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TYPES OF

MICROORGANISMS
I. INTRODUCTION
 ACELLULAR ORGANISMS: VIRUSES
1.DNA containing viruses
(e.g. warts, cold sores)
2. RNA containing viruses
(e.g. polio, common cold)

 CELLULAR ORGANISMS
1. Kingdom : Procaryotae
Bacteria
Blue-Green algae (Cyanobacteria)
2. Kingdom: Protista
Algae
Fungi
Protozoa
3. Kingdom: Plantae

4. Kingdom: Animalae
II. CELL STRUCTURE
 A. PROCARYOTES
- Bacteria (Eubacteria, Archaeobacteria)
- Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria)
- Size: 0.2-2.0 mm in diameter
- Cell Division: Binary fission
- simple division of a cell into 2 parts

Glycocalyx:
1. Slime Layer
- not highly organized
- not firmly attached to cell wall
- Function: Enables the bacteria to glide or slide
along solid surfaces.
2. Capsule
- highly organized and firmly attached to cell
wall
- Function: for attachment and anti-phagocytosis

Cell Wall
- Primary function: Protection
- Main Component: Peptidoglycan (murein)
- Gram (+): thick layer of peptidoglycan
(+) teichoic acid
- Gram (-): thinner layer of peptidoglycan
(+) outer membrane
- Archaeobacteria: (-) peptidoglycan
- Mycoplasma: no cell wall
APPENDAGES
 FLAGELLA
- Threadlike protein appendages with a whip like
motion that enable the bacteria to move (motility).
- Arrangements:
a. Monotrichous– single polar flagellum
b. Amphitrichous– one flagellum at each end
c. Lopotrichous– 2 or more flagella at one or
both poles of the cell
d. Peritrichous– flagella distributed over the
entire cell
E. coli
 AXIAL FILAMENTS
- found in Spirochetes
- bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of a
cell and spiral around the cell.

 PILI OR FIMBRIAE
- shorter, straighter and thinner than flagella
- used as attachment
- pili usually longer than fimbriae
- functions:
- enables bacteria to adhere or attach to
surfaces
- enables transfer of genetic material from
one cell to another (sex pilus)
 PLASMA MEMBRANE
-consists of proteins and phospholipids
- controls substances that enter or leave
the cell (selective permeability)
- destroyed by alcohols and polymyxins

 CYTOPLASM
- consists of water, enzymes, oxygen,
waste products, essential nutrients,
proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
 CHROMOSOME (BACTERIAL NUCLEOID)
-not surrounded by a nuclear membrane
- does not have a definite shape
- fewer proteins
- serves as the control center of the
bacterial cell
-capable of duplicating itself, guiding cell
division and directing cellular activities
 PLASMID
- small circular, double stranded DNA
- extra chromosomal genetic elements
- carry genes for antibiotic resistance, tolerance to
toxic metals, production of toxins and enzymes

 RIBOSOMES
- site of protein synthesis
- 70s ribosomes
- smaller and less dense than eucaryotic
ribosomes
 ENDOSPORES
- resting structures formed by some
bacteria for survival during adverse
environmental conditions.
- sporulation  process of endospore
formation
- germination  return of an endospore to
its vegetative state
 INCLUSIONS
- reserved deposits
- metachromatic granules (volutin)
Reserved for inorganic phosphate
- polysaccharide granules
glycogen and starch stores
- sulfur granules  reserved for sulfur
- lipid inclusions  lipid-storage material
- carboxysomes  source of carbon during
photosynthesis
- gas vacoules  gas vesicles for bouyancy
- magnetosomes  iron oxide
EUCARYOTES
 Protista- Algae, Fungi and Protozoa
 Plantae

