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ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

AN ENVIRONMENT SAVIOUR

SPECIFICATION
HORIZONTAL FLOW STEEL CASING PYRAMIDAL HOPPER

DESIGN CODE FLOW TEMP. INLET DUST BURDE TREATMENT TIME PRESSURE DROP C.E RAPPING FREQ. E.E RAPPING FREQ.

: FAA-6*45-78125-2 : 296M3/SEC. : 1290C :73.83gm/m3(78.66T/HR) :35.37 SEC. :20 MMWC :1.1RPM :2.5 RPM

jai maan sharde!

CORONA EFFECT
COLLECTING ELECTRODE EMITTING ELECTRODE

WHAT IS CORONA ? CORONA is an electric discharge phenomenon in which gas molecules are ionised by the collision of electron in the region of high strength electric field. The electron for CORONA initiation is supplied by random source such as natural radioactivity or cosmic rays. Under the influence of high strength electric field these free electrons are accelerated to terminal velocity. The rapidly moving electrons collide with the orbital electron of gas molecule and release it from the orbit. Hence the gas molecule assumes + VE charge and more free electrons are released. The free electrons again collide with other gas molecules, forms +VE ions and releases more free electrons . This process continues till the energy of free electrons reduces to the level that it can not dislodge the orbital electron of gas molecule,hence these free electrons are captured by the gas molecules and assumes -VE charge.Under the influence of electric field ,these -Ve charged gas molecules move towards collecting electrode and charge the dust particles. When dust particle gets saturated electric field is exerted on it and move towards collecting electrode where it gives up its charge and stick there due to intermolecular cohesive/adhesive forces. More the intensity of electric field, more fast and more the no. of free electrons, accordingly more ionisation &more efficiency of ESP.

LINE DIAGRAM OF ESP EC-HVR CKT.


THYRISTER 415 V A.C.

ACR

HVR

HFC
VE

SHR FIRING CKT.

VE HVRC

ICE-C

FILTER CURRENT FILTER VOLTAGE

ACR-TO LIMIT THE P/CURRENT IN CASE OF FLASH OVER ON D.C.SIDE SHR-SHUNT RESISTER,1V=FULL CURRENT HVRC=HIGH VOLTAGE RESISTER CKT.,400MICRO AMPS. HFC-HIGH FREQ. CHOKE,PROTECTS HVR FROM SURGE OCCURING DURING SPARKING

FACTORS AFFECTING ESP PERFORMANCE


RESISTIVITY OF DUST PARTICLES FLUE GAS VELOCITY PARTICLE SIZE & FIELD STRENGTH RAPPING FREQUENCY SPARKS RATE HOPPER EVACUATION

RESISTIVITY OF DUST PARTICLES


Resistivity of dust particles play major role in ESP performance A too high resistive dust does not readilycharge& give up its negative charge to collective electrode whereas low resistive dust particle readily gives up its negative charge and assumes positive charge. Inlet flue gas temp ,sulpher content & moisture content play major role in controlling resistivity of flue gas. Low resistivity 104-107 ohm-cm Normal resistivity108-1010 ohm-cm High resistivity more than 1010 ohm-cm

RESISTIVITY(ohm-cm)

FLUE GAS VELOCITY


C.E B A E.E C.E C
FORCE DUE TO VEL.

There are two forces acting on the dust particles having perpendicular to each other as shown in above diagram. The first one is due to flow of gas and the second one is due to electric force on the ionized dust particle perpendicular to the motion of gas. The path followed by the dust particle will be resultant of two forces as shown above. The efficiency of ESP decreases with increase in velocity & decrease in voltage.

ELECTRIC FORCE

PARTICLE SIZE & FIELD STRENGTH


The efficiency of ESP is governed by DEUTSCH - ANDERSON equation : Efficiency = 1-[e] (-A/Q) =Migration velocity= r E /2 r =Radius of particle
E =Field strength =Viscosity or frictional coefficient of flue gas A = Effective collecting area of ESP Q = Gas flow through ESP e = 2.718

RAPPING FREQUENCY Rapping is also a complex phenomenon in ESP . If rapping frequency is too high then it will not allow the dust to deposit on collecting electrode and hence the collection /removal of dust will be difficult. Similarly, if rapping frequency is too low then very thick layer of ash will deposit on C.E. which will cause considerable voltage drop or can cause back corona if resistivity is very high . C.E. RAPPING FREQ.
FIELD NO.
START TIME REPEAT TIME RAPS/HR.

