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BOILER CONTROL

M. H. RAJAB

Level Control
Steam drum level control is necessary to the safety and proper operation of the boiler.
The system should control the drum level at a specific set point while compensating for varying steam demands and drum pressures.

While keeping the level fixed in large steam boilers; small variations are torable and controlled.

Water Level control


The safeguard logic that controls the lowwater cut-out safeguard should cause all pilot and main fuel shut-off valves to close (through a master fuel trip) if and when the water level drops below the preset limit of the level switch.

Water Level control


In the event of a master fuel trip, a manual reset is required from a location and in such a way that the cause of the fuel trip can be determined and the cause corrected prior to restarting the boiler.

Water Level control


The low-water cut-out is required by code to have a fail-safe design An open circuit, wire break, or disruption of electrical service shall cause a master fuel trip and prevent continued operation of the boiler.

Water level Controls in the Water column

Section View showing level probes

Types of Level Switches


The water-level cutout switch is typically either an electrode type or float type device. In an electrode style, the water level opens (or closes) the electric circuit as it uncovers (or covers) the probe electrode. In a float type, the water level mechanically moves a float up and down, which moves an electrical switch, which opens and closes at the appropriate level conditions.

Typical electrode type switch

What methods are used to control the water level?


Boiler water level is controlled either by switching the boiler feedpump on and off at water levels determined by a probe and controller (on / off control), or by progressively opening or closing a feedwater valve as the steam demand causes the water level to change in the boiler (modulating control).

ON/ OFF Control

On/ off control


On/off control systems are most suitable for installations where a certain amount of variation in boiler pressure and steam flowrate can be tolerated.

Modulating control

Modulating control
Modulating control gives a steady pressure and steam flowrate in steam boilers. The feedwater flowrate is varied, for example through a modulating valve, in response to changes in water level. With modulating control, the boiler feedpump is running all the time, and a spill-back line used to return unused feedwater to the feed tank.

Alarms (limiters)
In order to operate safely, all steam boilers need a method of warning of excessively low or high water levels. In many countries, regulations require two independent low water level alarms, or limiters. Independent high alarms are also required .

Conductivity or Capacitance?
The majority of boiler level controls and level alarms operate on the principle of conductivity or capacitance

Conductivity

Conductivity
A conductivity probe and controller can be used in a boiler for on /off pump control and/or alarm duties. It has one electrode for each function, which is cut to the required length on installation.

Each probe electrode acts as a simple switch, indicating a low resistance to earth if in water, or a high resistance if out of water.

Conductivity
For example, with a low alarm, the controller senses a change of resistance from low to high as the water level falls below the probe tip. This change in resistance causes the controller to disengage a relay to operate an alarm bell, light, or both, and normally will trip the burners. Simple conductivity probes operate on this principle, and have no self-checking facility.

Capacitance

Capacitance
A capacitance probe can be used for modulating or adjustable on /off control. The probe consists of a conductive core completely sheathed in an insulating material.
For this reason, capacitance probes cannot be cut to size, so are available in several different lengths.

Capacitance
As the water level rises or falls, the capacitance coupling effect changes. A high or a low level alarm switching point can also be selected.

Control System
Controllers are available for pneumatic or electrically actuated valves or variable speed pumps. Increases safety concern had demanded devices that are self-monitoring and will give warnings of system faults and allow safe shutdown of plant.

Control System
The more advanced of these standards require two independent high integrity, self-monitoring low water level alarms which periodically carry out a self-checking routine.

Control System
The self-monitoring operation is achieved by mounting a comparator tip above the probe tip. The resistance to earth is measured at the comparator tip and this is compared with the measurement at the probe tip.

Control System

Control System
By continuously monitoring both tips, the controller will indicate an alarm if scale or dirt builds up on the tips or insulators, or if moisture enters the probe body.

Control System
A cyclic self-test facility in the controller checks the integrity of the probe, probe cable and electronic circuitry every few seconds. It will activate the alarm and shut down the burner if a fault should occur.

