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Foundations of

Strategic Marketing



1. Defining the Organizations Business, Mission, and

Business Definition Business Mission Business Goals 2. Identifying and Framing Organizational Growth Opportunities Converting Environmental Opportunities into Organizational Opportunities SWOT Analysis

3. Formulating Product-Market Strategies Market-Penetration Strategy Market-Development Strategy Product-Development Strategy Diversification Strategy Selection The Marketing Mix
4. Budgeting Marketing, Financial, and Production Resources 5. Developing Reformulation and Recovery Strategies 6. Drafting a Marketing Plan 7. Marketing Ethics and Social Responsibility

The Primary Purpose of Marketing

To create long-term and mutually beneficial exchange relationships between an entity and the publics (individuals and organizations) with which it interacts.


Expanding Responsibilities of Marketing Managers

They no longer function solely to direct day-to-day operations. They must make strategic decisions as well.

Expanded responsibilities include:

Charting the direction of the organization

Contributing to decisions that will create and sustain a competitive advantage and affect long-term organizational performance

Evolution of the Marketing Manager

From being only an

to being a maker of organization strategy.
This has prompted the emergence of strategic marketing management as a course of study and practice.

Strategic Market Management

Precipitate the consideration of strategic choices Force a long range view Make visible the resource allocation decision Aid strategic analysis and and decision making Provide a strategic management and control system Help the business cope with change


SMM-Characteristics and trends

External market orientation Proactive strategies Importance of information system On line analysis and decision making Entrepreneurial thrust Implementation Global realities Longer time horizons Interdisciplinary Developments

Processes in Strategic Marketing Management

1. Defining the organizations business, mission, and goals 2. Identifying and framing organizational growth opportunities 3. Formulating product-market strategies

4. Budgeting marketing, financial, and production resources

5. Developing reformulation and recovery strategies

Defining the corporate mission Establish SBUs Assigning resources to each SBUs Planning new businesses and downsizing the older ones


Process One

Defining the Organizations Business, Mission, and Goals


Business Definition
By defining a business from a customer or market perspective an organization is appropriately viewed as: a customer - satisfying endeavor

a product-producing or service delivery enterprise.

What business are we in?

An organization should define a business by:
The type of customers it wishes to

The particular needs of those customer groups it wishes to satisfy The means or technology by which the organization will satisfy the customer


Business Mission
Underscores the scope of an organizations operations apparent in its business definition Reflects managements vision of what the organization seeks to do Most statements describe: the organizations purpose customers, products/services, markets, philosophy, and technology

Benefits of Mission Statements

1. Crystallizes managements vision of the organizations long-term direction and character 2. Provides guidance in identifying, pursuing, and evaluating market and product opportunities 3. Inspires and challenges employees to do those things that are valued by the organization and its customers 4. Provides direction for setting business goals or objectives

Mission Statement
The reason for companys existence and its responsibilities to stakeholders The customer needs that are satisfied by the firms products or services( areas of product and market involvement) The extent of specialization within each product-market area Amount of product-market diversification desired by the management. Management's performance expectation from the company Other general guidelines for overall business strategy ( such as technologies to be used & role of R&D)

3 major characteristics of a good mission statement

Focus on limited number of goals Focus on major policies and values the company wants to honor Defines the competitive scopes in which the company will operate Industrial Scope Products & Application Scope Competence Scope Market Segmentation Scope Vertical Scope Geographical Scope

Xerox We make copying equipment- We help improve office productivity Columbia Pictures We make movies- We market entertainment Encyclopaedia Britannica We sell encyclopaedias-We distribute information


DHL DHL will become the acknowledged global leader in the express delivery of documents and packages. Leadership will be achieved by establishing the industry standards of excellence for quality of service and by maintaining the lowest cost position relative to our service commitment in all markets of the world. McDonalds UK mission Statement 1992-2000 To be the United Kingdoms number one favourite quick service restaurant. The company will be led by the needs of our customers and commitment to the welfare and development of our staff.Mcdonalds will provide great tasting food, backed by excellent operators and friendly service in a relaxed, safe and consistent restaurant environment. Our customers will be serviced in a caring, welcoming and professional manner. These goals will be implemented in a way which optimises the highest operational standardswith efficiency and profitability.

Assigning Resources to SBUs

The Growth Share Matrix ( BCG Matrix)
Build, Hold, Harvest, Divest


SBU Characteristics
Serves a homogeneous set of markets with a limited number of related technologies Serves a unique set of product- markets Has control over the factors necessary for successful performance, such as R&D, production, marketing, and distribution Has responsibility for its own profitability


SBU Characteristics
It is a single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned separately from the rest of the company. It has its own set of competitors. It has a manager who is responsible for strategic planning and profit performance and who controls most of the factors affecting profit.


Planning New Business/ Downsizing older ones

Intensive Growth Integrative growth
Backward integration Forward integration Horizontal integration



Business Goals
Goals or objectives convert the organizations mission into tangible actions and results that are to be achieved, often within a specified time frame. Three major categories of goals:

1. Production
2. Financial 3. Marketing

Production Goals Apply to the use of manufacturing and service capacity and to product and service quality.

