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Evaluation of Reservoir Performance Using Decline Type Curves Improve Reservoir Description - Area Central Norte (ACN) Region,

El Tordillo Field Argentina


Final Project for Carlos Alejandro Berto
Master of Engineering

Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas. A. Blasingame


Department of Petroleum Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas

Outline

El Tordillo Field Description. Area Central Norte Waterflood Project Description. Data Acquisition and Preparation. Production and Injection Data Analysis. Integration of Results. Conclusions and Recommendations

Objectives

To present a description of El Tordillo Field and the Area Central Norte waterflood project. To show the preparation of the production and injection data.

To analyze and interpret the reallocated production data.


To demonstrate the various analyses. To integrate the results (as maps and crossplots). To make recommendations for future waterflood projects in El Tordillo Field.

El Tordillo Field
71 70 69 68 67

0
44

30

MILES
71 70 69 68 67 66

SOMOCURA MASSIF

44

MILES

WESTERNMASSIF SOMOCURA

ANDEAN BELT

AREA

ANDEAN BELT

COMODORO RIVADAVIA

CENTRAL AREA

SOUTH-

OCEAN

CHILE

ARGENTINA

45

NORTHWESTERN AREA WESTERN AREA

46

CENTRAL 45 BASIN

OFFSHORE

46 COMODORO RIVADAVIA

47 CENTRAL
BASIN OFFSHORE

ATLANTIC

WESTERN COMODORO RIVADAVIA AREA

46

SOUTH FLANK

SOUTHWESTERN AREA 47

71 FLANK 70

SOUTH

DESEADO MASSIF
69
47

68

67

66

71

70

DESEADO MASSIF
69 68 67

66

TORDILLO FIELD EL TORDILLO


TORDILLO FIELD EL TORDILLO

SUPERFICIE=116 Km

8.8 Km

SUPERFICIE=116 Km PERIMETRO=154 Km

8.8 Km

PERIMETRO=154 Km

El Tordillo Field is recognized as one of the major oil fields in Argentina.

ATLANTIC

WESTERN AREA NORTH

COMODORO RIVADAVIA

OCEAN

CHILE

ARGENTINA

30

45

NORTH-

NORTH 44 CENTRAL AREA

El Tordillo Field is located in The San Jorge Basin, Patagonia (Argentina)


66 44 45 46

Area: 29000 Acres

47

El Tordillo Field Reservoir Data

Total numbers of wells

850

Production oil wells


Injection water wells Average final depth

420
69 9,840 ft

Area
OOIP

29,000 acres
1,800 MMSTB

Cumulative oil (Aug. 1999) 189 MMSTB

Reservoir Description

El Tordillo Field reservoir consists of a complex of fluvial-dominated sandstone sequences comprised of multiple layers with distinctive shale zones. Sandstones bodies are concentrated in groups, locally called complejos. Normal faults are the most common and most important structures in the reservoir.

Trbol, Comodoro Rivadavia, Mina El Carmen are principal producing formations in the stratigraphic column in the reservoir.

El Tordillo Field Waterflood Performance


There are several producing regions within El Tordillo Field with:

Excellent continuity of oil-bearing sands, Sequence development, and A high cumulative oil recovery.
These three characteristics are sufficient to define El Tordillo Field as feasible for waterflooding.

El Tordillo Field Waterflood Performance


EL TORDILLO PRODUCCION POR SECUNDARIA
1400 1200

Waterflood Oil Rate in ACN

(Aug 99)

= 2200 STB/D

1000

CAUDAL [m3/d]

800

600

400

200

Oct-91

Oct-92

Oct-93

Oct-94

Oct-95

Oct-96

Oct-97

Oct-98

Abr-92

Abr-93

Abr-94

Abr-95

Abr-96

Abr-97

Abr-98

Ene-92

Ene-93

Ene-94

Ene-95

Ene-96

Ene-97

Ene-98

Ene-99

Abr-99

Jul-91

Jul-92

Jul-93

Jul-94

Jul-95

Jul-96

Jul-97

Jul-98

MESES

T.SUR

TN

ACN

LPE

BLOQUE D

ACNE

LPS

ACNSOM

TSPROF.