Control System
The system will detect both open-circuit and short-circuit conditions in the cable. Normal working and alarm conditions are indicated by light emitting diodes in the controller. The system provides a high integrity, selfmonitoring, fail safe operation.

Typical high integrity self-monitoring conductivity probe

Control System
The main user advantage of these special low water level alarms is not only increased safety but also that daily testing is not necessary.

This means that there is little point in fitting high integrity probe controls in external chambers, where it would still be necessary to blow through the chambers, on a daily basis, to remove any sludge.

On/off level control with high integrity selfmonitoring low level alarms (limiters)

Differential pressure measuring transmitter .

Capacitance measuring electrode transmitter.

Conductivity measuring electrode level switch.

Level float switch.

Typical float-type switch

Level displacer transmitter.

DRUM LEVEL CONTROL


The problem of feeding water to the boiler at such a rate to keep a steady water level is of primary interest. Most codes state that boilers must have at least two ways of feeding water to the boiler.

DRUM LEVEL CONTROL


Every boiler must have some sort of water level control in order to operate automatically.
The most common type of water level control is the float type controller. It triggers mechanical or mercury electric contacts when water level rises or drops out of specified level.

DRUM LEVEL CONTROL


These contacts are activated via magnetic force. Permanent magnet is attached to float mechanism and as the float moves up and down so does the magnetic field. These controllers are reliable and have been in use for many decades.

Electronic Design
This controller is a contact type device. It uses electrodes to sense water level and it is designed around two digital integrated circuits. This particular design uses oscillator to produce alternating current which is then coupled to sensing electrodes via ceramic capacitors.

Electronic Design
Frequency of alternating current from oscillator is 1 kHz (one Kilohertz) and its main purpose is to prevent electroplating of electrodes, the problem you encounter when using direct current for sensing purposes. The alternating current sent to electrodes is of low voltage and very low current, hence it poses no danger of electric injury.

Electronic Design
This unit is all solid state, has no moving parts, and is very small in size. It is suitable as an exclusive control unit in small boilers, or it can be used as back up system to float level controllers.

Mode of Operation for Water Level Control


When water reaches a mid level electrode, output of the controller is activated after a 10 second delay. This delay is preventing false triggering when there is only temporary water contact with the electrode, such as splashing or bubble bursting.

Mode of Operation for Water Level Control


The controllers output is connected to the solenoid, which then bypass pumped water back to deaerator. Once the water is evaporated and drops below the electrode the solenoid closes and boiler water level rises.

Mode of Operation for Water Level Control


The solenoid can control the pneumatic valve if a very large amount of water is to be controlled. This controller is capable of controlling the boiler water level to better than 1/8" variation with a high degree of reliability.

Mode of Operation for Low Water Alarm


If water drops below low electrode, the low water level output of the controller is activated after 2 second delay. This output can turn on back up pump, if electric pumps are used to feed the boiler, and sound audible and visual alarm. Since the loss of water in a boiler is a dangerous condition that can result in destruction of your boiler, it is very important to have a low water level alarm installed on your boiler.

Mode of Operation for High Water Alarm


If water rises to high electrode, the high water level output of the controller is activated after 2 second delay. This output can turn off pump, if electric pumps are used to feed the boiler, and activate audible and visual alarm. Overfilling the boiler is also a dangerous condition. Overfilled boiler can send destructive water slug into your turbine, therefore it is important to have a high water level alarm installed on your boiler.

Controller Reliability
The reliability of this controller is outstanding. As long as the electrodes are periodically cleaned in a preventive maintenance program it is unlikely it will malfunction. The connecting wiring between electrodes and controller must be periodically checked especially at the electrode side because it tends to oxidize there due to high temperature.

Controller Reliability
Since the wire is disconnected each time the electrode is unscrewed from boiler for cleaning, you can check it once it is connected back to the electrode. The electrodes themselves are made of stainless steel and will last forever.

ON-OFF FEEDWATER PUMP CONTROL


Most of the smaller boilers have onoff feed-water pump controls. The float type and the submerged electrode type have generally the same principle. The only difference among them is minor problems in maintenance.

