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Presented by

Dr. Ashok Chandra Wireless Adviser to the Govt. of India, Ministry of Communications & IT

Radio Spectrum : A major resource


It is an important natural scarce resource needed for all wireless applications. Radio spectrum is always around us in the form of invisible waves. Radio spectrum is used by countless technologies that affect most aspects of our lives. If you pick up any newspaper, you will find an article somewhere relating to radio spectrum. If it is not in the technology section it will almost certainly be in the business section. Radio Waves Applications
Radio Waves

Today, radio spectrum has become a significant contributor to national gross domestic product (GDP).

Radio Spectrum : A major resource


According to a French jurist J.D. Bedin the frequency spectrum is technology, industry, money, culture, and power The RF spectrum is a multi-dimensional concept. Dimensions are:
Radio frequency bandwidth, time span, geometrical volume, and for space applications - a segment of the satellite orbit.

There have been suggestions that other quantities, such as polarization, are also its dimensions.

There are numerous areas in which the radio frequency spectrum is vital defence, public safety, weather forecasts, disaster warning, air-traffic control, and air navigation are a few examples only.

Radio Frequency Spectrum

Why We need regulation


Radio frequency spectrum is a limited natural resource. Radio frequency spectrum does not respect international geographical boundaries as it is spread over a large terrestrial area. Two important physical characteristics (natural principles) of radiocommunications:
If two radio stations to effectively communicate, they must use the same frequency; and If two or more radio stations are operating at the same frequency, within the same geographical area, at the same time, stations are susceptible to mutual interference which could reduce the quality of the communication or make it unintelligible.

Why We need regulation


Limited portion of the radio frequency spectrum is useful for specific telecommunication services:
Propagation characteristics of different types of radio waves. Availability of technology and equipment for different types of radio frequency spectrum applications. The suitability of frequency bands for specific applications

Unlike other natural resources, radio frequency spectrum is not consumed upon its usage. It is also liable to be wasted if it is not used optimally and efficiently. Radio frequency spectrum usage is therefore to be shared amongst the various radio services and must be used efficiently, optimally and economically in conformity with the provisions of national and international laws

Why We need regulation


The current spectrum allocation process operates at both a national and international level.

At international level, International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialised agency of the United Nations, is responsible for spectrum management.
Broadly, international bodies tend to set out high level guidance which national bodies adhere to in setting more detailed policy.
International coordination is essential in some cases because the zones of possible interference extend beyond national geographical boundaries and in other cases because users are inherently international, e.g. aviation. At national level, each administration has its own regulating agency like NTIA/FCC in USA, Ofcom in UK and WPC Wing in India.

International Telecom Union


ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies

Founded on 17 May 1865 as the International Telegraph Union


It took its present name in 1934, and in 1947 became a specialized agency of the United Nations. 191 Member States, 700 Sector Members & Associates 750 staff / 70 nationalities Annual budget = $140,000,000

International Telecom Union


191 Member States 645 Sector Members 106 Associates

Member States Sector Members Associates

Regional/National SDOs e.g. ETSI, IEC

UN bodies e.g. WMO, WHO


Industry fora e.g. WiMAX

Regional Frequency Management e.g. CEPT

International Telecom Union


ITU works through Plenipotentiary conferences, Council, World conferences on International Telecommunications and General Secretariat.

ITU does:
International regulations and plans Management of radio frequency spectrum Standards and recommendations Assistance to developing countries

Key priorities
Radio spectrum

International standard
Emergency communications & climate change

Digital divide
Cyber security

ITU Overview
ITU
ITU-T
Telecommunication standardization of network and service aspects 191 Member States +700 Sector Members

Helping the World Communicate

ITU-D
Assisting implementation and operation of telecommunications in developing countries

ITU-R
Radiocommunication standardization and global radio spectrum management

ITU Functions

Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)
ITU-R is a standards body subcommittee of the ITU relating to radio communication. Its role is to regulate the allocation of radio frequencies and to reduce the interference between radio stations in various countries. It also has responsibility for regulating orbital positions of satellites relating to radio communications. The ITU-R plays a vital role in the management of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits, finite natural resources which are increasingly in demand from a large number of services and those communication services that ensure safety of life on land, at sea and in the skies.

Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)
Radiocommunications Bureau Radiocommunications Assembly (meeting of all Study Groups)
Administers the Radio Regulations (Table of Frequency Allocations) Performs technical work and drafts Recommendations (permanent) Guides SG technical work

Study Groups Working Parties

Plans and approves technical work (Recommendations)

Task Groups
Performs technical work drafts Recommendations (highly urgent, short term)
Slide 14

Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)

The tasks of Radio Communication Sector are:

To ensure rational, equitable, efficient use of the radiofrequency spectrum and satellite orbits To register the frequency and orbital positions assignments made by the Member States To maintain the relevant master databases

Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)
ITU-R Mission
To ensure rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the radio-frequency spectrum by all radiocommunication services, including those using satellite orbits, and to carry out studies and adopt recommendations on radiocommunication matters.
In implementing this mission, the actions in ITU-R aim at creating the conditions for harmonized development and efficient operation of existing and new radiocommunication systems, taking due account of all parties concerned.

ITU-R functions conducted through:


World and Regional Radiocommunication Conferences Radiocommunication Study Groups Radio Regulations Board Radiocommunication Bureau

ITU-R Organisation

ITU-R Function

World Radio Conference (WRC)


Supreme body in worldwide management and regulation of the radio frequency spectrum. The body authorized to revise Radio Regulation. Held normally every four years, based on the national studies and the work of Study Groups reports. The ITU-R study Groups performs: develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences compile handbooks on spectrum management and emerging radiocommunication services and systems.

World Radio Conference (WRC)


Under the terms of the ITU Constitution, a WRC can: revise the Radio Regulations and any associated Frequency assignment and allotment Plans;

address any radiocommunication matter of worldwide character;


instruct the Radio Regulation Board and the Radio Communication Bureau, and review their activities; determine Questions for study by the RA and its Study Groups in preparation for future Radiocommunication Conferences

The WRC Cycle


ITU Member States (including Regional Groups, Informal Group)

Revisions to RR, Resolutions & Recommendations Final Acts

RA

Technical bases

Rec

WRC CPM-2 Director


ITU Council

RRB

SC and Study Groups:


SG-1: Spectrum management SG-3: Radiowave propagation SG-4: Satellite services SG-5: Terrestrial services SG-6: Broadcasting service SG-7: Science services CPM: Rec: RoP: RR:

Radiocommunication Bureau
RoP

CPM-1

Next WRC Agenda

Conference Preparatory Meeting ITU-R Recommendation Rules of Procedure Radio Regulations (treaty status)

RRB: Radio Regulations Board SGs: Radiocommunication Study Groups SC: Special Committee (Regulat. & Procedural) RA: Radiocommunication Assembly WRC:World Radiocommunication Conference

Radiocommunication Assembly
Radiocommunication Assemblies (RA) are responsible for the structure, programme and approval of radiocommunication studies. Normally convened every three or four years. The Radiocommunication Assembly 2012 was held from 16-20 January 2012, immediately preceding WRC-12. The Assemblies:
assign conference preparatory work and other questions to the Study Groups; respond to other requests from ITU conferences; suggest suitable topics for the agenda of future WRCs; approve and issue ITU-R Recommendations and ITU-R Questions developed by the Study Groups; set the programme for Study Groups, and disband or establish Study Groups according to need; Appoint chairmen and vice-chairmen of the Study Groups; Approve ITU-R Recommendations developed by the Study Groups.

ITU-Radio Regulations (RR)


The Radio Regulations (treaty status) incorporates the decisions of the World Radiocommunication Conferences, including all Appendices, Resolutions, Recommendations and ITU-R Recommendations incorporated by reference.
Recognised as an International Treaty Set a framework for the National Regulatory Authorities to license radio users

ITU-Radio Regulations (RR)

Frequency block allocations to defined radio services (Article 5) Definition of services (e.g. Fixed, Mobilesatellite)

Mandatory or voluntary regulatory procedures (coordination, plan modification, notification, recording) that are adapted to the allocation structure
Technical constraints (Power limits etc.) International registration /co-ordination procedures

Study Groups
Specialists from telecommunication organizations and administrations around the world participate in the work of the Radiocommunication Sectors study groups.
ITU-R study groups:

develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems
draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences

compile handbooks on spectrum management radiocommunication services and systems.

