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Micronutrient rich natural products for health

Natural Sources of Micronutrients


K. Madhavan Nair, PhD Scientist E Micronutrient research group Department of Biophysics National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR)

Conference on Micronutrient Fortification of Foods: Science, Application & Management 7-8 January 2011

BALANCED DIET
Contain different types of food in such quantities and proportions that the need for energy, protein, minerals and vitamin is not only met, but a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of leanness.

Food groups and balanced diet and RDA of micronutrients for a reference man
CEREALS & MILLETS (400g)

Micronutrients
Iron (mg) Zinc (mg) Iodine (g) Vitamin A (g) -Carotene (g) Thiamine (mg)

RDA
17.0 12 150 600 4800 1.7 1.6 18 2.0 40 200 1.0

PULSES & LEGUMES (80g)

VEGETABLES & FRUITS (400g)

MEAT, FISH AND POULTRY (60g)

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS (300ml)

FATS & OILS (30g)

Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Vitamin B6 (mg) Vitamin C (mg) Folate (g) Vitamin B12 (g)

(ICMR Nutrient requirement and recommended dietary allowance for Indians, Edition 2010)

Natural Sources of Micronutrients

Primary Sources
Contains the micronutrients

Secondary Source
Enhances utilization of the micronutrient

Food Plant source Animal Source

Non Food

Animal foods like red meat also improve absorption of micronutrients from plant sources

Primary source of micronutrients


Whole-Grains Vegetables Fruits many water soluble vitamins: Folic acid, vitamin C, carotene Fatty Fish Vitamin A, D, omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] & docosahexaenoic acid [DHA])

Fe, Zn, Mn, Se, Fe, Zn Cu, I folic acid, total B vitamins, folic beta-carotene, acid, vitamin E vitamin C Dairy Ca, I, Vitamin A Meat vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, D

Nuts vitamin E

Sun light Vitamin D

6% 12%

4%

20%

18%

60%
80%

VEGETABLES

FRUITS

CEREALS

PULSES

VEGETABLES

FRUITS

MEAT

IRON
12% 25%

VITAMIN C

10%
23%

10% 8% 52% 20%


12% 28%

CEREALS PULSES VEGETABLES NUTS & OILSEEDS FLESH FOODS

CEREALS

PULSES

GLV

OTHER VEGETABLES

MEAT

FOLATE

ZINC

The Complexities Of Bioavailability In Human Nutriture

Welch R M , Graham R D J. Exp. Bot. 2004;55:353-364

Processing to Improve Mineral Bioavailability

Enzymatic Methods Germination , fermentation , Malting involve enzymatic hydrolysis of phytic acid . Non Enzymatic Methods Thermal processing , soaking , milling can reduce phytic acid content of certain plant based staples . .

Secondary Sources of Micronutrients


These improve nutrient availability and/or utilization

Dietary modifications Functional foods (Prebiotics and Probiotics)

Dietary modifications: Examples of food sources that promote micronutrient bioavailability

Major dietary sources

Nutrient

Substance Certain organic acids (e.g. ascorbic acid, fumarate, malate, citrate) -carotene

Fresh fruits and vegetables


Green and orange vegetables Fe , Zn Flesh foods Animal and vegetable fats vitamin A, -carotene

Certain amino acids (e.g. methionine, cysteine, histidine, and lysine)

Fatty acids, Micellarization,

Natural sources and non-heme iron absorption


The potency of 100g of cooked meat in enhancing iron absorption has been graded as equal to that of 100mg ascorbic acid. A 30 g addition of most fruits that are moderate to high in ascorbic acid is effective in increasing the iron availability in typical wheat based meals. Exceptions are the ones, which have high levels of polyphenols.

Hemoglobin repletion in anemic adolescent girls


The experimental group 100 g guava fruit with the lunch and dinner meals, ascorbic acid of 212 mg per meal, molar ratio of 25:1. Impact 19 g/L increase in hemoglobin from initial 107g/L to final 129g/L 3 g/L in control group from 110 to 113 L.
Seshadri J Human Nutr Appl Nutr 39A: 151-54, 1985.

What is striking is that natural foods have the capacity to increase iron absorption several fold especially in iron deplete subjects.

Ascorbic acid intake can be improved by :

Inclusion of fresh fruits and vegetables


Minimal processing

Processing which may improve ascorbic acid content , eg germination

Nair KM and Iyengar V . Iron content, bioavailability & factors affecting iron status of Indians. Indian J Med Res 130, November 2009, pp 634-645

Vitamin A and pro carotenoids


Bio availability Preformed vitamin A 70-90%. Pro carotenoids varies with fat intake, type of food and its preparation. Bio conversion: Purified beta carotene in oil 2 g will yields 1 g of retinol (2:1 ratio) In food 6:1 12:1, 8:1.
IOM, 2000, ICMR 2010

Red Palm Oil


Red palm oil (RPO), derived from the mesocarp of the oil palm

(Elaeis guineensis), is rich source of -carotene .


Serum retinol concentrations in schoolchildren before and after supplementation with red palm oil or vitamin A

Ingredient
Total Carotene (g/g) -Carotene (g/g) Tocopherols and tocotrienols (ng/L)

Content
550 375 468

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 RPO Vit A After Before

Rukmini C. Red palm oil to combat vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Food Nutr Bull 1994;15:126 9.

Underutilized Plant Food Sources Rich In Carotene (mg/100g)

Gaju kura1 (Solanum nigrum) Dela kura1 (Ficus religiosa)

14.0 12.6

Drumstick leaves2 Sweet gourd2

6.6 8.5

1. 2.

Rajyalakshmi P, Venkatalakshmi K and Venkatalakshmamma K . Total carotenoid and beta-carotene contents of forest green leafy vegetables consumed by tribals of south India . Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 56: 225238, 2001. Kidmose U et al. Content of carotenoids in commonly consumed Asian vegetables and stability and extractability during frying. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 562571

Improving Micronutrient Content In Plant Foods : Biotechnical Approaches Orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes(OFSP)

The International Potato Center , South West and Central Asia

Non Food Sources


Spirulina : The Edible Microorganism
Spirulina - food produced primarily from two species of cyan bacteria: arthrospira platensis, and arthrospira maxima . Spirulina 62% amino acid content 70-170mg/100g a good source of -carotene 127244 g / 100 g exceptionally high vitamin B-12 content, though its bioavailability is debated .

Essential vitamins produced by intestinal bacteria in humans and/or animals

Vitamin Vitamin K Vitamin C

Source Synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine Most animals' microbiota can synthesize ascorbic acid, with the exception of primates (including humans), guinea pigs and Mongolian fruit bats Synthesized by intestinal bacteria Synthesized by intestinal bacteria Synthesized by intestinal bacteria Synthesized by intestinal bacteria

Niacin Pantothenic acid Biotin Folic acid

Vitamin B12 Microbial synthesis is only source in nature

Pre and probiotics May Contribute To Improved Mineral Utilization

Prebiotics Increased solubility of minerals Enlargement of the absorption surface Melioration of gut health

Probiotics Degradation of mineral complexing phytic acid

Stabilization of the intestinal flora


Impact of modulating growth factors

Conclusions
Natural sources of micronutrients are abundant. Great potential for converting them into products either to increase the micronutrient intake or their bioavailability