ON-OFF FEEDWATER PUMP CONTROL


The electrode style may be subject to loss of effectiveness from grease or corrosion products coating the electrodes. Floats on the other hand may spring leaks from corroding or collapse from high surges of pressure from water hammer conditions.However, if this happens there very likely will be other troubles encountered from the water hammer.

ON-OFF FEEDWATER PUMP CONTROL


The on-off controller turns the boiler feedwater pump on and off to meet the level requirements of the boiler regardless of what the water level in the storage tank happens to be. Therefore the tank should be sized such as to ensure always having sufficient water within it to keep to pump supplied and to prevent the boiler from becoming starved which could be disastrous or at least inconvenient.

Modulating Level Controllers


Larger boilers often have modulating water level controls. These are especially desirable in watertube boilers with a small volume of water contained in the drum combined with a high steaming rate ie: a high turnover rate. The water level in this arrangement is usually very sensitive and can induce trouble; consequently modulating style can be used.

DRUM LEVEL BOILER CONTROL


Typically there are three strategies used to control drum level, with each successive strategy a refinement of the previous strategy. The recommended strategy depends on the measurement and control equipment available and the extent of the load change requirements

Single Element Control


Requires a water level measurement and a feedwater control valve. It is typical in firetube boilers and is recommended for boilers with modest load change requirements and relatively constant feedwater conditions.

Control System

Two Element Control


Requires drum level measurement, load demand measurement and feedwater valve control. The load demand change is typically inferred from the steam flow rate measurement. This strategy is recommended for boiler applications with moderate load change requirements.

Two Element Control


Drum water level is affected by the firing rate of the burner. The higher the firing rate, the more water vapor bubbles are formed in the water phase, causing the water volume to expand. This effect is most noticeable during firing rate changes. It is known as swell, and the opposite effect is known as shrink. Single element control does not handle this phenomenon well.

Three Element Control


Requires drum level measurement, steam flow measurement, feedwater flow rate measurement and feedwater valve control. This method is recommended for boiler applications with a wide range of load changes.

Three Element Control


In three-element drum level control, the feedwater flow rate is measured as well as the drum level and steam flow rate. The control strategy is more robust than either single element or two-element control since it accounts for changes in any of the three measurements. Controllers can include a direct TDS probe input to regulate the boiler blowdown sequence.

Firing and Combustion Control

Firing Requirements Due to load Change


When considering changes of steam pressure it must be understood that the steam pressure does not change immediately on load change nor in proportion to load change. The change in pressure is a resultant of load change, firing rate, and heat storage. The heat storage is contained in the water, tubes, superheaters, airheaters, economizers, in fact all the boiler parts.

Firing Requirements Due to load Change


It follows that a pressure drop cannot be restored without over-firing for the load being carried.

This is in order to replace the withdrawn stored energy which was given up while the pressure was dropping.
The reverse occurs on a rise in pressure, when the boiler must be underfired so that the excess energy is used for steam production.

Firing Requirements Due to load Change


From all these points it can be easily seen that the time constant of a boiler is large when compared with the other possibly short time constants of a control system.
This must be taken into consideration when setting up an automatic boiler controls system because the boiler and controlled auxiliaries are part of the control system.

Steam Flow-Air Flow Control


If a boiler is operating at its rated temperature and pressure, steam flow will be proportional to the heat output. The losses are known and can be added as equivalent heat units to the heat output so as to give a figure for the heat input, and there is a definite relationship between steam flow, heat input and air required.

Steam Flow-Air Flow Control


This relationship is used to control the amount of air needed for correct combustion conditions for any particular steaming rate. When a change in load occurs, there will be a change in boilers pressure, which has to be brought back to rated value. Therefore, the fuel required is in excess of the steam demand for an increased load, and vice versa for a decreased load, in order to restore the pressure as quickly as possible

Combustion Air Control System

The master pressure transmitter combined with the steam flow transmitter alter the airflow controller.
The output from the airflow controller is applied to a metering controller, which sends a signal to the fan damper positioning control or a fan motor speed regulator.

