS COMPARISON


Type I CEMENT TYPE
ASTM ASTM

Type IS

Type IP and T - I (PM)


ASTM

Type P
ASTM

STANDARD TEST METHODS

PNS 07 C150 PNS 69 C595 PNS 63 C595 PNS 63 C595

STANDARD COMPOSITION REQUIREMENTS


Magnesium Oxide (MgO), % max Sulfur Trioxide (SO3), % max when C3A is 8% or less when C3A is more than 8% Sulfide Sulfur Loss on Ignition (LOI), % max. Insoluble Residue (IR), % max

6.0

6.0

--3.0

--3.0 ----2.0 3.0 1.0

5.0 4.0 ------8.0 ---

6.0 4.0 ------5.0 ---

5.0 4.0 ------8.0 ---

6.0

3.0 3.5 --3.0 0.75

3.0 3.5 --3.0 0.75

----2.0 3.0 1.0

------5.0 ---

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PNS ASTM C114


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4.0

CEMENT STANDARDS COMPARISON


CEMENT TYPE Type I Type IS
T-IP and T-I(PM)

Type P

PNS 07 ASTM PNS 69 ASTM PNS 63 ASTM PNS 63 ASTM

STANDARD TEST METHODS

STANDARD PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS


Air Content, Vol. %, max Fineness, m2/kg, (cm2/g) Air permeability test, min Turbidimeter test, min Autoclave Expansion, % max. Autoclave Contraction, % max. Time of Setting Gillmore Test: Initial set, minutes, min Final Set, Hrs, (minutes) max Vicat Test: INITIAL SET: Minimum : minutes Maximum: Hrs, (minutes) FINAL SET: Hrs, max Compressive Strength, MPa min 3 days 7 days 28 days Heat of Hydration, (kJ/kg) max 7 days 28 days note:10/20/2013 * optional 12.0 260 160 0.8 --12.0 260 160 0.8 --12.0 2800 --0.8 0.2 12.0 ----0.8 0.2 12.0 280 --0.5 0.2 12.0 ----0.8 0.2 12.0 280 --0.5 0.2 12.0 ----0.8 0.2 PNS ASTM C185 PNS ASTM C 204 PNS ASTM C115 PNS ASTM C151

60 * 600 *

60 * 600*

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

PNS ASTM C266

45 375 --12 19 28 -----

45 375 --12.0 19.0 28.0 * -----

45 7 --13.0 20.0 25.0 290 * 330 *

45 7 --13.0 20.0 25.0 290 * 330 *

45 420 --13.0 20.0 25.0 290 * 330 *

45 7 --13.0 20.0 25.0 290 * 330 *

45 420 ----11.0 21.0 250 * 290 *

45 7 ----11.0 21.0 250 * 290 *

PNS ASTM C191

PNS ASTM C109

PNS ASTM C186


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TESTING OF CEMENT
Manufacture of Cement Clinker Major Phases and its Function Importance of Cement Testing Significance of Cement Testing a. Chemical Properties b. Physical Properties

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MANUFACTURE OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT:


The basic raw materials in the manufacture of Portland Cement are limestone, silica, shale and iron pyrite. These raw materials are properly proportioned, pulverized and homogenized before being fed in a cement rotary kiln up to a temperature of about 1,450 degrees centigrade to produce Portland cement clinker. Clinker is a semi-finish cement product. It is fed into a pulverizing mill mixed with about 3 5% gypsum to produce the final product, Portland cement. The Portland cement is then stored at cement silos until they are either bagged or released in bulk through bulk lorries.
In the manufacture of blended cements, clinker are fed to the finish pulverizing mill and blended or mixed with gypsum and either pozzolan or blast furnace slag materials to produce blended cement either Portland-Pozzolan Cement or Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement.