 Animalae

-cell size: 10-100 micrometer in diameter


-cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis
Cell wall

- provide rigidity, shape and protection


- simpler in structure
- algae – cellulose
fungi– chitin
protozoa—no typical cell wall
- no peptidoglycan layer
 Appendages
1. Flagella
-organelles of locomotion
- long, thin structures
2. Cilia
- organelles of locomotion
- shorter (hairlike), thinner and more
numerous than flagella
- coordinated rhythmic movement
 Plasma membrane
1. similar in function and basic structure with
prokaryotes
2. structure
-basic: proteins and phospholipids
-others:
CELL WALL
- carbohydrates
- serve as receptor sites
- cell to cell recognition
- attachment sites for bacteria
- sterols (complex lipids)
- resist lysis from increased osmotic
pressure
3. Function: selective permeability
- other functions: phagocytosis--- “cell eating”
pinocytosis---”cell drinking”
 Cytoplasm
- cellular material outside the nucleus and enclosed by
the cell membrane.
- composed of semi-fluid, gelatinous, nutrient matrix
(cytosol)
- contains insoluble storage granules and cytoplasmic
organelles
MEMBRANE BOUND
ORGANELLES
1. NUCLEUS
- unifies, controls and integrates the
functions of the entire cell
- surrounded by a nuclear membrane
- NUCLEOLUS  condensed regions of
chromosomes where ribosomal
RNA is synthesized
- usually spherical or oval
2. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

- Extensive network of flattened membranous sacs or


tubules (cisterns)
- Continuous with the nuclear envelope
- Transports nutrients to the nucleus and also provides
structural support for the cell.
- Rough ER
-Ribosomes attached to outer surface
- Function: protein synthesis

- Smooth ER
- no ribosomes attached
- Function: lipid synthesis
3. RIBOSOME
- 80s

- Produced in nucleolus ----free and

membrane bound

4. GOLGI COMPLEX
- flattened membranous vesicles
- synthesis of secretory products for
storage within the cell or export outside the
cell (exocytosis or secretion)
5. MITOCHONDRIA
- “power plant” of the cell
- ATP formation by cellular respiration
6. LYSOSOMES
- formed from GOLGI complex
- store powerful digestive enzymes
7. CHLOROPLAST
- found in algae and green plants
- contains chlorophyll and the enzymes required
for photosynthesis

8. MICROTUBULES
- long, hollow tubes
- consists of tubulin
- provides support and shape
- assists in transporting substances through the
cell
PROCARYOTES EUCARYOTES
Organisms Bacteria Algae, Fungi, Protozoa
Animals, Plants
Size of cell 0.2-2.0 micrometer 10-100 micrometer
Cell Division/Rep. Binary Fission Mitosis/Meiosis
Cell Wall Usually present and +/- (when present chem. Simple)
chemical complex
Glycocalyx Present Absent
Plasma Membrane
CHO absent Present-serve as receptor
absent Present—serve as receptor
Nucleus Sterols No nuclear membrane True nucleus with nuclear
or nucleoli membrane and nucleoli
Ribosomes Smaller size (70s) Larger size (80s)
Membrane- Absent present
enclosed
organelles
Cytoskeletons Absent Present
Flagella Simple structure Complex structure
PROCARYOTES
 Bacteria: Archaeobacteria & Eubacteria
 Basis for Classification:
1. Cell Morphology
a. Spherical or round (cocci)
b. rod-shaped (bacilli)
c. curved and spiral-shaped (spirilium)
d. Pleiomorphic
2. Cell arrangement
a. in pairs: diplo-
b. in chains: strep-
c. in clusters: staph-
3. Staining characteristics
- gram (+) vs Gram (-)
- AFB (Acid-Fast bacilli)
4. Motility
5. Colony morphology
6. Atmospheric Requirements
- aerobes vs anaerobes
7. Nutritional requirements
8. Biochemical and metabolic activities
9. Pathogenecity
10. Amino acid sequencing
11. Genetic composition
 Classification
1. Archaeobacteria (Ex. Halobacterium)
- contain cell walls but no peptidoglycan
- closely related to eucaryotes
- “extremophiles”
2. Eubacteria (“True” bacteria)
A. Gliding Bacteria (Photosynthetic bacteria)
-flexible cells, motility conferred by gliding
- non-pathogenic bacteria (for humans)
- ex. Cyanobacteria
B. Spirochetes
- flexible cells, motility conferred by
endoflagella
- ex. Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira
C. Rigid Bacteria
- rigid cells immotile or motility conferred by
flagella
1. Mycelia (Actinomycetes)
- branching filamentous growth which have
external asexual spores (conidia)
- similar to fungi
-ex. Mycobacterium, Actinomycetes,
Nocardia, Streptomyces
2. Simple Unicellular
a. Obligate intracellular Parasite
-depend on the host for energy rich
compound and co-enzymes
- ex. Rickettsiae (rickettsia, Coxiella)
Chlamydiae (Chlamydia)
b. Free living Form
- majority of pathogenic bacteria
- General rule:
All Cocci are gram (+) except:
-- Neisseria, Branhamella, Veilonella
All Bacilli are gram (-) except:
--- Corynebacterium, Erysipelothrix,
Mycobacterium, Clostridia, Listeria
D. Lack Cell Wall (mycoplasma)
- pleiomorphic
GRAM POSITIVE

