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Under the pseudonym of Sax Rohmer, the British mystery novelist Arthur Sarsfield Ward (18861959) wrote books

featuring a character named Fu Manchu. The long, drooping Fu Manchu moustache is named after this character.

I. Causes of Decline (page 380)


A. In 1800 the Qing dynasty of the Manchus was at the height of its power. After more than a century of Western humiliation and harassment, the Qing dynasty collapsed in the early 1900s.
B. Internal changes also played a role in the downfall of the Qing dynasty. It began to suffer from corruption, peasant unrest, and incompetence. Rapid population growth 400 million by 1900along with food shortages and regular famine made these matters worse.

I. Causes of Decline (page 380)


C. The ships, guns, and ideas of foreigners probably hastened the end of the Qing Era.

II. The Opium War (pages 380381)


A. In 1800 European merchants in China were restricted to a trading outlet at Guangzhou, or Canton. The British were not happy with the arrangement. Britain also imported more from China than it exported to China, giving Britain an unfavorable balance of trade as its hard currency was paid to China.

II. The Opium War (pages 380381)


B. Negotiations to address the trade imbalance failed, and Britain turned to trading opium to address their economic concerns. The British East India Company grew the opium in India and shipped it to China, where its use skyrocketed. Soon silver was flowing out of China to Britain.

II. The Opium War (pages 380381)


C. The Chinese knew of the dangers of this highly addictive drug and had made its trade illegal. At first they appealed to the British government on moral grounds to stop the export of opium into China. Britain refused to stop. The Chinese government blockaded Guangzhou to force the traders to surrender their opium, and Britain responded by starting the Opium War (18391842). After the British fleet sailed almost unopposed up the Chang Jiang, China made peace.

II. The Opium War (pages 380381)


D. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842) opened five coastal ports in China to British trade, limited taxes on imported British goods, and gave the British the island of Hong Kong. The Chinese also agreed to pay for the war. The treaty did not mention opium.
E. Europeans lived in the five ports in their own sections and were not subject to Chinese laws, a practice known as extraterritoriality.

II. The Opium War (pages 380381)


F. The end of the Opium War marked the beginning of strong Western influence in China. China offered the same concessions to other Western nations it had to Britain, and soon the five treaty ports were booming with trade.

II. The Opium War (pages 380381)


G. In 1984 Great Britain and China signed a joint declaration in which Britain agreed to return Hong Kong to China in 1997. China promised that Hong Kong would remain a free market and have its own way of life. Hong Kong grew tremendously as people in the 1950s and 1960s fled the Communist regime in mainland China. Today it is the eighth largest trading nation in the world.

III. The Tai Ping Rebellion (pages 382383)


A. Because the Chinese government failed to handle its internal economic problems, the Tai Ping Rebellion, a peasant revolt, occurred from 1850 to 1864. It was led by Hong Xiuquan, who saw himself as the younger brother of Jesus Christ. He was convinced God had given him the mission of destroying the Qing dynasty.

III. The Tai Ping Rebellion (pages 382383)


B. Hong and his peasant army captured Yongan, where he proclaimed a new dynastythe Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Tai Ping Tianguo in Chinese, hence the name Tai Ping Rebellion.)
C. The rebellion called for social reforms that included giving land to all peasants and treating women as the equals of men. Women had their own units in the Tai Ping army.

III. The Tai Ping Rebellion (pages 382383)


D. Hongs rebellion called for people to give up private possessions. Land was to be held in common, and food, money, etc., were to be shared equally. Hong outlawed alcohol, tobacco, and foot binding. The social goals of the twentieth-century Chinese Communist Revolution would be similar.

III. The Tai Ping Rebellion (pages 382383)


E. In 1853 the rebels seized Nanjing and massacred 25,000 men, women, and children. Europeans helped the Qing dynasty respond to the rebellion. In 1864 combined Chinese and European forces took back Nanjing. Gradually, the power of the rebellion weakened.
F. The Tai Ping Rebellion was one of historys most devastating civil wars. As many as twenty million people died in the 14-year struggle.

