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Global Developments

in

Electrical Safety

Electrical Accidents-Statistics
India Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every day (Source -NCRB)

42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD)


8% deaths that occur in factories are due to electricity

Electrical Accidents-Statistics
United States

25% of all fires occur due to electricity 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH

Present Status - ES-India


ES Awareness is slowly growing Use of HRCs /RCCBs is the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many

More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India


Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings)

Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

Various ES Standards / organizations-US


NFPA - NEC (1897) NESC (1913), from IEEE NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)-1970 OSHA (1970)

NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA


Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago (1990) NESF(1994), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

Global Developments in Electrical Safety


Electrical Safety Products

ES Auditing Techniques ES System Certifications

Electrical Risk-Based Maintenance System


Electrical RM Programme

ES Products...
Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs) Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs)

Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs)


Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool Thermography Surveys

ES Products
Automatic Defibrillators Complete Home ES Kit

Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System


Electrical Product Safety Recalls Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC)

GFCIs & RCCBs


GFCIs - 5 mA, RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA

Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS)

AFCIs
Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000 degree C, Suns outer temperature- 5000 degree C

No material on earth can withstand arc temperature


RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs

AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips


AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January onwards

Arcing types

Arcing Waveforms

A loose wire at one terminal of a light bulb.

Arcing generated by a loose wire at a screw terminal.

GCDs
GCs are fires waiting to happen Loose connections at socket terminals will cause glowing connections Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses, MCBs, RCCBs, AFCIs GCDs operate at 83 degree C Glowing connection hazards were detected by a UL study

Infra-Red Hotspot Detector


Used as part of effective EPM Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor terminations, measurement of continuously running critical motors Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting Does not penetrate glass, plastic Interpretation of readings - very critical

HFFR Cables
Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables

Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS cables Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire Retardant low Smoke) cables

Thermography Surveys
Part of predictive maintenance In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general insurance companies Identification of potential survey points / equipment and interpretation - very crucial NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys

Automatic External Defibrillators (AED) 250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac arrest AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit

For every minute that passes w/o defibrillation, the chances of survival decreases by 10%
Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/-

UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory requirement in US


No legal liability for deaths involving the use of AEDs

Linear Heat Sensing Cables


Advantageous than detectors, more effective

LHSC applications: Cable trays in cable galleries

Transformers
Switch gears

Automatic Fire D&E System

Fire Trace - local flooding application inside electrical switch gears / power panels- detects heat and the heat -sensitive tube punctures, letting out Ozone-friendly fire extinguishing gas

More ES Products
Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field)

Plug-In Wiring Checker (detects 14 wiring defects, ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E, reverse P& N)
Videoscanner, Metalliscanner (detects metallic pipes, conduits, rebar, within 15 concrete)

Home ES Kit
Cutler Hammer, USA offers Home Safety kit, comprising of: Surge protector GFCI

AFCI
MCBs

Electrical Product Safety Recalls


Part of product liability Electrical products recalled:

Power tool battery packs (defective battery fixings)


Building Wire (wrong earth wire identification)

IBM 15 PC monitor( overheating of electrical components resulting in smoke)


3 pin plugs (improper earth connection)

ES Auditing Techniques
Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique Usage of software to carry out Lightning Risk Assessment, Hazardous Area Classification Electrical HAZOP (Electrical Hazard & Operability) studies Electrical Hazard Spotting Exercises

Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique)


Risk Ranking based on severity, probability

High Risk- Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issuescorrection at the next available opportunity.

Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation

ES System Certification
Integrated Occupational Health & Safety Management System certification (OHSAS 18001) ATEX Certification (applicable to manufacturers / user industries, applicable in EU, mandatory by July 2003) UL certification for Lightning Protection (based on NFPA 780 standard) Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations

Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations


Forensic studies are commissioned by insurance companies in Japan, US, etc. Product liability claims

Reconstruction of electrical fires


Major electrical equipment failures (MBD) Investigation of Transformer fires Bus duct failures

Electrical Risk- Based Maintenance


Risk & Reliability based Maintenance Schedules

Re-Aligning the Electrical Systems in Line with Specialized International Standards to Improve electrical Safety (IEEE, NFPA 70B)
Usage of Tools / Condition Monitoring Methods to have Effective Predictive Maintenance System

Lightning -Common Myths


Lightning strikes only the tall objects/ structures
Lightning does not strike the same object twice You are safe inside a metal bodied car during lightning!

Electrical Risk Management Programme


Identification of electrical hazards

Risk Ranking (SQRR of electrical risks)


Risk Mitigation / Control using ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) principle Continuous electrical hazard identification

HAC Risk Assessment

Extension to the existing HAC approach


Would be part of future European legislation Presence of ignition sources considered in HAC

With this new HAC approach, the equipment optimization is expected to increase

New HAC-based Risk Assessment Matrix


Grade of Ignition Grade of Release Continous Continous Frequent Unacceptable Infrequent Unacceptable unless low consequences Risk Assessment required-look at consequences Acceptable (E.g. Ex n apparatus) Very Infrequent Acceptable (e.g. Ex i apparatus) Acceptable (e.g. Ex d apparatus ) Acceptable

Primary

Unacceptable

Unacceptable

Secondary

Non-Hazardous

Risk Assessment required-look at consequences but probably unacceptable Acceptable but examine catastrophic releases

Risk Assessment required-look at consequences but

Acceptable but examine catastrophic releases

Acceptable

Acceptable

Risk-Based ES Audit
Electrical Safety Audits focussed on potential risks The audit methodology designed to identify all potential electrical risks (FTA, ETA, HAZOP, etc.) Semi-Quantification of events using available failure data

Wrap-Up
Need for Electrical Safety is universal ES awareness is increasing Partnership between regulators, employers, manufacturers- growing Many injuries are prevented Learning from experience- very essential Innovative ES devices are being used by people

Much More to be done in the field of ES in India!!

Technology can afford to get obsolete but not a technocrat!!