Steam Flow-Air Flow Control


The airflow to the combustion chamber is metered, and a feedback signal applied to the the metering controller to ensure that it gives the right adjusted air quantity.

Fuel Flow-Air Flow Control


If the load falls suddenly there is a temporary rise in steam pressure , therefore a signal from the air flow controller to reduce air supply. Because of the fixed relationship between fuel flow and airflow, there is a resultant reduction in fuel input and the combined effect of these is to reduce heat release in furnace, and thereby reduce steam generation.

Fuel Flow-Air Flow Control


This would affect the steam temperature, but the design of the boiler and superheater, together with superheater control is such that steam temperature remains substantially constant between 60% and 100%CMR for large boilers.

OIL-BURNER CONTROL
One of the essential requirements is to keep the residual oxygen in the flue gases to an absolute minimum for many reasons. Therefore, close control of fuel flow/ airflow ratio must be maintained at all loads preferably with less than 1% excess oxygen.

OIL-BURNER CONTROL
A burner ignition controller is provided to ensure smooth increase in fuel delivery by means of a special network, which calculate the oil pressure at which the additional burners are introduced. This network derives its signal from the oil manifold pressure and the number of burners already in service, using Pi= (( N+2)/1.5N)2 Pmax Where Pi = pressure to ignite the next pair of burners N = number of burners already in action

Oil burner control

Combustion Condition
While the automatic control systems will insure the correct amounts of fuel and air supplied to a boiler, operational personnel must see that these are properly used
1. Steam which is used for soot-blowing is not metered and the setting of the steam air flow control is upset during this operation. This upset condition can be considered by the use of oxygen trimming which provides a signal to compensate for the extra fuel needed for the soot-blower.

Combustion Condition
2. Attention to the even distribution of air by the adjustment of dampers is necessary so that the best use is made of combustion air which is supplied to the combustion chamber to insure balanced and stable flame propagation.

New Control Systems


For an installation of huge boilers with big capacities as in the case of power stations advanced computerized systems are recommended. In this case the cost is not an issue but the increase in efficiency and safety are the most important criteria in the selection of the system, as well as the ease of maintenance and ease of operation.

Control Network

Compu-Nox combustion control system


Compu-Nox is a fuel-air combustion control system.
It uses 12 bit data acquisition to monitor steam pressure, measure fuel flow then vary the speed of the combustion air fan to achieve the necessary combustion fuel-air ratio for maximum efficiency while maintaining , in some cases increasing boiler output capacity.

Compu-NOx
The precision fuel-air combustion control achieved by compu-NOx, increase efficiency and will result in fuel energy savings. Energy savings will range from 2 to 6 percent, providing a system payback in as 1 year depending on specific operation. It can achieve very high turndown ratios. Turndown at 15:1 can be expected, and as much as 20: 1 on some applications.

The Fan Law


A fan is the opposite of a turbine flow meter. Rotational fan speed is linear to volumetric fan air flow.

The relationship is expressed by the thermodynamic fan law.

The fan law expression is as follows

Lower Fan Horsepower


The use of a variable speed drive control of the combustion air fan provides a substantial reduction in fan horsepower at part load. Per the fan law example above, fan horsepower is reduced to the cube of boiler load. A boiler which requires 218 horsepower to power a fan at 100% load will consume a mere 0.22 horsepower at 10% load!

Lower Fan Horsepower


Operating a boiler on a hot standby mode is of little or no expense with the Compu-NOx system.

At 50% load this same boiler will consume only 27 horsepower.

Compu-NOx is also designed to control nitric oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions.
NOx is controlled by reducing excess air throughout the firing range and recirculating a precise amount of flue gas through the combustion air fan. Controlling air flow for combustion requirements, combined with FGR flow through the burner, reduces thermal NOx while maintaining efficiency and stability.

Case History: Del Monte Foods Plant 1, Modesto, CA

Compu-NOx Low NOx Retrofit Two 150,000 B&W Boilers with Original Burners

Del Monte Foods was required to reduce NOx emissions from their boilers at Modesto Plant 1 to less than 30ppm. Because of the seasonal nature of Del Montes production and their California location, two key requirements for a new control system were the ability to achieve a minimum of 10:1 boiler turndown and significant reduction in nitric oxide (NOx).

