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Physical Fitness for College Freshmen

Unit 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION: ITS VALUE TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL

In most educational systems, physical education (PE),also called physical training(PT) or gym, though each with a very different connotation, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting.

Physical education has existed since the earliest stages of humanity, in areas as simple as the transmission of knowledge of basic survival skills, such as hunting.

The first known literary reference to an athletic competition is preserved in ancient Greek text, the Iliad, by Homer. While by no means is this the beginning of physical activity, it marks an important point in the study of the history of physical education. Other cultures that existed before the Greeks, including the ancient Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian civilizations had traditions of physical education and activity, but the Greek influence is argued to be the most fundamental to how the discipline is viewed today.

The ancient Greek tradition of the Olympic Games, which originated in the early 8th century BC, even continues today.

Father of Modern Physical Education that we know today is FRIEDRICH LUDWIG JAHN- He was highly political within Germany, his contributions to Physical Education ( mostly in Gymnastics) as a discipline are still seen today.

What is Physical Education?

Physical Education- Refers to an important segment of general education which aims to contribute to the total development of the learner through participation in selected vigorous activities.

- It provides opportunities to acquire lifelong skills that are essential to his physical, mental, social, and emotional development.

What is the objectives of Physical Education?

Objectives of Physical Education -The goal of physical education is to assist the learner to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle that can be achieved through the acquisition of knowledge , desirable habits, and attitudes, game, and dance skills, and whole-some interpersonal relationships.

The objectives focus on the 4 aspects of development namely: 1. Physical development objectives. - Having regular exercise and participation in varied vigorous activities. -develop and maintain physical fitness, fundamental movement skills, games, sports and dance skills to acquire ones capability to enjoy life-time recreational pursuits.

2. Mental development objectives. - Focus is on acquisition of knowledge and understanding - Ability to analyze body movements and skills -Evaluate game situations and make important decisions. - Understanding the rules of the games leads to better performance or appreciation of an activity.

3. Social development objectives. - In the process, he learns to respect others, and practices fair play, sportsmanship, teamwork, and develop leadership. -Learn the game of lifethe application of the golden rule.

Participation in Physical Education activities provides opportunities for the acquisition and practice of desirable social traits necessary for adjustment to happy living and to the social life in general. Some worthwhile traits are:

Friendliness Cooperation Respect for the right of others Good sportsmanship Good leadership and followership Honestly in group competition

4. Emotional development objectives. - Enables one to acquire pleasant attitudes, desirable habits, appreciations, and values. -POSITIVE CHARACTER - courage -selfcontrol -self-confidence - self reliance -discipline determination -appreciation for beautiful performances -self- expression

BLOOMS TAXONOMY OF BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

PSYCHOMOTOR OBJECTIVES Physical Fitness Development and Movement Skills

Physical Fitness Components Endurance, strength, flexibility, balance, agility

COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES Knowledge and information

Body functions and development process Analysis, reasoning and decision making. Rules and strategies, and safety

AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES Social and Emotional Stability

Cooperation, sportsmanship, respect for others, leadership etc.


Courage, selfdiscipline, aesthetics appreciation, and selfexpression

LEGAL BASIS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

ARTICLE 1 of the International Charter of Physical Education and Sports, UNESCO, Paris,1978 and Recommendation 1, Interdisciplinary Regional Meeting of Experts on Physical Education, UNESCO, Brisbane Australia, 1982. States that: The practice of Physical Education and Sports is a fundamental right for all And this right should not be treated as different in principle from the right to adequate food, shelter, and medical care.

Article XIV, section 19, 1986 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines The States shall promote Physical Education and encourage sports programs, league competitions and amateur sports including training for international competition to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.

All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country and in cooperation with athletic club and other sectors.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN COLLEGE


Refers to the four subjects given in the first four semesters of college work. - It prescribed by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports Order Number 58,series 1990. -These are the subject titles and the corresponding suggested activities that will be undertaken by all college students.

Physical Education 1: Physical Fitness The first course in physical

education. It deals with the concept of Physical Education and Fitness. It also provides opportunities for physical fitness testing and the students participation in the development and maintenance of fitness such as aerobics, selftesting, activities, life and heavy apparatus work, and free hand and floor exercises.