COCCI RODS

STAPH STREP
NON SPORE SPORE FORMER
- Corynebacterium
- Erysipelothrix
- Listeria
Obligate Obligate
Aerobes Anaerobes
(Bacillus) (Clostridia)
GRAM NEGATIVE

COCCI RODS
Neisseria
Non Enteric Enteric

Spiral Straight Facultative Obligate


Anaerobes Anaerobes

Spirilium Pastuerella Escherichia


Bacteriodes
Brucella Salmonella
Fusobacterium
Yersinia Shigella
Franciscella Klebsiella Obligate Aerobe
Hemophilus Proteus Pseudomonas
Bordetella Vibrio
Legionella
EUCARYOTES- ALGAE,
FUNGI, PROTOZOA
EUCARYOTES
 PROTISTA--- ALGAE, FUNGI, PROTOZOA
A. ALGAE
- tiny, unicellular, microscopic microbes
( diatoms,dinoflagellates, desmids)
- large, multicellular, plant like seaweeds (kelp)
- energy production: photosynthesis (have chlorophyll)
- cell wall: cellulose
- basis for classification: PIGMENTS (green, brown or red
algae)
- Phycotoxins  substances poisonous to humans, fish
and other animals
 shellfish poisoning
(RED TIDE/ paralytic shellfish poisonimg)
B. FUNGI
- main source of food: decaying matter
- have no chlorophyll
- cell wall: chitin
- cell membrane: ergosterol
- forms: unicellular (yeasts), filaments (hyphae),
mass (mycelia)
- reproduce by  budding, hyphae extension, formation
of spores
- -
Classification Of True Fungi

Basis: mode of reproduction and 5. Deuteromycetes (Fungi


type of mycelia, spore and Imperfect)
gamete produced - septate hyphae
-most human pathogenic
1. Oomycetes– aseptate hyphae molds and yeasts
ex. Potato blight mold a. Superficial and
2. Zygomycetes– usually cutaneous mycoses
aseptate hyphae dermatophytes: tinea, candida
ex. Bread mold (rhizopus) b. Subcutaneous and
3. Basidiomycetes systemic mycoses
(mushrooms)- septate hyphae Coccidioidomycoses,
4. Ascomycetes– septate Blastomycoses,
hyphae Histoplasmosis, Cryptococcus
ex. Antibiotic-producing
fungi
 Clockwise from top
left: Amanita
muscaria, a
basidiomycete;
Sarcoscypha
coccinea, an
ascomycete;
black bread mold, a
zygomycete; a
chytrid; a Penicillium
conidiophore.
C. PROTOZOA
- usually single-celled animal
- no chlorophyll
-ingest whole algae, yeasts, bacteria and other small protozoas
- Classification – based on method of locomotion

