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Complex Sentences

Definition of Complex Sentence

A Complex Sentence consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Each clause must have a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must include a subordinating word (dependent conjunction), a subject and a verb.

Formula of Complex Sentence

Only 1 IC + last 1 DC

What IC and DC ???

A clause is a word group that has a S+ a V used as a complete sentence (Independent clause) or as an incomplete sentence/fragment (dependent clause).

One subject


I love you.
One verb


Independent clause: only one subject and one verb

Independent clause


I love you, and you love me.

Independent clause



Two independent clauses joined together


Fragment! Because you love me.

A dependent clause contains a subject and verb and begins with a subordinating conjunction, and thus it does not express a completed thought. A dependent clause is also called a subordinate clause.

Dependent clause

Because you love me, I love you.

Independent clause

Subordinate / dependent clause = Fragment sentence. It cannot stand alone It needs an independent clause either before it or after it.

Noun Clause
A noun clause is an entire clause which takes the place of a noun in another clause or phrase.
Example: Noun: The chicken gave me heartburn. Noun Clause: What I had for breakfast gave me heartburn.

Adjective Clause
Adjective clause is a dependent clause which modifies nouns and takes the place of an adjective Example Adjective: the RED coat
Adjective clause: the coat which I bought yesterday

Adjective Clause

Interrogative Pronoun
Like a single-word adjective, an adjectival clause

describes a noun (in the sentence's main clause) and

answers one of these questions

which one?

what kind?

Adjective Clause
Example :

What kind of politician has the support of the people?

Answer: one who is trustworthy

Adjective Clause

Relative Pronoun
An adjectival clause usually begins with a relative pronoun, which makes the clause subordinate (dependent). Common relative pronouns:

that which who whom whose NOTE: Use who, whom, and whose to describe people. Use that and which to describe things.

Who, Whom, Whose ?

Who is used to takes place of a subject

Whom used to replace the object

Whose used to replace possessive

Adjective Clause
Example :
I saw the boys who played football
Noun Adjective Clause

Adjective Clause
The woman whom I met is Anti

The man whose house was burned

Adverb Clause
Adverb clauses is a clause that takes place of an
adverb. Adverb clauses always begin with a subordinating conjunction. Subordinating conjunctions introduce clauses and express their

relation to the rest of the sentence.

Adverb Clause
Example :
Adverb: The premier gave a speech here

Adverb Clause:

The premiere gave a speech where the workers

were striking

Subordinate Conjunction
Time when, when ever, before, after, as soon as, while, as, until
Place where, wherever

Cause because, since, as Purpose so that, in order that

Manner as, as if Condition If, unless

Contrast though, even though, although, however

Result accordingly, consequently, otherwise, therefore, so..that, such

A Tip on Punctuation

Since dependent clauses are only part of a sentence, you can never connect them to another sentence with a semicolon. Semicolons are only used between two independent clauses.

I have loved you for years ; although I never admitted it. No! I have loved you for years, although I never admitted it. OK

Any question?

Identify the clause whether it is a Noun clause, Adverb clause, or Adjective clause ! 1. Jack and Jill met the boy who was alone at home 2. You may start working whenever you are ready 3. Hidayat and his wife did the job well as everyone expected 4. Mr. Khairil agrees that he will go to Jogjakarta tomorrow 5. I know the place where she lives

Combine these two sentences using subordinating conjunction !
1. a) The football players practice everyday b) The football players expect they can win in the next match