01 02 03 04 05 06

00,00 00,01 00,02 00,03 00,04 00,00

00,04 00,05 00,06 00,07 00,12 00,30

15 12 10 08 05 02

SPARK RATE
RECOMMENDED :5-10 SPM Field strength is adjusted in such a way that limited sparks takes place. With some sparks/min. , we are able to create more strong field . The outage due to spark is offset by achieving more strong electric field with limited spark. However, if spark is too high then frequent collapse of field will reduce the efficiency and increase the erosion of emitting electrode.

ASH COLLECTION DATA PER PASS


FIELD STAGE% RAP./HR ASH ASH COLLECTION(KG/ COLLECTION(MT/ RAP.) HR)

01 02 03 04 05 06

78.00 17.14 3.20 1.10 0.40 0.16

20 10 06 04 03 02

837 340 114 58 28 17

16.74 3.40 0.684 0.232 0.084 0.034


TOTAL=21.74MT/HR

BACK CORONA Back corona is the emission of +ve ions from collected dust
layer that occurs when voltage drop across the collected dust layer exceeds the electrical breakdown strength of interstitial gases in the dust layer. As the high resistive dust layer builds upon the collecting electrodes , the the dust layer and collecting electrode form a high strength electric field. The surface of the dust layer is negatively charged ,the interior is neutral and collecting electrode is grounded (+ ve) .Under this condition all the ion current must pass through the dust layer to reach the collecting electrode . This current creates an electric field in the dust layer & when it becomes large enough the local electrical breakdown of interstitial gases occurs. As this happens ,+ve ions are generated within the dust layer and are accelerated towards emitting electrode .On the way it neutralizes the -ve charged particles and reduces the ESP efficiency.This breakdown condn. is BACK CORONA.The voltage reduces and current increases in this condition.. Resistivity 2*1011 ohm-cm

CHARGING DURING COLD START UP


ESP fields should not be charged below 1000c as moisture present will cause ash cake formation on collecting electrode which is difficult to dislodge. Also ESP temp.should be sufficiently higher than the acid dew point temp. (90-1000c)before charging to avoid stress corrosion cracking of electrodes. Switch on the heaters 24 hrs. before BLU. Start rapping motors on intermittent mode just before BLU..

CHARGING DURING OIL FIRING


It is recommended to charge ESP fields during oil firing at ~ 50 mA. In the charged condn., the electric field repels the chloride vapour of the flue gases which if comes in contact with E.E. causes brittleness in E.E. and it may snap during operation. The current during oil firing should be limited below spark level as spark in oil firing may cause fire hazard.

Various ESP performance improvement programmes have been followed in NTPC stations where SPM emissions were reported to be high.The modification programmes followed are: Additional ESPs have been retrofitted at BADARPUR TPS St.-I, TALCHER TPS St-II & BALCO CPP (All four units). EPMS have been installed at following stations : SINGRAULI STPS (St-I& II) , KORBA STPS (St I&II) , RAMAGUNDAM STPS (St-I&II) , RIHAND STPS , VINDHYACHAL STPS , FGUTPS & FARAKKA STPS (St I ). Also dummy fields filling done at SINGRAULI (St I) and RAMAGUNDAM (St I) UNITS . By providing EPMS in above seven stations , there has been very high reduction in energy consumption (Up to 70 %) and marginal reduction in SPM emission (Up to 22%).

ESP RETROFIT ACTIONS IN NTPC

STACK SPM EMISSIONS BEFORE AND AFTER RETROFITTING ADDITIONAL ESPs


SL. STATION NO. SPM BEFORE SPM AFTER RETROFITTING RETROFITTING

1. 2. 3.

Badarpur (st I)
TALCHER TPS (St -II) BALCO

AROUND 5000 136-142 1400-1800 1100-1500 105-130 160-290

In spite of retrofitting/renovation programmes , the SPM emission of following stations are still exceeding the statutory limit of 150mg/NM3 as per EP-AIR ACT 1981:
STATION

PERFORMANCE OF ESPs

DESIGN SPM RIHAND I 100 BALCO 150 KORBA I 300 KORBA II 396 FARAKKA I 550

PRESENT SPM 200-350 160-290 180-264 180-264 180-290

DESIGN EFFICIENCY 99.81 99.6 99.51 99.52 99.53

REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGIES TO BE ADOPTED


STATION RIHAND KORBA BALCO UNITS 2*500 MW TECHNOLOGY WF , FGC

1*200 MW SC 2*200 +3*500 MW FGC 4*67.5 MW FGC FGC MODIFICATION THROUGH ANSALDO

FARAKKA 3*200 MW 2*500 MW


LEGEND:
WF :WATER FOGGING FGC : FLUE GAS CONDITIONING SC : SODIUM CONDITIONING