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Group 6 Victor Alvarez Karen de la Pena Kamau Pierre Jorge Chaux Sandra Mantilla Andres Medellin

A tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, shaking movement produced when muscles repeatedly contract and relax. This involuntary movement can affect the hands, arms, head, face, vocal cords, trunk, and legs.

To implement a mechanical interface which converts a mechanical movement into electrical waveform through a piezoelectric transducer which will be used as the sensing device. Design, fabricate and test the electronic module To understand clearly the biological, mechanical , and electrical concept that builds this unintentional movement of the parts of the body, in especial our hands.

Natural causes of tremors: Caffeine Alcohol Stress, anxiety, or fatigue Age Prescription medicines Drug abuse Low blood sugar

Heritage and Neurological disorder: -Parkinsons -Multiple Sclerosis -Strokes Symptoms associated with disorders in those parts of the brain that control muscles throughout the body

Resting tremors Action tremors Postural tremors Kinetic tremors Intention tremors Task specific kinetic tremors

It occurs when the muscles of the body part are not being voluntarily contracted.
Most resting tremors can be caused by Parkinsonism. Parkinsons disease is characterized by having a range tremor frequency between 4 Hz to 6 Hz. Postural tremors have a characteristic frequency range between 5 Hz to 9 Hz.

It occurs when there is a voluntary activation or contraction of muscles.

Benign essential tremors It occurs when hands or other body parts are in a specific position for a period of time Asterixis disease

It occurs when the hand or body part is in motion This tremor can be considered as a postural tremor as well

Complex kinetic tremor It occurs when tremor becomes exaggerated when the limb is directed towards a particular target

These are tremors which will appear only with specific tasks or activities that the individual is asked to carry out Primary writing tremor

Essential tremors, sometimes called benign tremors, is the most common tremor of all of the types. Hands are the most affected body part; nevertheless, it can affect other body parts as well. Children of a parent who has essential tremor have a 50 percent chance of inheriting this condition. Under normal physiological conditions, an outstretched hand can produce a range tremor frequency between 8 Hz to 12 Hz.

More About Tremors


Essential tremor-is the most common of the more than 20 types of tremor. Parkinsonian tremor - damage to structures within the brain that control movement. Dystonic tremor -all ages who are affected by dystonia. Cerebellar tremor - slow, broad tremor -extremities that occurs at the end of a purposeful movement. Psychogenic tremor - can occur at rest or during postural or kinetic movement. Orthostatic tremor -fast (>12Hz) rhythmic muscle contractions that occur in the legs and trunk immediately after standing. Physiologic tremor - every normal individual and has no clinical significance.

There is no cure for most of the tremors. Psychogenic tremors can be treated.

Levodopa is used when treating parkinsonian disease. Propranolol or beta blockers are used when treating essential tremors. Elimination of caffeine. Physical therapy

Supplying the needs of the subject (patient).

Medical device needed.


Hand Tremor detector device.

Hand tremor detector was implemented and designed putting into effect the following factors:

Producing accurate results Providing consistency Providing patient comfort and safety

Geometry Positioning Clinical conditions Design Presentation Affordability Practicality

Given geometry, devised positioning, disease considered, convenient design, cheap materials, trusted brand.

Piezoelectric sensor converts mechanical stress into a voltage source Proto-board Optional block set up

Testing procedure must follow this plan of action:


Prepare environment for the clinical procedure Subject (patient) must be in a relaxed stage Hand (right or left) must be placed in a rested position Measurement to be taken at the index finger or middle finger

Signal from transducer is : Weak (low amplitude) Susceptible to interference There is therefore a need to: Provide a voltage gain of 10 volts/volt for frequencies below 10 Hz Create a low pass filter function that has a pole frequency of 10 Hz

Display Assembly

Envelope Detector

Low Pass Filter

Input Amplifier

Sensor

Performance of our hand tremor detector will be demonstrated with the help of a live subject (patient) from the audience, where a signal tremor will be displayed.

We were able to employ various different methods to meet the specifications as dictated by the explicit project requirements, the component requirements, or by the characteristics of the tremor itself. Important details such as noise had an effect for which the calculations could not account for, and all components of our device had to be tested thoroughly before completion. This project allowed us as a group to accomplish hand tremor testing methods that can be implemented in hospitals for the convenience to the physician, but in special to the patient that is needed of this service.

Future Prototype Compact sized Improved Portability Affordability in the Market User-Friendly Will be easier to read Accuracy of readings will increase