Area Central Norte project (ACN) has an excellent secondary response.

Jul-99

Area Central Norte (Region Map)

Area Central Norte

Project Area Cross-Sections


E S-667 0 ft PATAGONIA FORMATION 1000 ft Oil production Oil and Water production Dry Horizon (No production) Gas production Gas, Oil, and Water production Injection horizon Converted water injection well S-678 S-537 S-691 S-694 S-637 S-624 S-572 S-634 S-632 S-631 S-682 w S-782

2000 ft

SARMIENTO-RIO CHICO FORMATION

3000 ft SALAMANCA FORMATION 4000 ft EL TREBOL FORMATION 5000 ft

6000 ft COMODORO RIVADAVIA FORMATION 7000 ft

8000 ft

8141 ft

7993 ft 8787 ft

8095 ft 8443 ft 8532 ft 8532 ft 8580 ft MINA EL CARMEN FORMATION

8207 ft

8450 ft 8472 ft

8561 ft 8521 ft

9000 ft

10000 ft

0 ft

1300 ft

2600 ft

3900 ft

5200ft

6500 ft

7800 ft

9100 ft

10500 ft

Stratigraphic Cross Section A-A for ACN Project Area

Area Central Norte (Region Map)

Area Central Norte

Project Area Cross-Sections


N S-554 0 ft Oil production Oil and Water production Dry Horizon (No production) Gas production Gas, Oil, and Water production Injection horizon Converted water injection well S-719 S-720 S-693 S-637 S-638 S-516 S S-642 1000 ft PATAGONIA FORMATION

2000 ft SARMIENTO-RIO CHICO FORMATION 3000 ft SALAMANCA FORMATION

4000 ft

5000 ft

EL TREBOL FORMATION

6000 ft

7000 ft

COMODORO RIVADAVIA FORMATION

8000 ft 8476 ft 9000 ft 9073 ft 10000 ft 8334 ft 8498 ft 8630 ft

8056 ft

9000 ft

8991 ft MINA EL CARMEN FORMATION

0 ft

650 ft

1300 ft

1950 ft

2600 ft

3250 ft

3900 ft

4550 ft

5200 ft 5600 ft

Stratigraphic Cross Section B-B for ACN Project Area

Top of Reservoir Contour Plot (ft) ACN Study Region El Tordillo Field Patagonia, Argentina

Reservoir Thickness Contour Plot (ft) ACN Study Region El Tordillo Field Patagonia, Argentina

Data Preparation

Production Data

Injection Data
Static Reservoir Data

Data Preparation Production Data


The fact that the production data are commingled may significantly affect our ability to analyze and interpret the production for each well: It is impossible to provide an analysis for each individual layer. The production data is re-allocated in Area Central Norte (ACN) zones: Comodoro Rivadavia and Mina El Carmen formations

Data Preparation Production Data


Re-allocated Production Data

Well Production Data Fluid Properties

Neighbor Wells Data Wellbore Diagrams

Geological Markers

Available information used to re-allocate production on a perwell basis after each completion and each re-completion.

Data Preparation - Steps

Identify errors or anomalies in the production


injection data. practices.

and

Locate and annotate changes in the completion

Reinitialize the production data in time. Reallocate the total production for each reservoir
interval.

Data Preparation Re-allocation


Production Performance Plot for Well 516
Comparison of Total Oil Rate and ACN Project Zones Oil Rate
1.E+03

ACN sands Oil Production


Oil Production Rates , STB/D

Non -ACN sands Oil Production

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00

1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998
Date, year

Data Preparation

Production Data

Injection Data
Static Reservoir Data

Data Preparation Injection Data


Although the injection wells are injecting in a multi-stage fashion (i.e., injection over several layers simultaneously), the total injection per well is used in the analysis because the oil production could not be identified sand by sand.

Data Preparation

Production Data

Injection Data
Static Reservoir Data

Data Preparation Static Reservoir Data


To estimate the static reservoir pressure as a function of date, we used the fluid level measured in swab tests (performed on individual sands (or groups of sands)) during the productive life of each well. Although the pressure data show a poor correlation with date, we believe that the data are reasonable, and as such, we have used the average trend for our analysis.