III. The Tai Ping Rebellion (pages 382383)


G. One reason the Qing dynasty failed to deal well with the internal unrest was its ongoing struggle with the Western powers. In 1856 Great Britain and France began another series of attacks, seizing the capital of Beijing in 1860. In the ensuing Treaty of Tianjin, the Chinese agreed to legalize the opium trade, open new ports to the West, and surrender the Kowloon Peninsula to Great Britain.

IV. Efforts at Reform (page 383)


A. By the late 1870s the Qing dynasty was in serious decline. Warlords who had organized armies to fight against the Tai Ping Rebellion kept their armies and continued to collect local taxes to support their forces.
B. Reformers called for a new policy of selfstrengthening for the Qing dynasty. This approach meant that China should adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions. This policy guided China for the next 25 years.

IV. Efforts at Reform (page 383)


C. Some reformers wanted to introduce democracy, but such an idea was too radical for most. Rather, China tried to modernize its military and industrialize while retaining the basic elements of Chinese civilization and values.

V. The Advance of Imperialism (pages 384385)


A. The new policy did not help the Qing dynasty retain power. European advances into China and internal deterioration continued.
B. Russia forced China to give up territories in Siberia. Tibet was freed from Chinese influence by the struggle for it between Russia and Great Britain.

V. The Advance of Imperialism (pages 384385)


C. European states began to create spheres of influence inside China. Chinese warlords negotiated with the foreign powers to exchange trading, mining, and building rights for money. In 1894 another matter weakened the Qing. China went to war with Japan over Japanese inroads into Korea, and Japan soundly defeated the Chinese.
D. New pressures for Chinese territories arose. Germany demanded territories after two of its missionaries were murdered in 1897. When China conceded, other European powers made new claims on Chinese territory.

V. The Advance of Imperialism (pages 384385)


E. This scramble for territory took place in a time of internal crisis. The emperor Guang Xu launched his massive reform campaign called the One Hundred Days of Reform. He called for political, administrative, and educational reforms in an attempt to Westernize China and make it move toward democracy. Conservatives at court opposed the reforms. The Empress Dowager Ci Xi, the emperors aunt, also opposed the reforms. With the help of the army, she imprisoned the emperor and ended the reform efforts. She ruled China for almost 50 years.

VI. Opening the Door to China (page 385)


A. Great Britain and the United States feared other nations would overrun China should its government collapse. In 1899 the U.S. secretary of state John Hay proposed equal access to the Chinese market for all nations. No nation disagreed, and Hay declared that the foreign states agreed China should have an Open Door policy.

VI. Opening the Door to China (page 385)


B. The policy reflected the American concern for Chinas survival and the trading companies desires to operate in open markets without the existing division into spheres of influence. The Open Door policy did lift restrictions on foreign imports imposed by the dominant power within each sphere, although spheres of influence remained.

VI. Opening the Door to China (page 385)


C. The Open Door policy lessened the fears of the Western powers that one of them would try to dominate the Chinese market for itself.

VII. The Boxer Rebellion (page 386)


A. The Open Door policy did not stop the Boxer Rebellion, however. Boxer was the popular name for members of the secret group called the Society of Harmonious Fists, who practiced a system of exercise they thought would protect them from bullets.
B. The Boxers were upset over foreign influence in China. They especially disliked Christian missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity. They killed Christians and foreigners, including the German envoy to Beijing.

VII. The Boxer Rebellion (page 386)


C. In response an allied army of the Western powers and Japan attacked Beijing in 1900. It restored order and demanded more concessions from the Chinese government, which was forced to pay a heavy indemnity payment for damagesto the powers that had ended the rebellion. The Chinese imperial government was weaker than ever.

