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Lifting Study

What is Lifting Study?

Rigging Study
Lifting Study

Installation Sequence

Project Management

START
DATA MATERIAL: DIMENSION & WEIGHT REFERENCE: RIGGING BOOK + EQUIPMENT MANUAL + Standard Rigging

NEED DUO CRANE

Yes
No

Risk

MONO CRANE

TAILING DESIGN

JSA RIGGING PLAN ACTION CONTROL REPORT STOP

Rigging Study
1. Weight of Material 2. Dimension of Material 3. Center Gravity

1. Sling Dimension 2. Lifting Lug 3. Shackle 4. Spreader Beam

Lifting Study
1. 2. 3. 4. Site Arrangement Site Elevation Free Space Ground and Access
1. Type of Lifting Solo Crane / Duo Crane 2. Type of Crane Rough Terrain / Truck Crane / Crawler

Lifting Study

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Lifting Procedure

LIFTING TOOLS IN SPECIAL CONDITION


STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

STEP 4

Displacement Frame Analysis

Displacement Stress Analysis

RIGGING DEPARTMENT LOGO . LIFT


SWING MOVE DOWN In safety corridor

THINK SAFE DO SAFELY SAFETY FIRST

Rigging Study

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What is Rigging?

Definition of Rigging Rigging is part of the lifting operation which forms the link between the crane and the load

Rigging Study
Lifting Study

Installation Sequence

Project Management

START
DATA MATERIAL: DIMENSION & WEIGHT REFERENCE: RIGGING BOOK + EQUIPMENT MANUAL + Standard Rigging

NEED DUO CRANE

Yes
No

Risk

MONO CRANE

TAILING DESIGN

JSA RIGGING PLAN ACTION CONTROL REPORT STOP

Rigging Study
1. Weight of Material 2. Dimension of Material 3. Center Gravity

1. Sling Dimension 2. Lifting Lug 3. Shackle 4. Spreader Beam

Rigging Study

Lifting Study
1. 2. 3. 4. Site Arrangement Site Elevation Free Space Ground and Access
1. Type of Lifting Solo Crane / Duo Crane 2. Type of Crane Rough Terrain / Truck Crane / Crawler

Training Objectives:
Review fundamentals of rigging
the load the hitch attachments sling angle D/d ratio

General use guidelines Provide answers to technical questions

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Rigging - Plan
Who is responsible for the rigging? Is the equipment in safe condition? Are the working load limits adequate? Will the load be under control? Are there any unusual loading or environmental conditions?

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Rigging Basics The Load


Load weight shall be within rated capacity of the sling*
ASME B30.9

*such that no part of the rigging is overloaded A COMPLETE UNDERSTANDING OF THE LOAD FORCES IS REQUIRED!

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Rigging Basics The Load


Load weight may be obtained from:
equipment nameplate packing list drawings shipping tag weighing the load an estimate or calculation of load weight

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Rigging Basics The Load


Load information: Size Weight Center of gravity

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Rigging Basics The Load


Load information: Size Weight Center of gravity
The center of gravity is the point at which a load will balance - and that point must be directly below the hook or principal lifting point.

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Rigging Basics The Load


Load information: Size Weight Center of gravity
The center of gravity is the point at which a load will balance - and that point must be directly below the hook or principal lifting point. An object will tilt until its center of gravity IS directly below the hook.
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Rigging Basics The Load


Load information: Size Weight Center of gravity
The center of gravity is the point at which a load will balance - and that point must be directly below the hook or principal lifting point. An object will tilt until its center of gravity IS directly below the hook. If an object is evenly shaped measure to find the center of gravity

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Rigging Basics The Load


Load information: Size Weight Center of gravity
The center of gravity is the point at which a load will balance - and that point must be directly below the hook or principal lifting point. An object will tilt until its center of gravity IS directly below the hook. If an object is evenly shaped measure to find the center of gravity Determination of center of gravity of unevenly shaped objects can be very complicated mistakes or bad assumptions can result in disastrous consequences
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Rigging Basics The Load