Data Preparation Static Reservoir Data


Static Reservoir Pressure Assigned by Date
El Tordillo Field, Argentina ACN Region
3000

2500

high avg.

Pressure (avg.) = 84426 - 41.8 * year Datum : 7664 ft

Static Reservoir Pressure, psi

2000

low
1500

1000

500

0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Date, year

Data Result Using Decline Type Curves


Production Wells The material balance type curve analyses yield two types of results: flow and volumetric parameters.

Reservoir properties
Skin factor for near well damage Effective permeability, k

or stimulation, s

In-place fluid volumes


Original oil-in-place, N Movable oil at current conditions, N p,mov Reservoir drainage area, A

Example: Well S-677 (Oil)


The well data used in these analyses are:

Reservoir Properties
Porosity: Irreducible Water Saturation : Net Pay Interval : Initial Reservoir Pressure: 0.15 (fraction) 0.25 (fraction) 131 ft 1,830 psia

Fluid Properties
Oil Formation Volume Factor: Oil Viscosity: Total Compressibility 1.2 RB/STB 1.0 cp 25 E-6 psia-1

Production Performance Plot for Well S-677


ACN Project - Blue, Junior, Brown Zones
1.E+04

Oil

Production Rates , STB/D

Water
1.E+03

Secondary Primary Trend #1

Completion (Oct. 76)

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00 1975

1979

1983

1987

1991

Workover (Aug. 93)


1995

Workover (Jun. 82)

1999

Date, year

Well S-677 (Oil) Match Trend #1

We note a good match of all the production data, for both the transient
and boundary-dominated flow periods in trend #1.

Production Performance Plot for Well S-677


ACN Project - Blue, Junior, Brown Zones
1.E+04

Oil

Production Rates , STB/D

Water
1.E+03

Secondary Primary

Completion (Oct. 76)

Trend #2

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00 1975

1979

1983

1987

1991

Workover (Aug. 93)


1995

Workover (Jun. 82)

1999

Date, year

Well S-677 (Oil) Match Trend #2

We note an excellent match of all the production data, for both the
transient and boundary-dominated flow periods (Trend #2).

Production Performance Plot for Well S-677


ACN Project - Blue, Junior, Brown Zones
1.E+04

Oil

Production Rates , STB/D

Water
1.E+03

Secondary Primary

Completion (Oct. 76)

1.E+02

1.E+01

Secondary Trend

1.E+00 1975

1979

1983

1987

1991

Workover (Aug. 93)


1995

Workover (Jun. 82)

1999

Date, year

Well S-677 (Oil) Match Secondary Trend

We note a good match of all the production data in the boundary-dominated flow periods during the secondary production trend.

Results: Well S-677 (Oil)


The production rate (and pressure) functions were plotted versus material balance time (Np/q) on the FetkovichMcCray type curve. The following average results are obtained:

Volumetric Properties
Original Oil in Place, N = 5,485 MSTB Drainage Area, A = 92.8 acres

Flow Properties
Permeability, Skin factor, k = 0.452 md s = -5.57

Estimated Ultimate Recovery Analysis


Primary Performance

Extrapolating the trends prior to waterflood response to qo=0, the primary movable oil is obtained.
qo vs. Np (Semi-Empirical-Approach) (S-677)
(This plotting approach is used when bottomhole pressure data are not available).

Estimated Ultimate Recovery Analysis


Secondary Performance

Extrapolating the trends in the waterflood period to qo=0, the secondary movable oil is obtained.
qo vs. Np (Semi-Empirical-Approach) (S-677)
This plotting approach is used when bottomhole pressure data are not available.

EUR Analysis: Results Well S-677 (Oil)


Primary Performance
Np,mov: Recovery factor:
Np,mov: Recovery factor:

328.9 MSTB 6.0 %


201.7 MSTB 3.68 %

Secondary Performance

Secondary/Primary Recovery Ratio = 0.613

Data Result Using Decline Type Curves


Injection Wells
As for oil cases performed previously, the material balance type curve analyses yield two types of results: flow and volumetric parameters.