Case History: Del Monte Foods Plant 1, Modesto, CA


The competing Low NOx burner retrofit was estimated to be $400,000, more than twice the Compu-NOx approach. Del Monte's experience with the Low NOx burner retrofit at the San Jose, CA plant was very bad. The old boilers were vibrated from the NOx Mixer burners, something that should be avoided and therfore decided to install the Compu-NOx system.

SOLUTION
The Compu-NOx solution included installation of a 250 horsepower variable speed drive to control the existing combustion air fan.

The competing "low NOx burner" retrofit required change out of this fan with a 300 horsepower fan.

Compu-NOx Low NOx


The retrofit included the installation of a small 5hp flue gas recirculation fan also controlled by a variable speed drive. All the old Fisher controls were eliminated. The Compu-NOx system also included feedwater control which totally eliminated the old pneumatic control.

Results:
Del Monte is saving over $200,000 per year with the Compu-NOx System! For example, in 1995 we used 18.69 therms per ton of tomatoes. After installing the Compu-NOx system in 1997 we reduced the therms per ton of tomatoes to 16.3 (a 12.8% savings).

Results
As stated earlier, the best way to save fuel is to improve boiler efficiency. Del Monte has been able to tune their boilers to consistently operate between 0.8% and 1.4% O2 and that has saved them over $100,000 per year in natural gas cost alone.

Results
At the same time, NOx levels are consistently below air district requirements, a truly remarkable accomplishment especially considering Del Monte boilers are using the burners delivered with their 1967 and 1977 boilers.

Results
Del Montes seasonal production was a reason for the 10:1 boiler turndown requirement, but they routinely achieve a 15:1 boiler turndown while maintaining tight, responsive boiler control.

Results
The amount of flue gas required to meet 30 ppm is actually less than 12%. The flame pattern was the same as before the retrofit. This feature of the Compu-NOx system presents perhaps the greatest advantage over the low NOx burner retrofit. With the a low NOx burner, no one really knows what the outcome of the burner retrofit will be.
The flame pattern with a Compu-NOx low NOx retrofit will be exactly the same as before.

Results
The system provided control from 5% to 100%. Using the existing fan, the maximum output of the boiler exceeded 160,000 lb/hr. The direct air fuel control reduced operating costs by 5.8% for a simple payback of 8 months. During the remanufacturing period, the 250hp fan consumed a mere 400 watts of power for a savings of $7000 per month in electrical alone.

Results
The conversion resulted in:

Low NOx NOx emissions at full capacity were independently tested at 22 ppm, well below the 30 ppm required by pollution regulations in 1998. Low CO Carbon monoxide emissions tested 50 ppm at full load, compared to a 400 ppm requirement.
High Efficiency Low NOx and CO levels were attained with only 0.8% O2. Flexibility in Fuel Choice All the requirements of the pollution regulations were met.

Results
Turndown Not only did the burner exceed specifications at full capacity, but all regulations were met at turndown levels of 20 to 1. Payback The simple payback for the CompuNOx System was 8 Months!!! The Compu-NOx Combustion Control System Proves That Low NOx Burners are a Waste of Money

250 HP Fan Controlled by a Variable Speed Drive

View of the Flue Gas Recirculation

The Compu-NOx System Retrofit Provided Better Results for Less than 1/4 the Cost of a Low NOx Burner!

CompuNox Advantages
Customer Needs: Meet future regulations Quick startup Local supplier Operations: Higher efficiency Low excess air High turndown 25:1 Air Quality: 22 ppm NOx 50 ppm CO Low cost per ton of NOx removed Much higher efficiency than low NOx burners

No burner change

3 month payback!