Load information: Size Weight Center of gravity
The center of gravity is the point at which a load will balance - and that point must be directly below the hook or principal lifting point. An object will tilt until its center of gravity IS directly below the hook. If an object is evenly shaped measure to find the center of gravity Determination of center of gravity of unevenly shaped objects can be very complicated mistakes or bad assumptions can result in disastrous consequences Always make the load connection point is above the center of gravity
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Center of Gravity
Finding the center of gravity based on weights

2000 #

3000 #

6000 #

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Center of Gravity
Finding the center of gravity based on weights

6000/(6000+2000) = 3/4 = 75%

75% 2000 #

6000 #

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Center of Gravity
Finding the center of gravity based on weights

8000/(8000+3000) = .73 = 73%


8000 #

3000 #

73%

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Center of Gravity
Other methods of establishing COG
require supplier to mark COG find by trial lifts find by trial and error

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Center of Gravity
Other methods of establishing COG
require supplier to mark COG find by trial lifts find by trial and error
Caution: weight must be known and rigging may need to be oversized before using any trial method

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Rigging Basics - Hitches

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Rigging Basics - Hitches


Vertical having the load suspended vertically on a single part or leg of the sling.
Characteristics: Load capacity is 100 % that of a single part Taglines should be used if the load tends to rotate as rotation can damage the sling. Use on items with lifting eye bolts or shackles or when a second sling is used in a spreader bar application Do NOT use when lifting loose or lengthy material, anything difficult to balance
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Rigging Basics - Hitches


Basket - loading with the sling passed under the load and both ends on the hook, master link, or lifting device
Characteristics: Effectively doubles the capacity of a single vertical sling Stress on each leg tends to be equalized Use on straight lifts when the load is shaped so that the sling (or slings) will not slide over the surface. Do NOT use on loads that are difficult to balance and could tilt or slip out of the sling(s). When terminating to a common point (like a hook), sling angle can reduce sling capacity.
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Rigging Basics - Hitches


Choker loading with the sling passed through one eye or choker hook and suspended by the other end
Characteristics: Choker hitch is easy to attach & forms a noose that tightens as the load is lifted Rated capacity is 75% of the single part*. Use to turn a load (if possible use a double choker hitch) or when handling bundles of bars or pipes Do NOT use on loads difficult to balance or which may slip out the choke
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* based on wire rope and chain slings, 120 degree angle of choke

Rigging Basics - Hitches


Choke angle the angle formed between the load line and the noose

Angel of Choke Rated Capacity Factor* 120 - 180 = 100% 90 - 119 = 87% 60 - 89 = 74% 30 - 59 = 62% 0 - 29 = 49%

*based on wire rope slings

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Rigging Basics - Hitches


Do not confuse choke angle with angle of inclination of the load

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Rigging Basics - Hitches


Choker hitches are not suited to long loose bundles

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Double Wrap Basket Hitch

Rigging Basics - Hitches

adjustment of slings is required while taking up slack to avoid overloading one side of the sling (this applies to all basket hitches)

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Rigging Basics - Hitches


Turning loads with a choker hitch
Loads in legs will equalize during lifting

Loads in legs will tend not to equalize during lifting

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Rigging Basics Sling Angle

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Rigging Basics Sling Angle


Sling angle has a dramatic effect on the actual load on the sling. Take a sling that has a 1000 pound vertical lifting capacity in a basket hitch:

As angle decreases - tension on each leg increases - increasing the strain on each leg
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Rigging Basics Sling Angle


A different look, with the same load and sling, changing the angle has a similar dramatic effect

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Rigging Basics Sling Angle


The sling angle factor equals H divided by L, the inverse, L/H, can also be used to calculate sling load

L/H is useful to calculate sling load when the vertical force is known. L/H for common angles is approximately: 60 - 1.2; 45 - 1.4; 30 - 2

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Rigging Basics

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Rigging Basics

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Sling Angle Example Problem


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example Problem


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
First, we need to know the vertical load at each connection point, A and B to support the load.

