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Bi 183 HP General Chemistry Lecture 2 Fall 2011

Terms we need to Know

Matter Element Atom

Atomic Structure

Atomic Nucleus

Proton Neutron


Atomic Number Atomic Mass Isotope

Compound Molecule Chemical Bonds

Ionic Covalent Hydrogen

Chemical Reactions



(b) Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons)





The number of neutrons and/or electrons can change.

Isotope = change the number of neutrons

Ion = electrically charged atom due to a change in the number of


cation = positive ion [lacking at least one electron] anion = negative ion [gained at least one electron]

What do Atoms look like????

Atomic Structure: Where are the Electrons???

Electrons travel at various distances (Shells) around nucleus in zones called Orbitals

shell I II III

# orbitals

Max # electrons

1 4 4

2 8 8

Atomic Structure: Electrons determine if/how atom react with other atoms

Octet Rule (For most Atoms) Outermost energy level (Shell) of an atom contains 4 orbitals. Atom most stable when all 8 electrons present

Exception to Octet Rule Energy level (Shell) nearest nucleus only contains 1 orbital. Atom most stable when all 2 electrons present obviously this is helium

Valence Electrons Electrons found in the outermost Shell of an atom

Number of Valence electrons DETERMINES if/how Atoms react with each other

Atomic Structure: Valence Electrons determine if/how an atom react with other atoms

Which of these two elements is more reactive??

First electron shell (can hold 2 electrons) Electron

Outermost electron shell (can hold 8 electrons)

Hydrogen (H) Atomic number = 1

Carbon (C) Atomic number = 6

Nitrogen (N) Atomic number = 7

Oxygen (O) Atomic number = 8

Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Molecular Formula

Contains chemical symbols of elements found in molecule

Subscript shows how many of each atom are present

ex. H2CO3 NaCl

Force holding Molecules together is a chemical bond 3 types of chemical bonds 1. Ionic bonds 2. Covalent bonds 3. Hydrogen bonds

Ionic Bondstransfer of electrons

Formed by the attraction of oppositely charged IONS Cation bonds with an Anion
Strong But not as strong as Covalent bonds

NaCl Crystal

Everyday table salt



Covalent Bonds
Formed when atoms share pair/s electrons Key properties Strong : strength increases with the number of shared electrons Very directional: They are formed between two specific atoms 2 types: Non Polar Covalent

Polar Covalent

Covalent Bonds

Water is a polar molecule

Water molecules contain 2 polar covalent bonds

Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen atom from one polar molecule attracted to an electronegative atom

Individually weak bonds that can form and break easily Collectively they are strong bonds overall ex. holds DNA strands together

Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds

Chemical reactions are the making and breaking of
chemical bonds

The starting molecules of a chemical reaction are called


The final molecules of a chemical reaction are called


A Chemical Reaction

2 H2 Reactants

O2 Reaction

2 H2O Products

Photosynthesis is an
important chemical reaction

Sunlight powers the

conversion of carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen

6 CO2 + 6 H20 C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Chemical Reactions
All chemical reactions are, in theory, reversible:
products of the forward reaction become reactants for the reverse reaction and reverse reaction rates are equal

Chemical equilibrium is reached when the forward

We will spend more time on reactions when we
begin our discussion of metabolism