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4.

1 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM


BY: AZRUL WAHID

WHAT IS THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM?

Net rate of heat transfer is zero. Both have the same temperature.

HOW TO SHOW THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HEAT AND TEMPERATURE.


HEAT Type of energy Unit: Joule, J TEMPERATURE Degree of content of heat Unit: K,

Derive quantity
Measured by Joule meter

Base quantity
Measure by thermometer

WHAT IS THERMOMETRIC PROPERTY?


Physical property of a substance which sensitive to and varies linearly with the change in temperature.

THE TYPE OF THERMOMETER AND THEIR THERMOMETRIC PROPERTIES


Thermometer Thermometric Property

Liquid in glass thermometer


Gas thermometer Resistance thermometer Thermocouple thermometer

Volume of the liquid


Gas pressure Electrical resistance of a platinum wire Electromotive force between the two copper-constantan wire

HOW TO MEASURE TEMPERATURE


Thermometer must be in thermal contact with the object. Heat transferred occurs between the object and the thermometer (from hot to cold). After some time, the object will reach thermal equilibrium. Both objects have the same tempertaure. Therefore, thermometer reading is the B the temperature of the object.

HOW TO CALIBRATE A THERMOMETER


Place the bulb in ice and mark the level 0 . Place the bulb in steam and mark the level, 100 . The space between 0 100 is divided into 100.

HOW TO DETERMINE TEMPERATURE IF DIVISION ARE NOT MARKED?


= 0 100 100 0

EXAMPLE: Given an alcohol in glass thermometer which has not been calibrated. The length of the alcohol when it is inserted into melting ice and boiling water are 4.2 cm and 12.7 cm respectively. When it is inserted into a cup of warm water, the alcohol length is 8.7 cm. what is the temperature of the warm water?

WHAT LIQUID USED IN LIQUID-GLASS THERMOMETER?WHY?


Mercury and coloured alcohol. BECAUSE: It is opaque liquid, hence can be easily seen Does not wet the glass wall Expand uniformly when heated Can measure a wide range of temperature from -39 to 357 Does not vaporize Conduct heat well, respond faster to temperature change

HOW TO INCREASE THE SENSITIVITY OF LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER


SUGGESTON Bulb: Smaller Bulb: thin glass wall Capillary tube: Narrow tube REASON Contain less mercury: it absorb heat faster Heat transfer to mercury is faster The increase in volume of mercury is higher

Glass tube: thicker

Glass tube: round glass stem

- Does ease to broke - External heat does not influences the reading The level of mercury can be seen clearly.