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MAJOR COMPONENTS OF CLINKER AND HOW THEY REACT


1. Tricalcium Silicate, C3S (Alite) responsible for the early strength development and early setting time. 70% have reacted by 28 days 100% by one year. Higher C3S - higher early strengths. C3S = (4.071 x % CaO) (7.600 x % SiO2) (6.718 x % Al2O3) (1.430 x % Fe2O3) (2.852 x % SO3) (5.188 x % CO2) 2. Dicalcium Silicate, C2S (Belite) responsible for later age strength Slow hydration 30% hydrated at 28 days 90% completed by 1 year C2S = (2.867 x % SiO2) (0.7544 x % C3S) 3. Tricalcium Aluminate, C3A (Celite) Influences setting and early strengths. C3A = (2.650 x % Al2O3) (1.692 x Fe2O3) 4. Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite, C4AF (Felite) Infuences color of cement. May function similarly as Celite. C4AF = 3.043 x % Fe2O3 Note: The cement or clinker components can be calculated by first determining the different cement or clinker oxides compositions by way of the chemical analysis either by the traditional wet chemical method or by instrumental method using X-ray machines.
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IMPORTANCE OF CEMENT TESTING


Hydraulic cements are manufactured products that find their principal uses in concrete and related construction materials.

When cement and water are mixed, they undergo various chemical reactions that gradually change the mixture from a plastic (or fluid), which can be molded or cast into a rigid solid, capable of bearing substantial compressive loads.
Thus cement and its reactions with water are largely responsible for most of the key aspects of concrete. The difficulty of understanding it can only be lessened by ascertaining fully the chemical compositions and all its physical properties. The quality of testing has a direct bearing on the reliability of such determinations, specifically on quality control, and is therefore a key element in the construction process. Testing or characterizing cement is important because we want to ensure that the cement we bought will serve its purpose or will do its work for which it was produced. If not properly characterized, the health and safety of the consumers and the general public is jeopardized. Since Portland and Blended Cements are classified as a product under mandatory certification, under the Philippine National Standard, ascertaining or characterizing them becomes mandatory.
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Cement is a binder and not an adhesive.


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SIGNIFICANCE OF TEST METHODS


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
SILICA (SiO2) ALUMINA (Al2O3) FERRIC OXIDE (Fe2O3) CALCIUM OXIDE (CaO) MAGNESIA (MgO) LOSS ON IGNITION (LOI) INSOLUBLE RESIDUE (IR) SULFUR TRIOXIDE (SO3) FREE LIME (F-CaO) ALKALIS (Na2O and K2O)

TEST METHOD: ASTM C114 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT

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SILICA (SiO2)
Silica is one of the four major oxides found in clinker and cement. This oxide is important in the formation of calcium silicates, C3S and C2S, the actual compounds responsible for the strength development of cement.

ALUMINA (Al2O3)
Aluminum Oxide lowers the sintering point during clinker burning. It reacts with calcium oxide during burning to form calcium aluminate (C3A) compound which also contributes to early strength of cement.
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FERRIC OXIDE (Fe2O3) Iron (III) Oxide also lowers the sintering point during clinker burning. It reacts with lime and alumina to form tetra calcium aluminoferrite, (C4AF). The cement color is influenced by the composition and amount of the iron-containing phase. The more iron concentration, the darker the color of cement. CALCIUM OXIDE (CaO) Lime is quantitatively one of the most important components of cement and is normally introduced during cement making from limestone, principally calcite, CaCO3, which decarbonates from about 680 OC. It reacts with SiO2 during burning to form calcium silicate, the compound responsible for the strength of hardened cement.
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MAGNESIA (MgO)
Magnesia is a minor component of cement found as an impurity in the limestone source or in clay or shale raw feed. MgO is being limited because of concern about expansion that can occur if free MgO as periclase hydrates to form Mg(OH)2 at room temperature. Periclase is undesirable due to its slower hydration kinetics and subsequent deleterious expansion in hardened paste inducing unsoundness, volume instability and cracking.

SULFUR TRIOXIDE (SO3)

Sulfur trioxide is the amount of sulfate in the cement in the form of calcium sulfate, hemihydrate, anhydrite, and many other forms. SO3 from clinker is included in the measured SO3 level and will reduce the amount of gypsum added. SO3 regulates the initial setting and hardening reactions that take place during hydration. The amount of SO3 allowed is directly related to the fineness and composition of the cement, particularly the C3A content. SO3 above a certain optimum % causes a decrease in strength and an increase in expansion.
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LOSS ON IGNITION (LOI)


Loss on ignition is the weight percentage lost when Portland cement is heated at 950 OC. LOI was added in cement specification to prevent the addition of carbonate minerals such as limestone and dolomite. The main source of LOI is combined water of CaSO4.2H2O (Gypsum). Additional source of LOI is moisture absorbed during storage. Another source of LOI is from the CO2 gas liberated from CaCO3 if adulterated with carbonate materials.