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example Problem


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
The vertical load is offset, proportioning gives the following information: ForceA x 10 = 10,000# x 2 ForceA = 2,000# therefore, ForceB = 8,000#

FA

FB

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
We know we want to position the hook directly over the center of gravity

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Next we know the sling furthest away from the hook will have the smallest angle, so well size it first and base our sling angle at the optimal angle of 60.

60

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Since the angle is 60, the height of the hook is now fixed as is the sling length. Because the angle is 60, the sling length is twice the base length (2 x 8 = 16).

16

60

10,000#

CG

Cosine 60 = 0.5

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Knowing the L/H = 1.2 for 60 sling angle, the height of the hook is L/H = 1.2 H = 16/1.2 H = 13.3 feet

13.3

60

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Additionally, knowing that L/H = 1.2 for 60 sling angle, the load on sling A = 1.2 x ForceA or 1.2 x 2,000# = 2,400#.

13.3

60

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Sling Bs length can now be calculated to an exact number. Length of Sling B = (13.3)2 + (2)2 = 13.44 feet

13.3

60

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Sling Bs load can now be calculated: L/H = 13.44/13.3 = 1.01 LoadB = 1.01 x 8,000# = 8,084#

13.3

60

10,000#

CG

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Sling Angle Example


Select slings to pick up the load shown below.
Using wire rope slings, EIPS grade, 6x19 class rope with a mechanical splice, Sling A needs to be 3/8-in. diameter min. Sling B needs to be -in. diameter min.

13.3

60

10,000#

CG

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Rigging Basics D/d Ratio


D/d ratio is the ratio of the diameter around which the sling is bent divided by the body diameter of the sling. Whenever a sling body is bent around a diameter, the strength of the sling is decreased.

Application: 6x19 and 6x37 Class rope, may not apply to cable laid or braided slings 74

Rigging Basics D/d Ratio

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Rigging Attachments
Sockets
swaged and poured socket assemblies shall be proof tested mechanical splice single vertical leg slings test shall be 2 times vertical load limit

ASME B30.9

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Rigging Attachments
Shackles
used only those rated for overhead lifting

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Rigging Attachments
Shackles
synthetic web slings connected to shackles of sufficient size to not cause bunching or pinching of the sling
Use wide shackles to prevent pinching or bunching

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Rigging Attachments
Hooks inspect before use, use ASME B30.10 or a recognized Engineering Standard

Spread hook

Where is the hook latch??

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Rigging Attachments
Hooks avoid eccentric loading of hooks

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Rigging Attachments
Hooks
do not exceed 90 degrees included angle when connecting two slings in a hook. If you have an included angle more than 90 degrees, or more than two legs, use a shackle or a master link to connect.

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Rigging Attachments

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Rigging Attachments
Turnbuckles
Turnbuckles can be used to adjust sling length. Be sure to use only load rated components

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Rigging Attachments
Eye bolts
use only forged eye bolts rated for lifting never use if damaged, bent, elongated never use regular eye bolts for angular lifts always seat shoulder against the load

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Rigging Attachments
Eye bolts
always shim eye bolts to seat shoulder in-line for angular loading for angular lifts reduce working load
45 degrees 30% of rated working load 90 degrees 25% of rated working load

Angle of pull

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Rigging Attachments
Eye bolt - rigging

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Rigging Attachments
Eye bolt - rigging

How to prevent load buckling?


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Rigging Attachments
Spreader beam - A below-thehook lifting device that utilizes two or more hooks (attaching devices) located along a beam and the spreader beam attaches to the hoist by means of a bail. The spreader beam is used to handle long or wide load and serves to "spread" the load over more than one lifting point. Often used in conjunction with slings.
Note: a common misconception of spreader beams is that they equalize the loading along the beam. They do not! Spreaders only eliminate horizontal forces from affecting the load being hoisted.
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Rigging Attachments
Spreader beam
1/2 L 1/2 L

Spreader Beam

L Fa

With the CG off center of the hook as shown, the vertical force at Fa will be 75% of the load weight and the vertical force at Fb will be 25% of the total load weight. No horizontal forces will be exerted on the load.