Reservoir properties

In-place fluid volumes

Skin factor for near well damage or stimulation, s Effective permeability, kw


Total system volume available for injection, W Injectable water, Winj Injection area, A

Example : Well S-638 (Water Injection)


The well data used in the analysis are:

Reservoir Properties
Porosity: Irreducible Water Saturation : Net Pay Interval : Initial Reservoir Pressure: 0.15 (fraction) 0.25 (fraction) 166 ft 1,000 psia

Fluid Properties
Oil Formation Volume Factor: Oil Viscosity: Total Compressibility 1.01 RB/STB 1.0 cp 40 E-6 psia-1

Injection Performance Plot for Well S-638


ACN Project - Blue, Junior, Brown Zones
1.E + 06 6,000

Water Injection Rates , STB/D

1.E + 05

5,000 4,500 4,000

1.E + 04

3,500 3,000

Conversion (Oct. 93)

Workover (Oct. 95)

Workover (Apr. 97)

Workover (Oct. 98)

1.E + 03

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

1.E + 02

1.E + 01

9401

9501

9601

9701

9801

9901

Date, year

Flowing Bottomhole Pressure , psia

Pwf qwi

5,500

Well S-638 (Inj.) Match Injection Trend

We note a good match of the injection datafor both the transient and transition flow periods.

Results: Well S-638 (Injection Well)


The injection rate (and pressure) functions were plotted versus material balance time on the Fetkovich/McCray type curve .The following results were obtained:

Volumetric Properties
Total system volume available for injection, Injection Area,

W = 42,040 MSTBW A = 439.6 acres

Flow Properties
Permeability, Skin factor, kw = 1.848 md s = -6.498

Estimated Injectable Water Analysis S-638


Injection Performance

By plotting the injectivity index, (qwi/Dp), versus cumulative water injection, we can estimate the injectable water volume when (qwi/Dp)=0.

(qwi/Dp) vs. Wi

We note a reasonably linear trend with significant data scatter. The extrapolation of this trend yields Winj = 11.1 x 106 STBW

Integration of Results - Maps


The following maps are presented as a mechanism to integrate the results from our individual well analyses:

Flow Capacity, kh Original Oil-in-Place,OOIP Primary and Secondary EUR Total Recovery Factor Secondary/Primary Recovery Ratio.

Flow Capacity (kh) Contour Map

OOIP EUR(p)

Original-Oil-in-Place (OOIP) Contour Map

EUR(p) kh

Primary EUR - Contour Map

OOIP kh

Secondary EUR - Contour Map

Total Recovery Factor - Contour Map

Secondary/Primary Ratio - Contour Map

Integration of Results - Crossplots

Crosplots are presented to estimate average values for the


primary and secondary recovery factors and secondary/ primary recovery ratio: EURPrimary vs. OOIP EURSecondary vs. OOIP EURSecondary vs. EURPrimary

Log-log correlation plots were prepared as an attempt to


obtain meaningful relations between the computed flow capacity and the oil recovery versus initial oil rate in order to estimate the performance of infill wells in the ACN Region: kh, OOIP, EURPrimary , EURSecondary vs. Oil Rates.

Crossplot: Primary EUR versus OOIP


Comparison of Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Primary) Versus Oil-in-Place (OOIP ) Computed from Decline Type Curve Analysis El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+07

Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Primary), STB

1.E+06

1.E+05

EUR

PRIMARY

= 0.1 OOIP

1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08

Computed Oil-in-Place, STB

Crossplot: Secondary EUR versus OOIP


Comparison of Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Secondary) Versus Oil-in-Place (OOIP ) Computed from Decline Type Curve Analysis El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+06

Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Secondary), STB

1.E+05

1.E+04

EUR
1.E+03 1.E+05

SECONDARY

= 0.047 OOIP

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+08

Computed Oil-in-Place, STB

Crossplot: Secondary EUR versus Primary EUR


Comparison of Secondary Estimated Ultimate Recovery Versus Primary Estimated Ultimate Recovery El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+07

EUR
Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Secondary), STB

Secondary

= 0.47 EUR

Primary

1.E+06

1.E+05

1.E+04 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07

Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Primary), STB

Crossplot: kh versus Initial Oil Rate (qoi)


Comparison of Flow Capacity (kh ) Versus Initial Oil Rate El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+03
High

