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Chemical Equations &

Balancing Equations
 Chemical Reactions occur when
there is a chemical change.
 Indicators for a chemical change
 Energy change (heat or light)
 Production of Gas
 Formation of a solid (precipitate)
 Color Change
 A properly written chemical
equation must have the following
requirements:
 The equation must represent known
facts
 The equation must contain the correct
formulas for the reactants and
products
 The law of conservation of mass must
be satisfied – the mass of the
Writing Chemical
Equations
 In a chemical equation, formulas of
reactants (left side) & products (right
side) are connected by an arrow. (Read
the arrow as “yields”.)
 Chemical equations describe chemical
reactions & include symbols to show the
phase of each chemical involved.
 (s) = solids, (l) = liquids, (g) = gaseous, (aq)
= aqueous or in water.
 Bonds are broken & reformed in equations--
atoms are rearranged, but matter is not
created or destroyed.
More on Chemical
Equations
 Catalysts—speed up chemical reactions.
Catalysts are not changed by a reaction,
they can be removed after the reaction
and the same amount will be there as at
the start.
 Catalysts are written over the arrow. Heat,
temperature, & pressure may also be written
over the arrow.
 Double arrows indicate an equilibrium—
the reaction can go in both directions.
 Numbers in front of the chemicals are
coefficients. They show the ratio of the
Steps to Successful
Balancing
1.) Equations must have the same
amount of each type of atom on each
side of the arrow. (Law of Conservation
of Mass)
Ex. 2H2 + O2 2H2O
H4 O2 H4 O2

2.) Count how many of each element is on


the reactant side.
3.) Count how many of each element is on
the product side.
Steps to Successful
Balancing
4.) If an element on the reactant
side does not equal the same
amount on the products side,
multiply by an amount such that
they become equal.
5.) Continue multiplying until all
elements equal the same amount
on both the reactant and product
side.
Helpful Hints
 Start balancing your compounds
first.
 Leave Oxygen and Hydrogen until
the end to balance.
 Leave elements until the end to
balance.
Example #1
BaS + NaI -> BaI + Na S
2 2

Reactants: Products:
1 – Ba 1 – Ba
1–S 1–S
1 – Na 2 – Na
1–I 2–I
Example #1
BaS +2 NaI -> BaI + Na S
2 2

Reactants: Products:
1 – Ba 1 – Ba
1–S 1–S
1 – Na x 2 2 – Na
2
1–I 2–I
Example #1
BaS + 2NaI -> BaI + Na S
2 2

Reactants: Products:
1 – Ba 1 – Ba
1–S 1–S
2 – Na 2 – Na
2–I 2–I
Example #2
KF + CaBr -> CaF + KBr
2 2

Reactants: Products:
1–K 1–K
1–F 2–F
1 – Ca 1 – Ca
2 – Br 1 – Br
Example #2
2 KF + CaBr2 -> CaF2 + 2 KBr

Reactants: Products:
2
1–K 2 1–K
1–Fx2 2–F
1 – Ca 1 – Ca
2 – Br 1 – Br x 2
Example #2
2KF + CaBr -> CaF + 2KBr
2 2

Reactants: Products:
2–K 2–K
2–F 2–F
1 – Ca 1 – Ca
2 – Br 2 – Br
Example #3
AlCl3 + K2O -> Al O + KCl
2 3

Reactants: Products:
1 – Al 2 – Al
3 – Cl 1 – Cl
2–K 1–K
1–O 3–O
Example #3
2 AlCl3 + 3 K2O -> Al2O3 + 6KCl

Reactants: Products:
1 – Al x 2 2 – Al
6
3 – Cl 1 – Cl X 6
6
2–K 1–K X6
1–Ox3 3–O
Example #3
2AlCl3 + 3K2O -> Al O + 6KCl
2 3

Reactants: Products:
2 – Al 2 – Al
6 – Cl 6 – Cl
6–K 6–K
3–O 3–O
Ex. 4
NaCl(aq) + Al2(SO4)3(aq) -> AlCl3(aq)+ Na2SO4(aq)

6NaCl(aq) + Al2(SO4)3(aq) -> 2AlCl3(aq)+ 3Na2SO4(aq)


Balancing Combustion
Reactions
Combustion of hydrocarbons consist
of a an organic compound reacting
with oxygen to produce CO2 and
H 2O
Ex: C3H8 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O

1st balance C’s


2nd balance H’s
Balancing Combustion
cont.
Try another one:

C6H14 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O


What is the most sparsely
populated country in the Western
Hemisphere?
Iceland w/ 3.0 people per square km
(US is about 30 people)