INSOLUBLE RESIDUE (IR)


IR is usually a silicate or alumino-silicate material. IR comes from raw materials that did not combine completely in the burning process and from contamination during retrieval of clinker. All cements contain IR from silicate impurities of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) added during the final grinding process. The test was added in order to prevent adulteration or contamination of cement with siliceous and argillaceous components.
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FREE LIME, uncombined lime, (F-CaO)


In fresh clinker, Free Lime, F-CaO, is entirely present as calcium oxide, but in ground cement a considerable proportion of the total free lime is usually found to be present as calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2. Free Lime in itself does not contribute to strength formation. Free Lime causes unsoundness in cement. Free Lime reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 reacts with CO2 to form CaCO3 lowering the ph from 12.5 to 7 Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble in water and can be leached out of concrete structures causing increase porosity and reduces strength avoid contact with flowing water Ca(OH)2 is a strong base, ph is 12.5, prevents corrosion of steel bars Ca(OH)2 can react with finely dispersed siliceous and aluminous materials forming insoluble compounds which contribute to strength formation

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ALKALIS (Na2O and K2O) Alkali content in cement may react with certain aggregates with reactive (amorphous) silica to form an alkali-silica gel which have a great affinity with water (hydroscopic). The gel will absorb more water and swell. The swelling will generate osmotic pressures in the concrete that can cause cracking. Alkalis accelerates the hydration of cement, increase early strength but reduces 28 day strength. To minimize alkali-silica reaction: Limit the total alkali as Na2O equivalent to 0.6 % maximum; Use aggregate with less reactive silica content To prevent alkali-silica reaction: Add Pozzolanas or Blast-furnace Slag to your concrete, they combined rapidly with alkalis. Use Blended cements as an alternative
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
SETTING TIME CONSISTENCY TEST AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION FINENESS, [ 45 um (325 mesh), 75 um (200 mesh) and (Blaine test)] COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH HEAT OF HYDRATION

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SETTING TIME
The time elapse when the cement paste gradually stiffens and loss its plasticity Setting times of concrete may be measured using cement paste or mortar because it is controlled by the reactions of cement and water. The tests are used to ensure that the cement does not produce abnormal setting times or to test the response of a particular combination of cement and chemical admixture.

The test is particularly important to detect premature stiffening:


False set conversion of gypsum to monohydrate during grinding and reconverted to gypsum when remixed during testing. Quick set (flash set) insufficient amount of gypsum or calcium sulfate di-hydrate to retard hydration of C3A. Fluidity can not be regained on remixing. The tests for setting time rely on measuring penetration resistance of cement paste or mortar. It is not only affected by the percentage and temperature of the mixing water used, and the amount of kneading the paste received, but also by the temperature and humidity of the air. Test Methods used: ASTM C191 : Vicat Needle Test ASTM C266 : Gillmore Needle Test ASTM C451 : Early Stiffening Test (Paste Method)
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SETTING TIME APPARATUS


VICAT AND GILLMORE

VICAT APPARATUS VICAT MOLDS


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SETTING TIME DETERMINATION (ASTM C191)

MOIST ROOM

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MORTAR AND PASTE MIXER WITH GLASS GRADUATES AND RACK

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CONSISTENCY TEST
Refers to the flow behavior of a fresh mixture The amount of water present in the mix that will give you the specified consistency required for normal setting and hardening. There are two methods of test for consistency: Penetration resistance test using Vicat Apparatus Flow test using Flow Table, Consistency is affected by fineness and the rate of hydration of cement. Cement consistency is generally assumed to affect concrete workability. Concrete workability (slump) is assumed to correlate with paste consistency at the same water-cement ratio and including the same mineral and chemical admixtures. Strength (for some cements), autoclave expansion, setting time, and premature stiffening tests are measured using stipulated consistency. Test Method Used: ASTM C187 - Standard Test for Normal Consistency ASTM C1437 Standard Test for Flow of Cement