Financial Goals

Marketing Goals market share marketing productivity sales volume profit customer satisfaction customer value creation

Focus on return on investment, return on sales, profit, cash flow, and shareholder wealth.


Process Two

Identifying and Framing

Organizational Growth


Converting Environmental Opportunities into Organizational Opportunities

What might we do?
Sources of environmental opportunity: Unmet or changing customer needs Unsatisfied buyer groups New means or technology for delivering value to prospective buyers

Converting Environmental Opportunities into Organizational Opportunities

What do we do best?
Distinctive Competency describes an organizations unique strengths or qualities including: Skills Technologies Resources that distinguish it from other organizations.

Converting Environmental Opportunities into Organizational Opportunities

What must we do?
Success Requirements are basic tasks that an organization must perform in a market or industry to compete successfully. If what must be done is inconsistent with what can be done to capitalize on an environmental opportunity, an organizational growth opportunity will fail to materialize.

SWOT Analysis
A formal framework for identifying and framing organizational growth opportunities


Opportunities Threats




SWOT Analysis
Framework for focusing attention on the fact that an organizational growth opportunity results from a good fit between an organizations INTERNAL CAPABILITIES (Strengths & Weaknesses) and

its EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (Opportunities & Threats)


SWOT Analysis
Strength What the organization is good at doing or a characteristic that gives it an important capability


What an organization lacks or does poorly relative to competitors

Developments or conditions in the environment that have favorable implications for the organization



Pose dangers to the welfare of the organization


Questions to be asked once SWOT has been identified

1. Which internal strengths represent distinctive competencies? Do these strengths compare favorably with what are believed to be market or industry success requirements? 2. Which internal weaknesses disqualify the organization from pursuing certain opportunities? 3. Does a pattern emerge from the SWOT?

Opportunity Matrix
Success Probability High
High Low


Threat Matrix
Probability of Occurrence High
High Low



Performance -Importance Matrix

Performance Low High High



Process Three

Product-Market Strategies


Product-Market Strategies
Existing products Existing markets New markets New products Product Development

Market Penetration Market Development



Market Penetration Strategy

Seeking a larger market share in a market in which organization already has an offering
This strategy involves: Attempts to increase present buyers usage or consumption rates of the offering Attracting buyers of competing offerings

Stimulating product trial among potential consumers


Market Development Strategy

Introducing its existing offerings to markets other than those that the organization is currently serving.
Reaching new markets requires: Carefully considering competitor strengths and weaknesses and competitor retaliation potential Modification of the basic offering Different distribution outlets Change in sales effort and advertising

Market Development in the International Arena



Joint Venture or Strategic Alliance

Direct Investment


Product Development Strategy

Creating new offerings for existing markets.
This approach may be taken for:
Product Innovation develop totally new offerings

Product Augmentation enhance the value to customers of existing offerings

Product line extension broaden the existing line of offerings by adding different sizes, forms, flavors, etc.

Diversification Strategy
Development or acquisition of offerings new to the organization and introducing those offerings to publics not previously served by the organization.
Growing trend in recent years
High-risk strategy because both the offering and market served are new to the organization


Strategy Selection Sample Decision Tree

Action Response
Aggressive competition Market-penetration strategy Passive competition Aggressive competition

Estimated profit of 2 million

Estimated profit of 3 million Estimated profit of 1 million

Market-development strategy
Passive competition Estimated profit of 4 million

The Marketing Mix

Product Strategy

Communications Strategy

Price Strategy Channel Strategy


Process Four

Budgeting Marketing,
Financial, and Production



The Budget
A formal, quantitative expression of an organizations planning and strategy initiatives expressed in financial terms
A well-prepared budget meshes and balances an organizations Financial, Production, and Marketing Resources

so that overall organizational goals or objectives are attained.


Components of a Budget
1. Operating Budget
Also referred to as a pro forma Income Statement Focuses on an organizations income statement

2. Financial Budget
Focuses on the effect that the operating budget and other initiatives will have on the organizations cash position

Process Five

Developing Reformulation and Recovery Strategies


The Marketing Audit

Comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a companys marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities to recommend a plan of action to improve the companys marketing performance.

Helps answer the questions:

Are we doing the right things?

Are we doing things right?


The Marketing Plan

A formal written document that describes the context and scope of an organizations marketing effort to achieve defined goals or objectives within a specified future time period. Focus can be on a business, product, or brand Time Dimension can be short-run

(typically one year) or long-run (multiyear)


Contents of Marketing Plan

Executive summary Current marketing situation Opportunity and issue analysis Objectives Marketing Strategy Action Programs Projected profit & loss statement

Marketing Ethics and Social Responsibility

Marketing decisions reflect an organizations orientation toward the publics with which it interacts The marketplace is populated by individuals with diverse value systems
Their actions will be judged publicly by others with different values