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# NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

PRESENTED TO:

PRESENTED BY:

## PROF. FARAH CHOUDHARY THE BUSINESS SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU

DIVA SAMNOTRA (12) IMTIAZ ALI ( 16 ) LUCKY CHOUDHARY (24) SUVIDHA GUPTA (59)

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION HISTORY CHARACTERISTICS APPLICATIONS CONDITIONS FOR NORMALITY GRAPHS OF NORMAL DISTRIBUTION IMPORTANCE SIGNIFICANCE CONSTANTS OF NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

INTRODUCTION
Most useful theoretical distribution for continuous variables. Also known as normal probability distribution. Cornerstone of modern statistics.

..cont
Descriptive model, defining real world situations. Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Imp. tool in the analysis of epidemiological data & management science.

HISTORY
First described by Abraham Demoivre as the limiting form of the binomial model in 1733. Rediscovered by Gauss in 1809 and by Laplace in 1812. Over the period of time, normal model has become the most imp. probability model in statistical analysis.

CHARACTERISTICS
It links frequency distribution to probability distribution. Has a Bell Shaped Curve. It is symmetric around the mean i.e two halves of the curve are the same (mirror images)

CONTD
Hence Mean= Median The total area under the curve is 1 (or 100%) It has the same shape as the Standard Normal Distribution

CONTD
In a Standard Normal Distribution: The Mean = 0 and

Standard Deviation = 1

APPLICATIONS
Its applications goes beyond describing distribution. It is used by researchers and modelers. It helps managers /management in making decisions.

CONTD..
It plays a major role in statistical inferences. Many things are actually normally distributed or very close to it. For example:

Height and Intelligence are approximately normally distributed. Measurement error also often have a normal distribution.

CONTD..
The normal Distribution is easy to work with mathematically. In many practical cases the methods developed using normal theory work quite well even when the distribution is not even.

## CONDITIONS FOR NORMALITITY

Causal forces must be numerous & of approx. equal weights. Forces must be homogenous i.e must be the same over the universe from which the observations are drawn.

CONTD..
The forces affecting events must be independent of one another. Deviations above as well as below the mean are balanced as to magnitude and number. (Condition of symmetry)

## Different shapes depending on different values of and .

The mean lies at the center of its normal curve The two tails of normal distribution extend indefinitely and never touch the horizontal axis

IMPORTANCE
Sampling variability makes statistical inferences easier. Determination of min & max limits within which the population values lie.

## Serves as a good approximation of many discrete distributions.

CONTD..
Many problems can be solved only under the assumption of a normal population. Extensively used in statistical quality control in setting up of control limits in industry. Has numerous mathematical properties. Popular & easy to manipulate.

SIGNIFICANCE
To approx of fit a distribution of measurement under certain conditions. To approx. the binomial distribution & others. To approx. the distribution of means & other quantities calculated from samples.