Class Movement Examples


1. Ciliophora cilia Balntidium coli
Paramecium
2. Sarcodina pseudopodia Entamoeba sp.
Naegleria
3. Mastigophora flagella Giardia, Trichomonas
Trypanosoma
4. Sporozoa non-motile Plasmodium
Toxoplasma
Cryptosporidium
Ciliophora: Paramecium
Sarcodina: amoeba
Mastigophora: Gardia Lamblia
Malarial sporozoa
ACELLULAR ORGANISMS: VIRUSES
 Specific Properties
1. Possess either DNA or RNA (never both)
2. Replication is directed by the viral nuclei acid
within a host cell.
3. Do not divide by Binary fission or mitosis
4. Lack the genes and enzymes necessary for
energy production.
5. Depend on the ribosomes, enzymes and
nutrients of the infected (host) cells for protein
production.
 Lytic Cycle

1. Attachment
--viruses attach to host cell with the correct receptor.
2. Penetration
-- viral nucleic acid enters the cell
3. Biosynthesis
-- genetic info contained in viral nucleic acid directs
production of viral proteins and nucleic acids.
4. Assembly or Maturation
-- viral proteins and nucleic acids are assembled into
complete viral particles (virions)
5. Release– newly formed viruses/virions are released
either by lysis or budding.
-- most host cells are destroyed.
 Basis for Classification
1. Type of genetic material (DNA or RNA)
2. Shape of capsid (polyhedral, helical, complex)
3. Number of capsomeres
4. Size of capsid
5.presence or absence of an envelope
6. Host that it infects
7. Type of disease produced
8. Target cell
9. Immunological properties
 Classification
DNA Viruses- Herpes, Hepadna, Adeno, Papova, Parvo, Pox
RNA Viruses- Toga, Corona, Retro, Picorna, Calici, Reo,
Orthomyxo, Paramyxo, Rhabdo, Bunya, Arena, Filo, Flavi
HIV VIRUS
Influenza virus
Quiz time
1. Acellular organism
bacteria
fungi
virus

2. Ability to change form or shape


pathogenic
pleiomorphic
aerobic
3. Source of food: decaying matter
bacteria
fungi
virus

4. Algae poison
mycotoxin
phycotoxin
endotoxin
5. Gram (-) cocci
staphylococcus
neisseria
mycobacterium
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE
ORGANISM
PHYSIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISM
I. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
 Source of Energy