General Yuan Shigai was known as the father of the warlords; at least 10 of the most powerful warlords of the 1920s had served as officers in his army. Many of the other warlords achieved power mainly through the backing of foreign powers, including Japan, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.

I. The Fall of the Qing (pages 388389)


A. After the Boxer Rebellion, China desperately tried to reform. Even the Empress Dowager now embraced educational, administrative, and legal reforms.
B. A Western educational system replaced the traditional civil service examination educational system. After 1905, legislative assemblies were formed at the provincial (local) level. Elections for a national assembly were held in 1910.

I. The Fall of the Qing (pages 388389)


C. The emerging elite of merchants and professionals was angry on learning that the new assemblies could not pass laws but could only advise the ruler. The reforms did nothing for the peasants, artisans, and miners, whose conditions worsened as taxes rose.
D. The first signs of revolution came with Sun Yat-sen and his Revive China Society, founded in the 1890s. He believed China had to be united under a strong government to resist the foreigners. Sun developed a threepart reform process: military takeover, a period in which Suns revolutionary party would prepare the people for democracy, and a constitutional democracy.

I. The Fall of the Qing (pages 388389)


E. Sun united radical groups from across China and formed the Revolutionary Alliance, later the Nationalist Party. It adopted Suns Three Peoples Principlesnationalism, democracy, and the right for people to pursue their own livelihoods.

I. The Fall of the Qing (pages 388389)


F. In 1908 the Empress Dowager died, and the Qing dynasty was near its end. The infant Henry Pu Yi now occupied the throne. In 1911 followers of Sun Yat-sen began an uprising in central China. Sun was in the United States. The Qing dynasty collapsed, but Suns party did not have the strength to form a new government, so it turned to a member of the old order, General Yuan Shigai, who controlled the army and had been sent to suppress the rebellion.
General Yuan Shigai

I. The Fall of the Qing (pages 388389)


G. General Yuan negotiated with Suns party and agreed to serve as president of a Chinese republic and allow for the election of a legislature. Even so, the events of 1911 did not produce a new social and political order. The Revolutionary Alliance with its Western liberal democratic principles was supported mainly by the urban middle class, and so was too small to support a new order.

II. An Era of Civil War (page 390)


A. The military took over after the end of the Qing dynasty. The Revolutionary Alliance distrusted General Yuans motives, however. He did not understand Western liberalism and tried to set up a new imperial dynasty, even using murder and terror to destroy the new democratic institutions.

II. An Era of Civil War (page 390)


B. When General Yuan dissolved the parliament, the Nationalists rebelled. The rebellion failed and Sun Yat-sen fled to Japan. After he died in 1916, Yuan was succeeded by one of his officers. For several years China slipped into civil war as weakened governmental power allowed warlords to seize provincial power. Massive destruction and hunger was the outcome.

III. Chinese Society in Transition (page 391)


A. In traditional China young people were not seen as individuals but as members of the family, valued for their potential for work, passing on the family name, and taking care of aging parents. In the early 1900s this attitude was changing, due in part to a new educational system. Young people began to respect the past less, especially the Confucian concept of the family. A spirit of individualism emerged out of the revolt of the youth.

III. Chinese Society in Transition (page 391)


B. Chinese society was changing already in the mid-1800s. The growth of industry and trade brought to the cities a market for commoditiesmarketable productssuch as oil, copper, salt, tea, and porcelain. Transportation was improving, and new crops from abroad increased food production.
C. Westerners affected the Chinese economy in three ways: introducing new means of transportation, creating an export market, and integrating the Chinese market into the nineteenth-century world economy.

III. Chinese Society in Transition (page 391)


D. To some, these economic and other changes were beneficial since they shook China out of its traditional ways. To others, the changes harmed China by destroying local industry and by allowing most of the profits to go to foreign countries.
E. Chinas pace of change quickened in the first quarter of the twentieth century. After World War I, the Chinese began to develop new ventures. Cities like Shanghai and Wuhan became major industrial and commercial centers with a growing middle class and an industrial working class.