Easy operation

Fully Networked Windows Compatible Control System


All two boilers are networked via a TCP/IP protocol to a central Computer. The system uses off the shelf programs for easily linking additional Compu-NOx systems into a seamless and upgradable control platform

Case History Tri Valley Growers Plant 1, Modesto, CA

Compu-NOx Low NOx Retrofit Two 120,000

SITUATION
Early 1996, Tri Valley Growers had enumerated 12 boilers which had to be retrofitted to meet the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's NOx limit of 30 ppm. Using proposals offered by Low NOx burner companies, TVG engineers had estimated the compliance cost to be approximately $3 million.

SITUATION
Benz Air Engineering approached TVG with a proposal to retrofit two 120,000 lb/hour Nebraska Boilers at Plant 1. The proposal guaranteed 30ppm NOx while maintaining full boiler capacity, saving TVG nearly $120,000 per boiler over the lowest cost low NOx burner retrofit. Every burner company and boiler service organization which had done business with TVG advised that the proposal would fail.

SITUATION
In the face of considerable "expert" advise to the contrary, TVG engineers convinced management that the proposal was worth trying at Plant 1. Proof of the concept could reduce TVG's compliance cost by nearly $2 million.
Benz Air Engineering's proposed payment to be 100% upon successful completion of an independent source test verifying compliance to 30ppm NOx.

SOLUTION
The Compu-NOx solution included installation of a 150 horsepower variable speed drive to control the existing combustion air fan. All the previous proposals submitted to TVG for a low NOx burner retrofit required change out of this fan with a 200 horsepower fan. The retrofit included the installation of a 5 HP flue gas recirculation fan controlled by a variable speed drive.
The design of this early Compu-NOx retrofit tied into the existing burner controls so that the old system could still function should the need arise.

RESULTS
The Compu-NOx installation Plant 1 served as the example for the future retrofits at TVG.
The installation resulted in NOx compliance to 20ppm, far lower than the required 30ppm. Indeed, the Compu-NOx retrofit of these Nebraska with 30 year old Coen DAZ burners beat the nox and performance guarantee offered by coen for their best low nox burner. The amount of flue gas required to meet 30 ppm is actually less than 12%.

RESULTS
The system provided perfect control from 5% to 100%. Using the existing fan, the maximum output of the boiler exceeded 120,000 lb/hour . The direct air fuel control reduced operating costs by 4% for a simple payback of 9 months. The fan horsepower at 120,000 lb/hour was less than 80hp, saving nearly $4000 per month in electrical cost over the Coen or Todd retrofit burner. During most of the season, the two boilers operated at 50% load so the combustion air fan consumed a mere 10hp.

RESULTS
The conversion resulted in: Low NOx NOx emissions at full capacity were independently tested at 20 ppm, well below the 30 ppm required in 1998. Low CO Carbon monoxide emissions tested 10 ppm at full load, compared to a 400 ppm requirement. High Efficiency Low NOx and CO levels were attained with only 1.8% O2. Flexibility in Fuel Choice All the requirements of the regulations were met.

RESULTS
Turndown Not only did the burner exceed specifications at full capacity, but all regulations were met at turndown levels of 20 to 1. Payback The simple payback for the Compu-NOx System was 8 Months!!! Again, The Compu-NOx Combustion Control System Proves That Low NOx Burners are a Waste of Money

Existing 150 HP Fan Controlled by a Variable Speed Drive

View of the 5 hp Flue Gas Recirculation Fan Controlled by a VFD

Low NOx Lessons Learned from the Tri Valley Growers, Plant 1 Customer Needs: Meet future regulations Quick startup Local supplier Operations: Higher efficiency Air Quality: 20 ppm NOx

Low excess air 10 ppm CO High turndown Low cost per 20:1 ton of NOx removed

Open Protocol

Tri Valley Growers purchase Compu-NOx for the remaining Boilers.


TVG used Compu-NOx system for 11 other boilers at 4 plants. Each of the installations resulted in less than 25 ppm NOx while maintaining full boiler output.
The Compu-NOx system saved TVG nearly $2 million in compliance cost, and resulted in a simple payback of investment within a 9 month operating period.

Fully Networked Windows Compatible Control System


All two boilers are networked via a TCP/IP protocol to a central Computer. The system uses off the shelf programs for easily linking additional Compu-NOx systems into a seamless and upgradable control platform. since 3-30-99

Case History: Chroma Systems, Santa Ana, CA

Compu-NOx Low NOx Retrofit Navy Destroyer 40,000 lb/hour CE boiler.