and

emerging

Study Groups
During the meeting of RA held in October 2007, the Structure of ITU-R Study Groups have been restructured as under:

Study Group 1 (SG 1) Spectrum management Study Group 3 (SG 3) Radio wave propagation Study Group 4 (SG 4) Satellite services Study Group 5 (SG 5) Terrestrial Services Study Group 6 (SG 6) Broadcasting service Study Group 7 (SG 7) Science services

Works: >900 Recommendations Standards in areas of spectrum management and radio technology Result of consensus from meetings of world-wide experts Some referred to in RR Used by spectrum planners and system designers

Study Group Study Group 1 (SG 1) Spectrum management Study Group 3 (SG 3) Radio Wave propagation

Working Party
Working Party 1A (WP 1A) Spectrum engineering techniques Working Party 1B (WP 1B) Spectrum management methodologies and economic strategies Working Party 1C (WP 1C) Spectrum monitoring Working Party 3J (WP 3J) Propagation fundamentals Working Party 3K (WP 3K) Point-to-area propagation Working Party 3L (WP 3L) Ionospheric propagation and radio noise Working Party 3M (WP 3M) Point-to-point and Earth-space propagation Working Party 4A (WP 4A) - Efficient orbit/spectrum utilization for FSS and BSS Working Party 4B (WP 4B) - Systems, air interfaces, performance and availability objectives for FSS, BSS and MSS, including IP-based applications and satellite news gathering Working Party 4C (WP 4C) - Efficient orbit/spectrum utilization for MSS and RDSS Working Party 5A (WP 5A) - Land mobile service above 30 MHz*(excluding IMT); wireless access in the fixed service; amateur and amateur-satellite services Working Party 5B (WP 5B) - Maritime mobile service including Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS); aeronautical mobile service and radiodetermination service Working Party 5C (WP 5C) - Fixed wireless systems; HF and other systems below 30 MHz in the fixed and land mobile services Working Party 5D (WP 5D) - IMT Systems Joint Task Group 5-6 - Studies on the use of the band 790-862 MHz by mobile applications and by other services Working Party 6A (WP 6A) - Terrestrial broadcasting delivery Working Party 6B (WP 6B) - Broadcast service assembly and access Working Party 6C (WP 6C) - Programme production and quality assessment Joint Task Group 5-6 - Studies on the use of the band 790-862 MHz by mobile applications and by other services
Working Party 7A (WP 7A) Time signals and frequency standard emissions Working Party 7B (WP 7B) Space Radiocommunication Applications Working Party 7C (WP 7C) Remote Sensing Systems Working Party 7D (WP 7D) Radio astronomy

Study Group 4 (SG 4) Satellite services


Study Group 5 (SG 5) Terrestrial Services

Study Group 6 (SG 6) Broadcasting service

Study Group 7 (SG 7) Science services

Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing


WPC Wing, created in 1952, functions as the national radio regulatory nodal agency of the Government of India The only National Authority for RF Spectrum Management. Responsible for planning, regulating, and managing the limited resources of Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum Acts through the Indian Telegraph Act 1885 (ITA 1885) and the Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 (IWTA 1933).

National agency for all matters related to ITU-R sector and AsiaPacific Telecommunity (APT). 28

Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing


Assignment of frequencies for all wireless networks in country Government, Public and Private networks. the

Interference and compatibility analysis for all new requirements with existing and planned frequency usage.
Site clearance of all wireless installations in the country and related matters concerning the Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocations (SACFA) Formulation of National Frequency Allocation Plans (NFAP), Frequency Channelling Plans, Standardisation of radiocommunication equipment for spectrum management

National Frequency Allocation Plan


The National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP) of India was evolved and made effective from 01.01.2000. NFAP is the basis for development, manufacturing and spectrum utilization activities in the country. NFAP is reviewed periodically in line with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in order to cater to newly emerging technologies taking into account spectrum requirements of the government/ private sector as well as to ensure equitable and optimum utilization of the scarce limited natural resource of radio frequency spectrum. The provisions of NFAP protect the existing assignments under their existing status, unless and until it is decided to modify or relocate these assignments. All necessary technical, operational, regulatory and administrative measures are taken so as to avoid harmful interference.