IV. Chinas Changing Culture (pages 392393)


A. In 1800 life for most Chinesewho were farmers whose lives revolved around the harvest cycle and established customs and ritualswas the same as it had been for centuries. A visitor to China in 1925 would have seen a different society.
B. Chinas changes were most visible in the cities. Many Chinese saw the Confucian values and traditions as oppressive, and wanted to replace them with the social ideals of the modern, liberal West.

IV. Chinas Changing Culture (pages 392393)


C. The struggle between old and new was most visible in the field of culture. Radical reformers wanted to eliminate traditional culture to create a China the modern world would respect. In the late nineteenth century, intellectuals began introducing Western books, painting, music, and ideas. By 1925 Western culture had flooded China.
D. Western art became popular with the urban middle class, while the traditional culture remained popular with the more conservative population, especially in rural areas.

IV. Chinas Changing Culture (pages 392393)


E. Most creative artists followed the Western, foreign trends. Most Chinese novels, for example, reflected the Western tendency toward a realistic portrayal of society and described the changing customs of urban elites. Ba Jins trilogy Family, Spring, and Autumn portray the disintegration of Confucian ways as young people tried to break from their elders.

The famous Japanese woodblock artist Hokusai influenced Western painting in the nineteenth century. He became known in Europe and the United States because his prints often were used to wrap porcelain and other objects that were fashionable in the West and exported there. Soon the prints themselves became all the rage. Serious artists learned new aesthetic ideas from Hokusais prints, and from the prints of other Japanese artists.

I. An End to Isolation (page 397)


A. By 1800 the Tokugawa shogunate had ruled the Japanese islands for two hundred years. The country was virtually isolated from foreigners. Foreign ships were driven away, and the little foreign trading was done only through Nagasaki.
B. Western powers approached Japan in the hope of opening it up to their economic interests. The United States was the first foreign country to succeed with Japan. In 1853 four warships under Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Edo Bay (now Tokyo Bay).

I. An End to Isolation (page 397)


C. The purpose was to bring the isolated people into the family of civilized nations. Perry carried a letter from President Millard Fillmore, asking to open relations between the two countries. Some shogunate officials argued against contact and others recommended concessions, or political compromises. The shogunates response was ultimately dictated by the guns of Perrys ships when he returned for an answer with a larger fleet.
Commodore Perry meeting Japanese in 1853

I. An End to Isolation (page 397)


D. Under military pressure Japan agreed to the Treaty of Kanagawa. It provided for the return of American shipwrecked sailors, who previously were treated as criminals, the opening of two ports to Western traders, and the establishment of a U.S. consulate in Japan.
E. In 1858 a new treaty called for the opening of several new ports to U.S. trade and residence, and an exchange of ministers. Several European nations soon signed such treaties with Japan.

II. Resistance to the New Order (page 398)


A. Resistance to this change in relations with the West was especially strong among the samurai warriors in the territories of Satsuma and Choshu. In 1863, the Sat-Cho alliance forced the shogun to promise to end relations with the West.

II. Resistance to the New Order (page 398)


B. The Sat-Cho rebels were convinced they needed to strengthen their military after losing an exchange with Western ships. They also demanded that the shogun resign and restore the power of the emperor. Sat-Cho armies attacked the shoguns palace in Kyoto in 1868. They declared the emperor restored. The shoguns forces and the shogunate soon collapsed.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


A. Although the Sat-Cho leaders mistrusted the West, they soon realized Japan must modernize. The new leaders embarked on reforms that transformed Japan into a modern industrial nation.
B. The young emperor Mutsuhito called his reign the Meiji, or Enlightened Rule. This period is known as the Meiji Restoration. Mutsuhito was controlled by the Sat-Cho leaders, and the capital was moved to their location, Edo (now Tokyo).
Mutsuhito