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NORMAL CONSISTENCY DETERMINATION (ASTM C 187)

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DETERMINATION OF FLOW (ASTM C1437)

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FLOW TABLE WITH PEDESTAL AND CALIBRATING STANDARD

FLOW TABLE AND PEDESTAL

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AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION
Determines potential delayed expansion caused by the hydration of Free CaO, or MgO, or both, when present in Portland cement Expansion may occur in Portland cement or in blended cement due to certain hydration reactions after the cement has set Several reactions that cause expansion: hydration of free lime (CaO) to form calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], the hydration of periclase (MgO) to form magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2], formation of excess ettringite (C3A-3CS-H32) through reaction of C3A or of calcium aluminate hydrate (CA-CS-H12)with CSH2 These reactions are slow, so they are accelerated in the laboratory by testing at an elevated pressure and temperature. Test Method Used: ASTM C151 - Standard Test Method for Autoclave Expansion of Portland Cement.
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MOLDING OF AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION SPECIMEN (ASTM C151)

EXPANSION MOLDS
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EXPANSION DETERMINATION WITH LENGTH COMPARATOR (ASTM C151)

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LENGTH COMPARATOR

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BOILING AND COOLING OF AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION TEST SPECIMENS (ASTM C151)

AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION APPARATUS


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BOILING AND COOLING OF AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION TEST SPECIMENS (ASTM C151)

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FINENESS, [ 45 um (325 mesh), 75 um (200 mesh) and Specific Surface Area (Blaine test)]
A very important physical property for cement because hydration rate of cement is a function of fineness; Both strength and permeability are influenced by fineness. Increasing the fineness substantially increases the rate of hydration. Cement with particles larger than 45 mm are difficult to hydrate and those with particles larger than 75 mm may never hydrate completely. It is a common practice in the industry to obtain a relative measure of the particle size distribution from specific surface area analysis of the cement.
Test Method Used: ASTM C204 - Standard Test Method for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air- Permeability ASTM C430 Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by 45(No.325) sieve ASTM C786 Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by 75(No.200) sieve by Wet Methods

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BLAINE APPARATUS WITH ANALYTICAL BALANCE (ASTM C204)

BLAINE APPARATUS

WITH ANALYTICAL BALANCE

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FINENESS TEST (Particle Size) No. 45 um (325 mesh), No. 75 um (200 mesh)

CYLINDRICAL TEST SIEVES WET WASHING SPRAY SET

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FINENESS TEST (Particle Size)


No. 45 um (325 mesh), No. 75 um (200 mesh)

No. 45 um (325 mesh sieve) No. 75 um (200 mesh sieve)

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COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Strength is the property of cement that is probably the most important to engineers, both as general indicator of concrete quality and to assure that the concrete will perform as intended during design of the structure.

It also provides an excellent indication of the overall quality of hydrated cement.


The strength of cement developed either when tested as a mortar or a concrete is dependent on the following: grading of the sand and aggregate the proportion of water used the degree of mixing the temperature and humidity of the atmosphere in which it is conducted the method by which the material is placed in the molds and the specimen made the curing condition the method of testing the age at which the tests are carried out For testing purposes it is necessary to define all these conditions, and in all standards specifications this is done as closely as possible. Test Method Used: ASTM C109/109M - Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars
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COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST MOLDS AND TAMPER (ASTM C109)

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 3 GANG MOLDS (2 X 2 INCH)

MOLD WITH TAMPER

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MOLDING OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST SPECIMENS (ASTM C109)

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MOIST ROOM (ASTM C511)

MOIST ROOM

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CURING TANK WITH SATURATED LIME CURING WATER (ASTM C511)

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COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTING MACHINE (ASTM C109)

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HEAT OF HYDRATION
The quantity of heat that are liberated (exothermic) from the reaction of cement with water. Concrete acts as an insulator due to low conductivity. When cement reacts with water, heat is liberated producing large rise in temperature up to about 50OC. Because this temperature rise is contained in the concrete, this may cause cracking and deterioration. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has a heat of hydration at about 90 cal/g at 28 days, T-II & IV at 60 70 cal/g and T-III has about 100 cal/g also after 28 days.

