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INTRODUCTION TO OIL DRILLING RIG

SUBMITTED BY LOKESH KUMAR

INTRODUCTION

Def: Drilling rig may be thought of as a factory or a manufacturing plant, and it is used to drill oil wells, and natural gas extraction wells. The rig is transitory, so it must be moved frequently thats why the rig differs from other manufacturing facilities.

TYPES OF OIL RIGS

UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM

Upstream applies to the operation of exploration, drilling, hydrocarbon production, and transmission via truck, rail or ship or pipe line to the refinery intake valve. Downstream includes all work done at the refinery, distillation, cracking, reforming , blending storage, mixing and shipping

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A DRIILING RIG

A drilling rig mainly consists of: 1. crown block 2. Traveling block 3. Hook 4. Derrick 5. Swivel 6. Kelly 7. Draw works

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A DRIILING RIG


8.Rotary table 9.Blowout preventer 10.Bit 11.Drill collar 12.Drill string 13.Centrifuge 14.Surface casing 15.Mud ditch 16.Mud pit 17.Pulsation dampener 18.Mud pump 19.Engine.

DRILL BIT

The bit is the main critical item of a drilling operation. This does not mean that the bit can make hole alone. To select a bit, some information must be known about the nature of the rocks to be drilled

DRILL STEM

Drill stem consists of three main components:


drill collars, drill pipe and Kelly.

The following are the principal functions of the drill stem:


1. 2.

3.

4.

Drill stem lowers the bit into the hole and withdraws it Part of the drill stem puts weight on the bit so that the bit can penetrate the formations more effectively Drill stem transmits a turning, or rotating, action to the bit. Drill stem conducts the drilling fluid under pressure from the surface to the bit.

BLOCKS AND WIRES

The traveling block, crown block and wire line are the three components.

The main function is to connect the supporting derrick or mast with the load of pipe to be lowered into or withdraw from the hole.

TRAVELLING BLOCK

Traveling block is a free moving section of a block and tackle that contains a set of pulleys or sheaves through which the drill line is threaded or revved and is opposite (and under) the crown block (the stationary section).

CROWN BLOCK

A crown block is the stationary section of a block and tackle. It contains a set of pulleys or sheaves which the drill line (wire rope) is threaded or revved and is opposite and above the traveling block.

DERRICK OR MAST

A mast is also called the standard mast. It is a structure with four supporting legs resting on a square base, the entire work area of the floor is in the derrick square. In contrast, the mast is much slenderer and may be thought of as sitting on one side of the derrick floor or work space.

DRAW WORKS

The two main purposes of the draw works are:


To lift the pipe out of the hole To lower the pipe back into of the hole.

BLOW OUT PREVENTER

Blowout preventer (BOP) is the equipment associated with a rig and devices installed at the wellhead to prevent fluids and gasses from unintentionally escaping from the borehole.

CENTRIFUSE

Centrifuge is the equipment which is used to separate fine silt and sand from the drilling fluid.

ROTORY TABLE

It is used to provide clockwise rotational force to facilitate the process of drilling a borehole Operating through drive bushings, the rotary rotates the Kelly and, through it, the drill stem and the bit

MAIN FUNCTIONS OF A ROTORY TABLE


To rotate the drill stem To hold devices called slips that support the weigh of the drill stem when the latter is not supported by hook and elevators.

KELLY

Kelly is a long square or hexagonal steel bar with a hole drilled through the middle for a fluid path. The Kelly is used to transmit rotary motion from the rotary table or Kelly bushing to the drill string while allowing the drill string to be lowered or raised during rotation.

KELLY

The Kelly goes through the Kelly bushing, which is driven by the rotary table. The Kelly bushing has an inside profile matching the Kellys outside profile (either square or hexagonal), but with slightly larger dimensions so that the Kelly can freely move up and down inside.

KELLY AND ITS COMPONENTS

SWIVEL

Swivel is a mechanical device that must simultaneously suspend the weight of the drill string, provide for rotation of the drill string beneath it while keeping the upper portion stationary, and permit high-volume flow of high-pressure drilling mud from the fixed portion to the rotating portion without leaking

MAIN FUNCTIONS

Support the load of the drill stem Allow rotation of the drilling assembly Provide a passageway for fluid under high pressure to enter the drill stem.