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


C. To undercut the power of the daimyothe local noblesthe new leaders stripped them of the titles to their lands in 1871. Their territories were organized into prefectures, and the daimyo were named governors of their previous holdings. Today, Japan is divided into 45 prefectures.
D. The Meiji reformers set out to create a Western-style political system. The leaders pledged in the Charter Oath to create a new legislative assembly within the framework of continued imperial rule.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


E. A commission under Ito Hirobumi traveled to Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States to study their governments. Two factions appeared in JapanLiberals and Progressives. Each wanted a government with power divided between the legislature (parliament) and the executive, but the Liberals wanted power ultimately to reside with the legislature and the Progressives wanted it to reside with the executive. The Progressives won.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


F. Real executive authority lay not with the emperor but with the prime minister and his cabinet ministers, handpicked by the Meiji leaders. Further, the members of the upper house were appointed, not elected. The government was democratic in form but authoritarian in practice, therefore. The traditional ruling class kept its influence and economic power.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


G. Meiji leaders set up a new system of land ownership. Peasants were given the lands of the daimyo, who were compensated with government bonds. The leaders levied an annual 3 percent land tax, which brought in revenues but was a real burden to the farmers.
H. The government turned to promoting industry, wanting to create a rich country and a strong state. The government subsidized industries, brought in foreign advisors, improved transportation, and started a new educational system that stressed applied science.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


I. From the start, a unique feature of the Meiji model of industrial development was the close relationship between government and private business. Businesspeople were given money and privileges to start new enterprises, and the government played some role even after the business was on its feet.
J. The Meiji reformers transformed other institutions, especially the military. In 1871 a new army based on compulsory military service was formed. All men served for three years.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


K. A ministry of education guided the change to universal education and instruction in modern technology. Soon the ministry adopted the American educational system. Bright students were sent to study abroad. However, much emphasis was still placed on the virtues of loyalty to family, community, and, especially, the emperor.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


L. The Meiji Restoration changed Japans social structure considerably. Before, community and hierarchy ruled society, and women especially were ruled by the three obediences: child to father, wife to husband, widow to son. Now, for the first time women were allowed to seek an education. The shift to industry meant thousands of Japanese took jobs that signaled a change in the social structure.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


M. Western fashions became the rage among the elite. Baseball was imported from the United States. Young people were increasingly influenced by Western culture and values, imitating Western clothes, hairstyles, and social practices.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


N. The social changes had a dark side. Many workers were ruthlessly exploited in the coal mines and textile mills. Miners trying to escape their horrible conditions sometimes were shot. Even so, resistance was not unknown. Many sought political rights and recognition of basic human rights. Women played a role in the resistance. They formed the Freedom and Peoples Rights Movement and demanded voting rights for women as early as 1876.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)


O. The change to a modern society did not undermine the old loyalties, however. They were taught in the new schools and codified in the constitution of 1890 and the Civil Code of 1898, where, for example, individual rights were played down, the right to vote was limited to men, and women were placed within the context of their family role exclusively.

III. The Meiji Restoration (pages 398401)

IV. Joining the Imperialist Nations (page 401402)


A. Japan also copied the Western imperialist approach to foreign affairs, in part because it had no natural room for expansion. To compete with the West, Japan believed it would need colonies as a source of wealth and power.
B. In 1874 the Japanese claimed control of the Ryukyu Islands, previously subject to Chinese rule. Japans navy forced Korea to open its ports to Japanese trade. In the 1880s, tension between China and Japan over Korea grew. They warred, and the Japanese destroyed the Chinese fleet and entered the Manchurian city of Port Arthur.

IV. Joining the Imperialist Nations (page 401402)


C. Rivalry with Russia over influence in Korea led to strained relations. Russia was supremely confident it could defeat Japan in a war.
D. Japan launched a surprise attack on the Russian naval base at Port Arthur, which Russia had taken from China (Japan had earlier returned the port to China). Japanese forces moved into China, and the Russian troops were not a match for them.