National Frequency Allocation Plan


The NFAP forms the basis for development and manufacturing of wireless equipment and spectrum utilisation in the country

NFAP-2011 is released on 30 September 2011 made effective from 1 October 2011 some of the salient features of NFAP-2011 are:
in line with the decisions of World Radiocommunication Conference 2007 (WRC-07) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) contained in Radio Regulations (Edition 2008)

It has been developed to cater to newly emerging technologies such as Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Intelligent Transport System (ITS), Short Range Devices, etc
Efforts have been made to ensure equitable and optimum utilization of the scarce limited natural resource of radio frequency spectrum. It has enabled provisions in few frequency bands for indigenous development and Manufacturing. While developing the NFAP-2011 due care has been taken to ensure protection of existing services.

National Frequency Allocation Plan

Section of NFAP

International Frequency Allocation Table


National Frequency Allocation Table Footnotes to International Frequency Allocation Table Remarks in the National Frequency Allocation Table Channeling Plan

National Frequency Allocation Plan


MHz 3300 3600 NATIONAL ALLOCATION INDIA 3300 - 3400 RADIOLOCATION FIXED MOBILE Amateur 5.149 REMARKS IND 65

3400 - 3500 FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile Amateur Radiolocation 5.433 5.282
3500 - 3600 FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile 5.433A Radiolocation 5.433

IND 66

IND 66

National Frequency Allocation Plan


MHz 3300 3600 NATIONAL ALLOCATION INDIA 3300 - 3400 RADIOLOCATION FIXED MOBILE Amateur 5.149 3400 - 3500 FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile Amateur Radiolocation 5.433 5.282 REMARKS IND 65 National Footnotes

Frequency band for national allocation

Sub-frequency band

Primary Services
IND 66

Secondary Services

3500 - 3600 FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile 5.433A Radiolocation 5.433

IND 66

International Footnotes

Todays Radio Spectrum Management


Recent changes since the early 1990s Technical advances have enabled the emergence of new systems using radio networks (GSM, FWA, DVB-T, WiFi, WiMax...)

These new systems are more complex and require more resources (sites, frequencies, etc.) then previous services
Market deregulation has increased the number of players and has made necessary the establishment of strong and independent regulation authorities

Todays Radio Spectrum Management


Consequently, new constraints have appeared : Limitations on resources such as Frequencies and sites, the use of which must be optimized The crowding of the spectrum is leading the Regulation Authorities to share the bands between a larger number of services

There are several other challenges like interference Management, international coordination, maintaining Technology Neutrality and harmonisation etc., and to provide safeguard to the wireless based public services and to draw the economic efficiency from the spectrum.

Todays Radio Spectrum Management


The current approach to spectrum management is not capable to deal such challenges. How the spectrum will be managed in future is not very much clear at the moment but to overcome these challenges, a new flexible spectrum management is essentially required.

The flexible spectrum management means that spectrum can be accessed on dynamic basis and to be free from technology specific restrictions imposed by the traditional spectrum allocation.
In simple way, Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) allowing the new user (unlicensed) to access spectrum which has already been allocated to another user (licensed). Cognitive Radio technology is one solution of DSA.

Cognitive Radio
The term Cognitive Radio, was first introduced by Joseph Mitola in an article published in 1999 A radio system employing technology that allows the system to obtain knowledge of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state; to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols according to its obtained knowledge in order to achieve predefined objectives; and to learn from the results obtained.

Cognitive Radio
Key Features:
Maintains awareness of its operational and geographical environment and its internal state adjusts its operating parameters to meet requirements and goals Learns from previous experiences to further improve its performance Reasons on observations to adjust adaptation goals Take future decision based on anticipated events Collaborates with other devices to make decisions through collective observations and knowledge

Cognitive Radio
Obtaining knowledge of the operational radio and geographical environment to detect the spectrum white space and also to exit as soon as possible when primary user resume its communication. Decision and adjustment i.e. selecting best suited frequency bands and adjust its operating parameter dynamically according to obtained knowledge. Learn from the past actions to further improve its performance.