Fb

Load

Center of gravity Total Weight = W

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Rigging Attachments
Spreader beam
1/2 L 1/2 L

Spreader Beam

L Fa

With the CG off center of the hook as shown, the vertical force at Fa will be 75% of the load weight and the vertical force at Fb will be 25% of the total load weight. No horizontal forces will be exerted on the load. As shown, will the load be level during hoisting?

Fb

Load

Center of gravity Total Weight = W

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Rigging Attachments
Spreader beam

The load will tilt until the center of gravity aligns with the hook.

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Rigging Attachments
Spreader beam

L
Fa

Without the use of a spreader beam, the vertical forces remain the same, however, the sling load is a function of the sling angle and the sling load will be higher than the sling between the spreader and the load. There will, in this case, be horizontal forces exerted upon the load, dependent upon the sling angle.

Fh

Fb Fh

Center of gravity Total Weight = W

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General Use Guidelines


Pre-use and periodic inspection is required on all sling and rigging components

OSHA 1926.251, 1910.184

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Periodic inspection frequency/records


Chain slings OSHA 1910.184(e)(3) at least annually with records ASME: normal annually; severe service monthly to quarterly with records

Periodic inspection performed by ?


OSHA competent person ASME - competent person

Frequent inspection frequency/records


OSHA before use (1910.184(d) w/o records ASME: normal monthly; severe service daily to weekly w/o records

Label*

OSHA size, grade, rated cap., & reach ASME: mfgr., grade, size, no. of legs, reach, rated load for hitches

Wire rope slings

OSHA none ASME based on service, at least annually with records

OSHA no periodic ASME competent person

OSHA before use (1910.184(d) ASME daily w/o records

OSHA none ASME mfgr., size, rated load for type of hitch & angle

Synthetic web slings

OSHA none ASME recommended at least annually based on service, records recommended

OSHA no periodic ASME - competent person

OSHA before use (1910.184(d) ASME - daily w/o records

OSHA rating @ each type of hitch, type of material ASME mfgr., mfgr. Stock no., rated load for each type of hitch, material type & construction

Metal mesh slings

OSHA none ASME - based on service, at least annually; records recommended

OSHA no periodic ASME - competent person

OSHA before use (1910.184(d) ASME daily w/o records

OSHA rated @ vertical and choker hitch loading ASME mfgr., rated load for hitch & angle, width and gauge

* Sling I.D., per ASME B30.9, shall be maintained to be legible for the life of the sling

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General Use Guidelines


Rigging equipment shall not be loaded beyond its recommended working load limit (WLL)

OSHA 1926.251

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General Use Guidelines


When not in use, rigging shall be removed from work area and properly stored

OSHA 1926.251

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General Use Guidelines


During lifting, personnel shall be alert for possible snagging

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


Slings should be long enough so that rated load is adequate

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


Multiple leg slings shall be selected so as not to introduce into the leg, a load greater than permitted

ASME B30.9

Note: select multiple leg slings based on two legs supporting the entire weight of the load and the other leg(s) balancing the load.

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General Use Guidelines


Shock loading should be avoided

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


The load shall be applied to the center of the hook (unless the hook is designed for point loading)

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


When used in a choker hitch, prevent the load on any portion of the sling from exceeding the rated load

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


Slings shall not be shortened by knotting or twisting

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


Slings should not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


Slings should not be dragged on the floor

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines


Sharp corners in contact with the sling should be padded

ASME B30.9

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General Use Guidelines

The following slide is not for the faint of heart. If you are are bothered by accident scenes, do not look at the screen until the All Clear signal is given.

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General Use Guidelines


And not Be the suspended load!!

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No Homemade Slings

WARNING
No wire rope sling shall be fabricated using wire rope clips!!

Preferred sling construction is to use a Flemish eye splice with a mechanical sleeve (turn back construction is not recommendable)

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RIGGING DEPARTMENT LOGO . LIFT


SWING MOVE DOWN In safety corridor

THINK SAFE DO SAFELY SAFETY FIRST