IV. Joining the Imperialist Nations (page 401402)


E. Meanwhile, the Japanese navy defeated the Russian navy. Russia agreed to a humiliating peace in 1905. They gave the strategic Liaodong Peninsula to Japan, as well as part of an island north of Japan. The victory established Japan as a world power.

IV. Joining the Imperialist Nations (page 401402)


F. Japan consolidated its position in northeastern Asia, annexing Korea in 1910. The United States recognized the annexation in return for Japans support for American authority in the Philippines. Mutual suspicion between the two countries was growing, however. Japan resented U.S. restrictions on immigration, and many Americans feared Japans growing power.

V. Culture in an Era of Transition (page 402403)


A. The wave of Western technology and ideas that entered Japan greatly changed traditional Japanese culture, especially in literature. Japanese authors began imitating the Western models.
B. Other aspects of culture also changed. The Japanese invited technicians, engineers, architects, and artists from Europe and the United States to teach modern skills to Japanese students.

V. Culture in an Era of Transition (page 402403)


C. By the end of the 1800s, however, a national reaction had set in. In 1889 the Tokyo School of Fine Arts was established to promote traditional Japanese art. Some Japanese artists searched for a new but traditional means of expression.
D. Cultural exchange flowed East to West, as well. Japanese porcelains, textiles, fans, woodblock prints, and folding screens became fashionable in Europe and North America. Japanese art influenced Western painters, and Japanese gardens became especially popular in the United States.

Chapter Summary
Imperialist powers advanced into China and Japan in the nineteenth century. Chinas government fell, but Japans modernized and endured.

Ci Xi
18351908 Chinese Empress
Empress Dowager Ci Xi, through her unwillingness to make significant reforms, helped bring about the overthrow of the Qing dynasty. Ci Xi was at first a low-ranking concubine to Emperor Xian Feng. Her position became influential in 1856, when she gave birth to the emperors first and only son. When the emperor died, Ci Xi ruled China on behalf of her son. Later, she ruled on behalf of her nephew Guang Xu. With the aid of conservatives at court and the imperial army, she had Guang Xu jailed in the palace. Empress Dowager Ci Xi ruled China for almost 50 years, during a crucial period in the nations history. She was well aware of her own power. I have often thought that I am the cleverest woman who ever lived . . . I have 400 million people all dependent on my judgement.

Sun Yat-sen
18661925 Chinese revolutionary
Sun Yat-sen was the leader of the revolutionary movement that overthrew the Qing dynasty. Sun was born to a peasant family in the south and was educated in Hawaii. He returned to China to practice medicine but soon began to use his earnings to finance revolutionary activities. A failed rebellion forced Sun to flee to Japan and later to the United States and London. He raised money and recruited Chinese exiles to carry out his revolutionary plans. After the Qing government collapsed in 1911, he returned to China. Sun decided to back General Yuan Shigai as president in 1912. He was afraid that more fighting would only lead to chaos and foreign intervention. Sun never realized his dream of leading a new Chinese republic, but both the Republic of China on Taiwan and the Peoples Republic of China honor him as the founder of modern China.

Chiang Kai-shek
18871975 General and Politician
A young man who worked closely with Sun Yat-sen was Chiang Kai-shek. Eventually he became president of the Chinese Nationalist government (see Chapter 10). As a young man of 18, Chiang went to Japan for military training. There he learned to believe that an army could shape a nations future. Like Sun Yat-sen, Chiang returned home when revolution broke out in 1911. After Suns death, Chiang became the leader of Suns Nationalist Party, the Guomindang (GDP). In the 1920s and 1930s, the GDP and Chinese Communists fought bitterly to become the dominant governmentexcept when they were defending their nation against Japan. The GDP led a republican government from 1928 to 1949, but it was never able to control the entire country. Chiangs biggest weakness was that his support came from the cities. He offered little to the peasants, who ultimately backed Mao Zedong and the Communists.