Cognitive Radio
Cognitive radio requirements
co-exists with legacy wireless systems uses their spectrum resources does not interfere with them

Cognitive radio properties


RF technology that "listens" to huge swaths of spectrum Knowledge of primary users spectrum usage as a function of location and time Rules of sharing the available resources (time, frequency, space) Embedded intelligence to determine optimal transmission (bandwidth, latency, QoS) based on primary users behavior

Application Scenarios
Licensed network Cellular, PCS band Improved spectrum efficiency Improved capacity Third party access in licensed networks
TV bands (400-800 MHz)

Non-voluntary third party access Licensee sets a protection threshold

Secondary markets
Public safety band

Unlicensed network

ISM, UNII, Ad-hoc


Automatic frequency coordination

Voluntary agreements between licensees and third party


Limited QoS

Interoperability
Co-existence

SCC41 Working Group


IEEE 1900.1: Standard Definitions and Concepts for Spectrum Management and Advanced Radio System Technologies IEEE 1900.2: Recommended Practice for Interference and Coexistence Analysis IEEE 1900.3: Standard for Assessing the Spectrum Access Behavior of Radio Systems Employing Dynamic Spectrum Access Methods IEEE 1900.4: Standard for Architectural building blocks enabling network-device distributed decision making for optimized radio resource usage in heterogeneous wireless access Networks IEEE 1900.4a: Standard for Architectural Building Blocks Enabling Network-Device Distributed Decision Making for Optimized Radio Resource Usage in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Networks IEEE 1900.4.1: Standard for Interfaces and Protocols Enabling Distributed Decision Making for Optimized Radio Resource Usage in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks IEEE 1900.5: Standard on Policy Language and Policy Architectures IEEE 1900.6: Standard on interfaces and data structures for exchanging spectrum sensing information

Cognitive Radio System in ITU-R


WP1B
CPM text on WRC-12 agenda item 1.19 Draft WRC Resolution [A119-B2] for WRC-12 agenda item 1.19

WP5A
Working document towards a draft new Report ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS1] Working document towards a draft new Report ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS2]

WP5D
Preliminary draft new Report ITU-R M.[IMT.CRS]

History of CR in ITU-R
Mar, 2006: Canada proposed Question for cognitive radio in ITU-R WP8A Characteristics, performance, application -> WP8A Concept, frequency management, regulation -> WP1B Sep, 2006: Question for cognitive radio (Q.241/5) was approved WP8A technically studies CR, and WP1B studies regulatory issues. Jun, 2007: Start drafting Report on CR@WP8A Nov, 2007: Agenda item 1.19 (SDR and CR) @WRC-07 Nov, 2007: CPM (Conference Preparatory Meeting) Responsible group: ITU-R WP1B Jun, 2008: Start study in WP1B Work on draft CPM text (definition, regulatory issues) Jun, 2010: Finalize draft CPM text in WP1B Jun, 2011: Finalize ITU-R Resolution in WP1B Jan, 2012: RA-12 Jan-Feb, 2012: WRC-12

ITU-R WRC-12 on CRS

ITU-R WRC-12 on CRS


WRC 12 : Agenda Item No. 1.19
to consider regulatory measures and their relevance, in order to enable the introduction of software-defined radio and cognitive radio system, based on the result of ITU-R studies, in accordance with Resolution 956(WRC-07).

RESOLUTION 956 (WRC-07):

Regulatory measures and their relevance to enable the introduction of softwaredefined radio and cognitive radio systems

resolves to invite ITU-R to study whether there is a need for regulatory measures related to the application of cognitive radio system technologies; to study whether there is a need for regulatory measures related to the application of software-defined radio, resolves further
that WRC-11 consider the results of these studies and take the appropriate actions.

Study structure for agenda item 1.19 (WRC-12)

CPM Report
Definition of Cognitive Radio System (as published in Report ITU-R SM.2152):
Cognitive radio system (CRS) is a radio system employing technology that allows the system to obtain knowledge of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state; to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols according to its obtained knowledge in order to achieve predefined objectives; and to learn from the results obtained.

CPM Report
In the case of LMS, CRS technologies may yield significant benefits by providing increased spectral efficiency of existing spectrum and mitigate the problem of congestion Common Concern within ITU-R
Potection of existing services from potential interference from the services implementing CRS technology, especially from the dynamic spectrum access capability of CRS. Any system of a specific service using CRS in a frequency band allocated to that service should be operated in accordance with the provisions of the Radio Regulations and administration rules.

