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Niamh Kelly


Biological Roles:

differences xx vs. xy chromosomes

-difference in sexual organs -behavioural trait differences: woman are more affectionate and nurturing, men are more aggressive and task oriented -musculature -hormones: testosterone and oestrogen - these roles never change

Gender Roles:

expectations of an individual based on their gender as well as what rights and responsibilities they have. -defines what sort of behaviour is appropriate for either gender. -differences in gender roles are seen over the world in various cultures. -they are constantly changing

- women are usually seen as inferior to men


Learning how to behave based on your gender begins as young as 1.5 to 3 years old through the process of socialization.

what toys to play with what clothes to wear (pink vs. blue)

how to play (boys can be rough, girls should be gentle)

boys should not cry when they are hurt, they have to tough it out girls take dance or acting lessons, boys join a sports team parents rewarding their children for behaving appropriately for their sex punishing children for behaving inappropriately for their sex media (cartoons, commercials, movies) Cognitive Development Theory: 1.) learn which gender they are and that it does not change 2.) identify with a role model

History of Female Gender Roles

has come a long way since the 19th century for Canadian women oThey were forced to stay at home, look after the children, cook and clean. oLaws made divorce nearly impossible oWomen began to practise medicine in 1880 oThey won their right to vote in 1900 oIn the early 1900s, more and more women became interested in education, and decided to follow their career rather than marry. oMarriage took away a womans right to hold property or go into business oDuring WWI, many women took on male occupations in hard labour, farming and forestry. oIn the 1920s the younger generation of women became rebels, the trend was to wear short skirts, smoke, drink, wear makeup and date men without a chaperone.

In the 50s, women were legally obliged to her husband They could not sell property or control their own earnings In many states women could not make contracts Up until the 60s, newspapers posted separate job listings for men and women Sometimes the ads ran the same job in each sex category but the pay would be lower for women Women made 59-62c for each dollar a man made In 1964 this became illegal In the 60s, only 2.5% lawyers were women 3% of business executives were women Since 82, women have earned more university degrees than men

Modern Female Gender Roles


and hyper sexualized by the media valued in equivalence to their beauty expected to look thin, blemish free, and unnaturally beautiful expected to be sexy and sexually available pressure to succeed in their career from other women, to be as good if not better than men (especially in jobs associated with men) pressure to balance their career with raising good children and keeping a nice household. now earn 94c per dollar men earn more acceptable to work rather than stay at home with the children right to divorce their husband more independence there has been many improvements but they are still somewhat oppressed


You will spend at least 2 years of your life watching commercials and you are exposed to 3000 ads every day girls as young as 8 years old are being diagnosed with anorexia 50% of teenage girls think they are fat gives men the message that women enjoy being displayed as objects and should be treated accordingly 91% of cosmetic surgery is performed on women between 97 and 07 this industry rose by 457% women do not care about the consequences of surgery

Modern Male Gender Roles

othe influence of the media can be just as harming for males as for females ogives the message that to be a real man you must be strong, tough, in control, respected and dominant odo not show their feelings or become attached to anyone oseen as unmanly to cry, or show vulnerability oviolence is an accepted part of masculinity ounwillingness to fight is seen as pitiful obroad shoulders, huge biceps and chest, toned ab muscles o1 in 4 men will abuse their partner o85% of murderers are men o95% of child abuse and domestic violence is caused by men oit is still seen as emasculating when their partner makes more money than them ostay at home dads are still seen as a little strange



Guardian : Nick

head of household has a wife as well as a handmaid has marthas to do all the chores powerful and respected has the most freedom goes to Jezebels allowed to drink, smoke etc.

gets special liberties for doing certain favours rewarded with getting to sleep with the handmaid illegal to talk to handmaid or the marthas or have any romantic relationship he is the gardener and chauffer he remains detached from Offred



Martha oinfertile women of lower status than the wives odo all the housework and help the rare children omust dress in green oalso cannot develop relationships onot allowed to earn money

not supposed to develop a relationship with anyone just used for their uterus to have children lose their identity through their name, they become property of their commander perform simple tasks like shopping have to wear red, cannot wear makeup not allowed to earn money

The the movement for equality in real life reflects that of the Gilead movement in Handmaids Tale. There has been some great improvements for women; we have more freedom, we are paid equally for the same job as men and have the right to spend our money how we like, although we are still just as oppressed as ever because of the media. We are still seen as objects of pleasure that are expected to juggle a career, children, housework and look beautiful all at the same time. Men also still hold the majority of power, which is damaging to everyone because there needs to be a balance. In Gileadan society, the movement for equality went the opposite direction. In order to stop women being treated as objects, and being sexually assaulted, this system was created in which freedom was taken away from people. It ultimately resulted in further objectification and oppression of women. We really need to struggle as a society to make positive structural and cultural changes in society so that our children can have a better life. list=PLE0C08F6092967A01&v=OZhPcNzzrMA

Funny Video Clip!


Why do people refer to inanimate objects as she & to living things as he?


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