The rate at which the cement hydrates is the most important factor. The rate can be changed by:
Adding Chemical Accelerators (increase Ca++ ion and increase solubility of Aluminate ion) accelerates hydration, setting & hardening Adding Chemical Retarder (suppress Ca++ ion by precipitating as insoluble compound) retards hydration, setting and hardening Changing the fineness of cement Changing the composition of the cement Test Method Used: ASTM C186 Standard Test Method for the Heat of Hydration of Hydraulic Cement

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HEAT OF HYDRATION

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THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTING REQUIREMENTS


Test Environment and Facilities Test Equipment Test Methods Manpower Technical Competence Laboratory Quality Control

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TEST ENVIRONMENT AND FACILITIES


Laboratory testing facilities must conform to the purpose for which the laboratory was established. Laboratory testing facilities must be designed according to the following criteria: As to its functions and flow of work As to adherence to required testing conditions Temperature and Relative Humidity As to the space requirements, light and ventilation and power requirements

TEST AND MEASURING EQUIPMENT


The test and measuring equipment of a testing laboratory must conform to the requirements of the test methods: Test equipment must conform to adopted Standard requirements (ASTM / PNS) Correctness as to specifications Suitability and availability Measuring equipment must be calibrated traceable to international standards Shall have third party and In-house calibration program Test equipment must be subjected to a regular or periodic checks 10/20/2013

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TEST METHODS
The test methods to be used are those specified by the applicable standards: Test methods to be used must suit the requirements of the PNS / ASTM standards Validity and Appropriateness Test methods must be validated to suit local conditions Measurement uncertainties must be determined Traceability of measurements to National or International Standards Standard or Certified Reference Materials (SRM) or (CRM)

MANPOWER
The Physical and the Chemical Analysts must have the following minimum
qualifications:

The Physical Analyst must be at least a graduate of Technical School. The Chemical Analyst must be at least a graduate of B.S. Chemical Engineering or B.S. Chemistry. He or she must have an established technical competency in physical testing or chemical analysis.
Theoretical and hands-on Training Experiences

Must have a basic understanding of the significance of cement testing 10/20/2013 and the minimum requirements of PNS ISO/IEC 17025

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TECHNICAL COMPETENCE - a state or condition of possessing the capabilities and knowledge to produce data that are accurate, traceable and reproducible, or being able to produce similar accurate and traceable results. Technical Competency of staff Correct Test and Measuring Equipment Suitable Testing Environment and Facilities Validity and Appropriateness of Test Methods Traceability of Measurements to National or International Standards Adequate Quality Assurance Procedures Proper Handling of Test Items Proper Sampling Practices

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LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL


An external quality control program used to evaluate and monitor the continuing capability and relative performance of laboratories. The different forms are: Proficiency testing a periodic assessment of the performance of individual laboratories and group of laboratories that is achieved by the distribution by an independent testing body of typical materials for unsupervised analysis by the participants. The over-all objective of the proficiency testing are as follows: Check the over-all competence of participating laboratories by statistical evaluation of the data, Compare the performance at a particular time against external standards and with its performance in the past.

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LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL


Inter-laboratory or collaborative testing An instrument to evaluate or regulate testing laboratories. A requirement for laboratory accreditation, a measure of precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy of analytical methods. Identify weak methodology in test method Detect the training needs of the laboratory analysts/testers. The following must be controlled during inter-laboratory: Materials Care in procurement, preparation and distribution Methods enhancement of chances for low variability Equipment and Reagents Routine calibration and checks, use of reference standards and preventive maintenance Analysts familiarity with test methods Time essential to obtaining precise and accurate results Environmental conditions Temperature, humidity and dust and housekeeping Laboratory accreditation a form of laboratory quality control which provide a means of determining the competencies of laboratories in performing specific types of testing or calibration. It allows a laboratory to determine its work correctly and according to appropriate standards by a qualified evaluation organization.
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THANK YOU ! ! ! Maraming Salamat po!

Lecture Materials courtesy of Engr. Noel G. dela Cruz Technical and Quality Manager Cement Testing Center (CTC),

8/23/2007

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