CPM Report
Deployment Scenarios:
Use of CRS technology to guide reconfiguration of connections between terminals and multiple radio systems
Use of CRS technology by an operator of radiocommunication systems to improve the management of its assigned spectrum resources Use of CRS technology as an enabler of cooperative spectrum access Use of CRS technology as an enabler of opportunistic spectrum access

CPM Report
CRS challenges and opportunities
Some concerns with respect to the use of the CRS technology to

dynamically access the spectrum for the band exclusively allocated to Passive services

Satellite operators in the EESS using passive sensors Interference avoidance to FSS and BSS (detection of receive-only terminals and use of database) Any use of CRS technologies for safety-of-life operations The hidden node problem by fading and shadowing effects
A CRS station to obtain the proper authorization from the relevant Administration prior to the use of the spectrum.

CPM Report
CRS capabilities and their applicability to facilitate coexistence in shared bands
spectrum sensing capability including collaborative and cooperative sensing; positioning capability of the transmitters and receivers (geo- location); a ccess to information on the spectrum usage, local regulatory requirements and policies, e.g. through access to a database or access to a logical or physical cognitive pilot channel; capabilities to adjust operational parameters based on the obtained knowledge.

These capabilities of CRS may help improve coexistence amongst radiocommunication systems deployed under the current regulatory regime

CPM Report
Analysis of Result of Studies: The implementation of CRS will have to be in accordance with the Radio Regulations and with national regulations. Whether CRS technology is used as an enabler of cooperative spectrum access amongst system operators or of opportunistic spectrum access, administrations issue the authorization for a station to use a radio frequency. Further studies required on CRS technology, addressing especially dynamic and/or opportunistic spectrum access. Regulatory implications for CRS:
No need for modification to the Radio Regulations

No change to the Radio Regulations and an ITU-R Resolution providing guidance for further studies on CRS It is proposed to develop a Resolution calling for studies on CRS with special emphasis on sharing issues.

CRS in ITU-R WP5A


Report submitted in two parts;
ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS1]: Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service (Part 1) :
General description of cognitive radio systems , Technical features and capabilities, Potential benefits, Technical Challenges and Deployment scenarios

ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS2]: Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service (Part 2) :
Applications, Cognitive Radio systems operational techniques, Coexistence, Technical consideration regarding the impact on spectrum use and Annexure

CRS in ITU-R WP5D


Report ITU-R M.[IMT.CRS] Cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems describes mainly:
Scenarios of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems, Determination of the IMT spectrum usage, Description and impacts of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems and Performance of IMT systems with CRS capability

Scenarios of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems


Upgrade of an existing radio interface or a network with a new radio interface

Scenario of cognitive radio systems in intra-operator


Time 1
carrier 1 carrier 2 carrier 3 carrier 1 carrier 2 carrier 3

IMT-2000 Time 2

IMT-Advanced

carrier 1

carrier 2

carrier 4

carrier 1

carrier 2

carrier 3

IMT-2000

IMT-Advanced

IMT-Advanced

IMT-2000 Node B

IMT-Advanced Node B

Scenarios of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems


In-band coverage/capacity improvement by relays

Self-configuration and self-optimization of femtocells Multi-modes coexistence and simultaneous transmission

WRC -12 Decision w.r.to CRS


RESOLUTION 956 (WRC-07)
Regulatory measures and their relevance to enable the introduction of software-defined radio and cognitive radio systems

Decision:
SUPPRESSED (No further Study) considering that no need for modification to the Radio Regulations

WRC -12 Decision w.r.to CRS


RECOMMENDATION COM6/1 (WRC-12): Deployment and use of cognitive radio systems

Recognizing
a) b) c) that any radio system implementing CRS technology needs to operate in accordance with the provisions of the Radio Regulations; that the use of CRS does not exempt administrations from their obligations with regard to the protection of stations of other administrations operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations; that CRSs are expected to provide flexibility and improved efficiency to overall spectrum use,

recommends
that administrations participate actively in the ITU-R studies conducted under Resolution ITU-R 58, taking into account recognizing a) and b).