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VOLUNTRY

MOVEMENT
REM EMB ER……
 Every voluntary movement requires postural
adjustment which are mostly automatic & make
use of reflexes .

 Complex movements (walking) involve


complicated sequences which are controlled
without conscious attention although can be
voluntarily interrupted & other movements can
superimposed upon them .
WHERE I S VOL UNT RY
MO VEME NT
INI TI ATED ?
 Large areas of cerebral cortex are devoted to
fine movements of hand , mouth , tongue &
feet .

 Large conspicuous pathway from a part of


cerebral cortex , just anterior to the central
sulcus , into the brain stem & so on to the
spinal cord .

 Lesions in the motor area were known to result


in profound disturbances of movement
PI ECES TO BE
COLL ECTED & PAR TS TO
BE INTEG RATE D
 The large motor pathway running from the cortex into
the spinal cord is called PYRAMIDAL TRACT
after the pyramid = a cone shaped structure in the
brain stem , all other pathways involved in movement
are called EXRAPYRAMIDAL

 Most of the large pyramidal shaped cells in the motor


cortex were connected polysynaptically through chains
of excitatory & inhibitory neurons to the extrafusal
alpha motor neurons.
 About 10% of the pyramidal tract fibers in primate are
connected monosynaptically to extrafusal fibers .

 Monosynaptic pathway is thought to be of special use


for rapid voluntary movement of the hand .

 When very careful lesions were made in pyramidal


tracts in monkeys , only the finest of finger
movement were lost especially those of the thumb
& index finger while great variety of voluntary
movements remained .

 Before movements begin from a motor control centre ,


the pyramidal tract neurons discharge action potentials
50 – 100 msec before movement .
WHA T A RE TH E F UN CTIO NS OF
OTH ER B RAIN ST RUC TUR ES K NOW N
TO BE IN VOL VE D I N MOV EME NT ?

 Cerebellum & basal ganglia play a


subsidiary but important role in the
control of voluntary movement .

 Movements are not elicited on


stimulation of the above structures BUT
profound movement disturbances occur
when they are damaged or diseased .
IN TE GRAT IO N
 Movement is initiated by the entire motor
nervous system & no centre is above the
others or control the rest but coordinated
sensible voluntary movement is initiated
by the concerted integrated action of the
cerebellum , motor cortex , basal ganglia
& all other areas of pyramidal & extra
pyramidal systems .
CEREB ELL U
M
 Cerebellum might supply feed back information
mainly from joints & muscle receptors to the
motor cortex .

 Functionally , it consists of a midline portion


( lesions affect balance & equilibrium ) & lateral
portion ( more involved with voluntary
movement = 1-decreased muscle tone,2- late
in starting,3- not accurately terminated ) .
 In summary , the lateral lobe & nuclei of the
cerebellum appear to assist in ordering the
sequence of contraction in different muscles &
to ensure that contraction occurs at the right
moment during voluntary movement .

 Cerebellum receives an “advance report” of


activity in the pyramidal tract . Proprioceptive
information processed by the cerebellar cortex
influences & modifies the output of the
cerebellar nuclei & subsequently the motor
centers & plays an important role in the
coordination of voluntary movement .
BASA L
GANGL IA
 Lesions in it result in purposeless
unwanted movements .

 In animals , it is the major motor centre


MOTO R
COR TEX
 Somatic representation in the motor cortex
shows that the upper most part of it contains
neurons that supply the leg & foot
musculatures while the lower part of it supplies
the face & tongue . The main output from it is
from the pyramidal shaped cells which project
to both pyramidal & extrapyramidal pathways .
This is in part explains the profound paralysis
which results from destruction motor cortex
while pyramidal tract damage results only in
loss of very fine movements