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OFDM-ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

OBJECTIVE
To overcome frequency-selective fading environment Simpler channel equalization

OFDM
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Orthogonal-Set of equal energy signals

(Sm(t)) & (Sn(t)) that <Sm(t).Sn(t)>=0 FDM-Division of number of frequency slots into frequency channel Wideband digital communication technique Encoding of digital data on multiple carrier frequencies

OFDM
Closely spaced orthogonal subcarriers carry

data. Data divided into several parallel data streams(one for each subcarrier) Each subcarrier-Modulated at lower symbol rate maintaining same bandwidth Lower symbol rate-makes use of guard interval to eliminate ISI

OFDM-MECHANISM
Design of single frequency network Several adjacent transmitter send same

signal at same freq as the signals from multiple distant transmitter combined without interfering

OFDM CHARACTERISTICS
High peak-to-average power levels Preservation of orthogonality in severe multi

path Efficient FFT based receiver structures Enables efficient TX and RX diversity Adaptive antenna arrays without joint equalization Support for adaptive modulation by subcarrier Frequency diversity

OFDM CHARACTERISTICS

Robust against narrow-band interference Efficient for simulcasting Variable/dynamic bandwidth Used for highest speed applications Supports dynamic packet access

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Output=Original desired signal + Noise term

+ ISI term Noise term and ISI term can be removed effective decoding algorithm and type of noise used.

Y(t)= r(t)+n(t)+i(t)

OFDM-SPECTRUM

MOBILE OFDM PARAMETERS


Channels -5 MHz

~ 6 KHz tones
Sample rate -13/26 MHz FFT size-2048 FFT size (160 usec OFDM blocks) OFDM block guard time-256/512 sample MODULATION-QPSK & 16-QAM modulation

1 to 2 msec time-slots in 20 to 40 msec frames

ADVANTAGE
Increase of signal strength at cost of increase

BW Increased data rate and SNR High spectral efficiency Robust to narrowband co-channel interference Robust to ISI and fading caused by multipath propogation

DISADVANTAGE
Sensitive to Dopplers Shift Frequency synchronization problems Low efficiency

APPLICATIONS
Broadcasting

DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) IEEE 802.11a, HiperLAN/2 - WirelessMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks) IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)