SITUATION
Chroma Systems is a Carpet Mill specializing in the manufacturing of plush carpet. The batch dyeing process is very demanding on boiler steam load. Carpet is loaded into large tanks of water with dye. The tank is heated with live steam to the boiling point which attaches the dye to the carpet. The steam demand fluctuated between 10% to 100% of total boiler capacity. Since the boiler initially had only a 30% minimum firing rate there was at least 90 on off cycles per day.

SITUATION
The boiler was originally installed in a Navy World War II Destroyer. The CE boiler has a very small firebox and is fired with 3 burners, each of which had been retrofitted with a gas ring. The boiler had the original radial type fan powered by a 50 hp motor.

SITUATION
Chroma Systems investigated the cost of a burner retrofit for the boiler and found the small firebox configuation required installation of 6 low NOx burners at a cost exceeding $250,000, more than twice the cost of the Compu-NOx retrofit. A similar installation at another carpet mill resulted in lower boiler output with even more limited turndown. Chroma could not afford another poorly performing low NOx burner retrofit due to the importance of Plant 1 to Chroma's bottom line.

SOLUTION
Benz Air Engineering guaranteed the retrofit would provide NOx reduction to less than 25ppm and full boiler output, with a full money back guarantee. The Compu-NOx solution included installation of a new 40 horsepower higher efficiency fan to replace the existing 50hp radial fan. A 40hp variable speed drive was installed. The competing "low NOx burner" retrofit actually required a higher 75hp combustion air fan. The retrofit included the installation of a small 3hp flue gas recirculation fan also controlled by a variable speed drive.

RESULTS
The Compu-NOx retrofit provided Chroma Systems a simple payback within 7 months! Turndown was increased to 20 to one with all three burners operating, which totally eliminated the excessive start / stop cycling. Indeed, the boiler rarely ever cycled off during the entire week. Chroma saved in excess of $90,000 per year from the reduced cycling. Compu-NOx retrofit of this Navy Destroyer CE boiler BEAT ANY NOx AND PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE from any burner manufacturer. An independent source test confirmed NOx reduction to less than 14ppm corrected to 3% Oxygen.

RESULTS
The system provided seamless control from 5% to 100%. Using the new lower horsepower fan, the maximum output of the boiler exceeded 40,000! The direct air fuel control reduced operating costs an additional 5%. The conversion resulted in:

RESULTS
Low NOx NOx emissions at full capacity were independently tested at 13 ppm, well below the 30 ppm required by SAQMD in 1998. Low CO Carbon monoxide emissions tested 50 ppm at full load, compared to a 400 ppm requirement. High Efficiency Low NOx and CO levels were attained with only 0.8% O2. Flexibility in Fuel Choice All the requirements of the SCAQMD regulations were met.

RESULTS
Turndown Not only did the burner exceed specifications at full capacity, but all SCAQMD regulations were met at turndown levels of 20 to 1. Payback The simple payback for the Compu-NOx System was 8 Months!!! Again, The Compu-NOx Combustion Control System Proves That Low NOx Burners are a Waste of Money

40 HP Fan Controlled by a Variable Speed Drive

View of the 3 hp Flue Gas Fan Ducting Recirculation

40 HP Fan Controlled by a Variable Speed Drive


The Compu-NOx System Retrofit Provided Better Results for Less than 1/4 the Cost of a Low NOx Burner!

Low NOx Lessons Learned from the Chroma Conversion


Customer Needs:

Operations: Higher efficiency

Air Quality: 13 ppm NOx

Meet future regulations Quick startup Local supplier

Low excess air 20 ppm CO High turndown Low cost per 20:1 ton of NOx removed

Very old boiler - NO Burner!

Fully Networked Windows Compatible Control System


All two boilers are networked via a TCP/IP protocol to a central Computer. The system uses off the shelf programs for easily linking additional Compu-NOx systems into a seamless and upgradable control platform.