--Phototrophs---light
--Chemotrophs– inorganic or organic compounds
 Source of Carbon
-- Autotrophs---CO2
-- Litotrophs—inorganic compound except CO2
-- Heterotrophs (Organotrophs) ---Organic compounds
 Energy Source and Carbon Source
--Photoautotrophs---Light + CO2
---ex. Plants, algae, cyanobacteria, purple and green
sulfur bacteria
--Photoheterotrophs (Photoorganotrophs) --- Light + organic
compounds—ex. Green and purple non-sulfur bacteria
--Chemoautotrophs– Chemical + CO2
ex. Nitrifying, hydrogen, iron and sulfur bacteria
--Chemolitotrophs--- Chemical + inorganic compound
except CO2
-- Chemoheterotrophs– Chemical + organic compound
ex. All animals, protozoa, fungi, most bacteria
-- Photolithotrophs – Light + inorganic compound
except CO2
ex. Plants and algae: producers of food and O2 for
chemoheterotrophs
II. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
A. TEMPERATURE
1. Psychrophiles
-- cold loving microbes
2. Mesophiles
--moderate-temperature loving organism
-- most pathogens and indigenous flora
3. Thermophiles
-- heat loving microbes
-- ex. Thermophilic cyanobacteria found in
hot springs
-- Thermodurics: organisms that can survive or
endure boiling--- ex. Endospores and viruses
GROWTH TEMPERATURES:
1. Minimum Growth temperature
- lowest temperature at which the species will grow
2. Optimum Growth temperature
- temperature at which the species grows best
3. Maximum Growth temperature
- highest temperature at which growth is possible
B. pH
-- acidity or alkalinity of a solution
1. Neutrophiles
-- neutral growth medium (pH 7)
-- most microorganisms
2. Acidophiles
--prefer a pH of 2-5
--microbes that can live in the stomach
3. Alkaliphiles (Basophiles)
--prefer pH greater 8.5
-- found in intestine
C. OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS
-Based on relationship to O2
1. Aerobes---use molecular O2 for life and reproduction
a. Obligate aerobes
- require an atmosphere that contains O2 similar to
room air (20-21% O2), Ex. Mycobacteria
b. Microaerophiles
- require O2 lower than room air (=5% O2)
- ex. Neisseria, Campylobacter
2. Anaerobes
- do not require O2 for life and reproduction
- vary based on sensitivity to O2
a. Obligate anaerobe
- unable to grow in O2, ex. Clostridium
b. Facultative anaerobe
- capable of surviving in the presence or absence of O2
(0% to 20-21% O2)
- ex. Enterobacteria, streptococci, staphylococci
c. Aerotolerant anaerobe
- does not require O2
- grows better in the absence of oxygen but can
survive in atmosphere containing O2
- ex. Lactobacilli
- Based on relationship to CO2
- Capnophiles– grow better in the presence of increased
concentrations of CO2
- Anaerobes– Bacteroides, Fusobacterium
- Aerobes– Neisseria,Campylobacter, Hemophilus
B. BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE
- Obtained from growing the organism in pure culture
(in vitro)
- growth of cells over time
1. LAG Phase
- period of little or no cell division
-bacteria absorbs nutrients, synthesize enzymes and
prepare for reproduction
- period of intense metabolic activity involving DNA and
enzyme synthesis
2. LOG Phase
-exponential growth phase or logarithmic growth phase
- cells begin to divide and enter a period of growth or
logarithmic increase
- cellular reproduction is most active
- growth rate is at its greatest
- microorganisms sensitive to adverse conditions
ex. Penicillin
3. STATIONARY Phase
- period of equilibrium
- during this phase that the culture is at its greatest
population density
- # of cells produced= # of deaths
4. DEATH phase
- Logarithmic decline phase
- # of deaths greater than the # of cells formed
- toxic waste products increase and nutrient
supply
decrease
III. MICROBIAL GROWTH
- An increase in the number of organisms
Culture Media
Requirements:
1. Contain the right nutrients
2. Must be initially sterile
3. Incubated at proper temperature
Forms:
1. Liquid (broth)- infusion media
2. Agar– addition of a solidifying agent poured
into tubes or Petri dishes
Blood agar
Types:
1. Synthetic Media
- chemically defined medium
- exact chemical composition is known
- used for growth of chemoautotrophs and
photoautotrophs and microbiological assays.
2. Complex Media
- natural medium
- contains digested extracts from animals, meats, fish, yeast
and plants
-used for growth of most heterotrophic bacteria and
fungi
3. Enriched Media
- broth or solid medium containing a rich supply of
special nutrients that promote the growth of fastidious
organisms (ex. Complex nutritional requirements)
- add nutrients to the basic medium (nutrient agar)
- ex. Blood Agar---nutrient agar + 5% sheep RBC
Chocolate agar--- nutrient agar + powdered
Hemoglobin
- increase numbers of desired microbes to
detectable levels
4. Selective media
- suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the
growth of desired microbes
- ex. Bismuth sulfite agar--- Salmonella typhi
Mac Conkey’s agar– Gram- negative bacteria
Thayer-Martin agar --- Neisseria
Sabouraud dextrose agar--- fungi
5. Differential media
- permits the differentiation of organisms that grow in the
medium
- ex. Mac Conkey’s Agar --- gram negative organisms
lactose fermenters----pink colonies
Non-lactose fermenters-- colorless
Salmonella culture
MacConkey’s agar
End of Lecture