Computed Flow Capacity (kh ), md-ft

Avg Low

1.E+02

1.E+01

kh

(avg)

= 4.7624 q oi

0.4944

1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04

Initial Oil Rate, STB/D

Crossplot: OOIP versus Initial Oil Rate (qoi)


Comparison of Oil-in-Place (OOIP ) Computed from DeclineType Curve Analysis Versus Initial Oil Rate El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+08
High

Computed Oil-in-Place, STB

Avg Low

1.E+07

1.E+06

OOIP
1.E+05 1.E+01 1.E+02

(avg)

= 119017 q oi

0.6681

1.E+03

1.E+04

Initial Oil Rate, STB/D

Crossplot: EURprimary versus Initial Oil Rate (qoi)


Comparison of Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Primary) Versus Initial Oil Rate El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+07

Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Primary), STB

High Avg Low

1.E+06

1.E+05

EUR (primary) (avg) = 25010 q oi

0.5243

1.E+04 1.E+01 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04

Initial Oil Rate, STB/D

Crossplot: EURsecondary versus Initial Oil Rate (qoi)


Comparison of Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Secondary) Versus Initial Oil Rate El Tordillo Field, Argentina (ACN Region- Zones : Blue, Junior, and Brown)
1.E+06
High Avg Low

Estimated Ultimate Recovery (Secondary), STB

1.E+05

1.E+04

EUR
1.E+03 1.E+01

(avg) (Secondary)

= 14299 q oi

0.4538

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

Initial Oil Rate, STB/D

Integration of Results Time Dependency

Integration of Results Time Dependency

Integration of Results Time Dependency

Integration of Results Time Dependency

We note that the previous comparisons do not


show any specific trends. The lack of any specific time dependency of the results clearly confirms that the reservoir is highly heterogeneous and probably of a low, to very low permeability.

Conclusions
The following conclusions are noted:

The guidelines to set the production and injection reallocation are well established an all of the necessary information/ data was identified and sorted.

The decline type curve and volumetric analyses yielded


acceptable estimates of original oil-in-place, as well as primary and secondary movable oil.

The calculation of movable oil volume using the q versus Np


plot yields acceptable results (unless pwf varies significantly).

Conclusions (Cont.)
Integrating the results of this study, we identified areas with
favorable conditions for additional oil reserves. We believe that a detailed analysis (on a well-by-well basis) of these zones will support the drilling of new infill wells in the ACN Region.

We observed relatively constant trends of OOIP and primary


EUR versus completion date, which confirms that the reservoir is highly heterogeneous, is of low permeability, and infill wells should improve overall recovery.

Crossplots of results developed in this study can be used as


predictive tools for estimating the recovery of infill wells of the ACN Region.

Conclusions (Cont.)
The secondary/primary recovery ratio for the ACN Region
(0.47) is a useful parameter for predicting secondary EUR in the preliminary evaluation of other projects with similar characteristics as El Tordillo Field.

Recommendations
In order to enhance the recovery in the ACN Region, a detailed surveillance program is proposed:

Monitoring of production by sands or by groups of sands. Periodic measurements of static reservoir pressure. Pressure and rate monitoring of water injection. Periodic step rate tests to optimize injection pressures and
rates. Injection profile logging (for routing of injections fluids). Periodically perform specific production tests. Periodically check fluid levels to ensure pump-off in producing wells.

Dedication
This work is dedicated to my lovely wife, Diana and to my two beautiful children, Lucia y Manuel.

Acknowledgments
I would like to thank Tecpetrol S.A for providing me the opportunity and the financial support to pursue my Master of Engineering degree at Texas A&M University. I would also like to thank the following individuals for their contributions to this work:

Dr. T.A. Blasingame , for serving as Committee Chairman, and for his advise, support, and encouragement during this investigation. Dr. A. Datta-Gupta, Dr. R. Thompsen and Dr. J. Watkins for serving as Committee Members.

Evaluation of Reservoir Performance Using Decline Type Curves Improve Reservoir Description - Area Central Norte (ACN) Region, El Tordillo Field Argentina
Final Project for Carlos Alejandro Berto
Master of Engineering

Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas. A. Blasingame


Department of Petroleum Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas