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Krashens Input Hypothesis

NADZIRAH RAZAK NUR ARIF ZAINUDIN MAIYHURRI AP GUNASEKARAN

"Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." Stephen Krashen "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen "In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful."Stephen Krashen

Five Hypotheses

Evaluations of the five hypotheses

Output Hypothesis

What is input and output?

(process of understanding language)

(Production)

listening

reading

speaking

writing

Five Hypotheses
1. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Two ways (adult)

Acquisition

Learning

Subconscious

Conscious

Fluency in second language performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned.

Krashen

Conscious learning

Subconscious acquisition

are NOT able to exist at the same time (mutually exclusive)

Application for teaching


According

to this theory, the optimal way a language is learned is through natural communication. As a second language teacher, the ideal is to create a situation wherein language is used in order to fulfill authentic purposes. This is turn, will help students to acquire the language instead of just learning it.

2. Monitor Hypothesis
Only

involved in learning, x acquisition for editing & making corrections

Device

Krashen,

such explicit intentionally learning should be avoided. after

Should only be applied fluency is established

Application for teaching


As

an SL teacher it will always be a challenge to strike a balance between encouraging accuracy and fluency in your students. This balance will depend on numerous variables including the language level of the students, the context of language use and the personal goals of each student. This balance is also known as Communicative competency.

Application for teaching


As

an SL teacher it will always be a challenge to strike a balance between encouraging accuracy and fluency in your students. This balance will depend on numerous variables including the language level of the students, the context of language use and the personal goals of each student. This balance is also known as Communicative competency.

3. Natural Order Hypothesis


By

following the earlier morpheme

order studies of Dulay and Burt

Krashen

claimed that:

we acquire language in a predictable or natural order

Application for teaching

According to this hypothesis, teachers should be aware that certain structures of a language are easier to acquire than others and therefore language structures should be taught in an order that is conducive to learning. Teachers should start by introducing language concepts that are relatively easy for learners to acquire and then use scaffolding to introduce more difficult concepts.

4. Input Hypothesis

Krashen: Comprehensible the only true foundation input = of SLA

Comprehensive input: understanding of input language, that contains a bit beyond the current level of competence. (i + 1)

Speech will emerge once acquirer has built up enough comprehensible input

Application for teaching

This hypothesis highlights the importance of using the Target Language in the classroom. The goal of any language program is for learners to be able to communicate effectively. By providing as much comprehensible input as possible, especially in situations when learners are not exposed to the TL outside of the classroom, the teacher is able to create a more effective opportunity for language acquisition.

5. Affective Filter Hypothesis


Krashen:

the best acquisition will when we have low anxiety and defensive-free

occur

low affective filter (in Krashens terms)

Appliccation for teaching

In any aspect of education it is always important to create a safe, welcoming environment in which students can learn. In language education this may be especially important since in order to take in and produce language, learners need to feel that they are able to make mistakes and take risks. This relates to directly to Krashens hypothesis of the affective filter.

6. the Reading Hypothesis


This

hypothesis basically states that the more we read in a SL the greater our vocabulary will be. Application for teaching : It is important to involve reading in the language classroom to increase knowledge of the language and the way it is used in real-life contexts.

Evaluations of the five hypotheses


1st criticism:
Krashen

McLaughlin (psychologist)

Rather fuzzy distinction between subconscious (acquisition) and conscious (learning)

it is difficult for us to identify the conscious or subconscious distinctions, in language acquistion.

Evaluations of the five hypotheses


2nd criticism:
Krashen

Gregg

Learning is not as important as acquisition

Learning & acquisition can both be beneficial depends on the learners own styles and strategies

Evaluations of the five hypotheses


3rd criticism:
Krashen

Gregg & White

Claimed that the input one understands MUST contains i + 1, that is the comprehensive input

We are unable to define i and 1

Evaluations of the five hypotheses


4th criticism:
Krashen

Criticism

Speech will emerge once acquirer has built up enough comprehensible input

Speech will indeed emerge for bright learners BUT no significant information on Krashens theories about learners whose speech does not emerge

The Output Hypothesis

Introduced by Merill Swain (1985)

Output

important role in SLA

She denied Krashens claims a person could learn second language without speaking at all. Her studies in Canada : but not having to reply in French did not achieve full productive competence in French

English-speaking students learn all subjects in French

Three major functions of Output in SLA

1. Get learners to recognize their


linguistic weaknesses

2. A way to

try out / test ones language

3. For the learner to think deeper on language

Conclusion
Related to CALL It includes input and output Our Groups View Input go hand in hand with output They achieve the most efficiency when both of them work together

4 skills

Source: Brown, H. Douglas. 2007. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 5th Edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. Chapter 10