Physical Education 2: Rhythmic Activities Then subject


covers the concept of rhythm, fundamental rhythmic activities, dance mixers, local and foreign dance as well as social and ballroom dances

Physical Education 3: Individual Dual Sports/Games


Concentration is on the acquisition of skills on recreational activities such as bowling, table tennis, badminton, track and field events, and outdoor activities such as camping, mountaineering and aquatics. Mga Laro ng Lahi are likewise given to foster love of country.

Physical Education 4: Sports and Games


The

subject deals with then fundamentals of common team sports such as Volleyball, Basketball, Baseball/Softball and Football.

VALUES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The value of Physical Education activities are found in the resulting development and adjustment of the individual. Engaging in any activity stimulates in some degree the four types of development although different activities emphasize different amounts. Regular exercise and physical activity are extremely important and beneficial for long-term health and well- being.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION Reduce the risk of premature.

Reduce

the risk of developing and / or dying from the heart disease.

Reduce

high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure.

Reduce

high cholesterol or the risk of developing high cholesterol.

Reduce

the risk of developing colon cancer and breast cancer.

Reduce

the risk of developing diabetes.

Reduce

or maintain body weight or body fat.

Build

and maintain healthy muscles, bones, and joints.

Reduce depression and anxiety.

Improve

psychologica l well-being.

Enhance

work, recreation, and sports performance.

WHAT IS PHYSICALLY EDUCATED PERSON?

Understands the potentials of physical education activities in the attainment of a healthy lifestyle and strives to achieves this goal.

Exercise

regularly to develop and maintain his/ her weight and physical fitness.

Has

acquired sufficient skills to enable him/her to participate actively in some forms of recreational games, sports, and dances.

Eats

a balanced diet and practices good eating

Get

adequate sleep and avoids drugs and stimulants that will negatively affect his/her total well

Enjoys

participation in a variety of vigorous activities and recreational

Appreciates

good performances in games, sports and dances.

Are you a physically educated person?

THE FOUR TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT

1.
-

ORGANIC This is the development of power and endurance of the heart, lungs, heatregulating mechanisms, and digestive and eliminating organs. These various organs gain power and

2. NUEROMUSCULAR - The development of skills and coordination required in the mastery of lifes varied activities can be directly attributed to physical education; also to the development of strength in the skeletal muscles used in such coordination.

3. INTERPRETIVE - This type of development strengthens the thinking, interpreting, and problemsolving processes of the individual.

4. EMOTIONAL - The development and maturing of impulses and emotions through activities which give them expression under natural controls such as officials, rules, traditions, and the persons desire to stay in the game and play are inherent in team sport where fear, anger, joy , and other powerful emotions are experienced.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION: ITS ORIGIN

Do you ever wonder where some of the words we use in physical education came from?

-They are originated from combinations of different Latin and Greek words. But mainly the Greek.

Here are the list of words with their origins and meaning: Apparatus- from the Latin word apparare, to prepare; a device or , a group of devices used for a particular purpose. Anthropomorphic- From the Greek words anthropikos, human being and morphic; having a specified shape or form. Calisthenics- From the Greek words kalos , beautiful and sthenos for strength; exercises without the use of any apparatus.

Coordination- From the Latin word ordinatus, to arrange; the harmonious functioning of muscles or groups of muscles in the execution of movements. Cardiovascular- Form the Greek word kardio, heart, and Latin word vasculum , vessel; relating to or involving the heart and the blood vessels. Exercise- Form the Latin words ex- and arcere, to restrain; bodily exertion for the sake of keeping the organs and functions I a healthy state.

FLEXIBILITY- From the Latin word flexus; to bend. GYMNASTICS- From the Greek words gumnos or sometimes gymnosnaked. GYMNASIUM- From the Greek word gumnasium or gumnazein meaning to exercise naked ; a placed where Greek youths exercised. KINESIOLOGY- From the Greek words kinesis, movement and ology for branch of learning. Baron Nils Posse was the first to coin this word in relation to his Swedish gymnastics.

PEDAGOGUE- From the Greek words paido, boy and agogos,leader.It now means a schoolteacher or an educator. It was literally a slave who supervised children and took them to and from school. PEDAGOGY- From the Greek see above; the art or profession of teaching. PHYSICAL EDUCATION- From the Latin words physica,physics and educatio,the training of the bodily organs and powers with a view to the promotion of health and vigor.

PHYSIOLOGY- from the Greek words phusio, nature and ology branch of learning; the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the processes and functions of an organism. In Physical Education it is mainly Human Physiology which applies to a study of the functions of the organs and tissues in man.

HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS

WHAT DO THE OLYMPIC RINGS SIGNIFY?

BARON PIERRE DE COUBERTIN ( Founder of the Modern Olympic Movement) in 1913 after he saw a similar design on an artifact from ancient Greece.

Five rings -represent the five major regions of the world: Africa Americas Asia Europe Ocenia

Every national flag of the world includes at least one of the five colors, which are (from left to right) Blue Yellow Black green Red

OLYMPIC FLAG- made its debut at the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp Belgium. At the end of each Olympic Games, the mayor of that host-city presents the flag to the mayor of the next host-city. It then rest at the town hall of the next host-city for four years until the Opening Ceremony of their Olympic Games.

ORIGINAL OLYMPIC GAMES( Greek)Olympiakoi Agones. Began in 776 BC in Olympia, Greece, and were celebrated until 393 AD. In 1896, the ancient Olympic Games were revived at the initiative of a French nobleman, Pierre Fredy, Baron de Coubertin, thus beginning the era of the Modern Olympic Games.

The official Olympic Motto Citius, Altius, Fortius a Latin phrase meaning Swifter, Higher, Stronger. Coubertins ideals are probably best illustrated by the Olympic Creed: The most important thing in the Olympic Games Is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.

OLYMPIC FLAME- is lit in Olympia and brought to the host-city by runners carrying the torch in relay. There it plays an important role in the opening ceremonies. Though the torch fire has been around since 1928, the relay was introduced in 1936.

OLYMPIC MASCOT- an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the games since 1980 with the debut of misha, a Russian bear.

Two official language of the Olympic movement. - French - English

THE MOST POPULAR LEGEND

The most popular legend describes that HERACLES was the creator of the Olympic Games. He built the Olympic Stadium and surrounding building as an honor to his father Zeus, after completing his 12 labors. According to the legend he walked in a straight line for 400 strides and called this distance a stadion (Roman- stadium) (modern EnglishStage That why a modern stadium is 400 meters in circumference length (1 stadium = 400 m.)

THE MOST POPULAR MYTH

The games quickly became much more important throughout Ancient Greece, reaching their zenith in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The Olympics were of fundamental religions importance, contest altering with sacrifices and ceremonies honoring both Zeus (whose colossal statue stood at Olympia), and Pelops , divine hero and mythical king of Olympia famous for his legendary chariot race, in whose honor the games were held.

The game were held every four years and the period between two celebrations became known as an OLYMPIAD The Greek used Olympiad as one of their methods to count year. The most famous Olympic athlete lived in these times: the sixth century BC wrestler Milo of Croton is the only athlete in history to win a victory in six Olympic.

REVIVAL

The interest in reviving the Olympics as an international event grew when the ruins of Ancient Olympia were uncovered by German archaeologists in the mid-19th century.

Pierre de Coubertin

MODERN OLYMPICS

After the initial success, Olympics struggled. The celebration in Paris (1900) and St. Louis (1904) were over shadowed by the worlds fair exhibitions in which they were included. From the 241 participants 14 nations in 1896, the Games grew to nearly 11, 100 competitors from 202 countries at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.

DARK AGES (476 A.D)

ASCETICISM-

believed that evil exists in the body and should subordinate to the spirit which is pure. SCHOLASTICISMbelieved that facts are the most essential items of education.

EUROPE
- GERMANY - SWEDEN

- DENMARK

GERMANY 1774

JOHANN BERNHARD BASEDOW

JOHANN FRIEDRICH GUTS MUTHS

JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALLOZI

CHARLES FOLLEN

FRIEDRICH LUDWIG JAHN

ADOLF SPIESS

SWEDEN

PER HENRIK LING

JEAN JACQUES ROSSEAU

DENMARK

FRANZ NACHTEGALL

NIELS BUKH

GREAT BRITAIN
GREAT BRITAIN ARCHIBALD McLAREN

UNITED STATES
CIVIL WAR PERIOD UNTIL 1900 CATHERINE BEECHER

DIOCLETIAN (DIO) LEWIS

DUDLEY ALLEN SARGENT

EARLY 20TH CENTURY


THOMAS DENNISON WOOD

CLARK HETHERINGTON

ROBERT TAIT MCKENZIE

JESSIE H. BANCROFT

WORLD WAR 1916-1919

GOLDEN TWENTIES

1940-1970

1970PRESENT

Unit 2

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND TESTING

What is Physical Fitness?

Physical Fitness It is a physical condition where


-

an individual has the capability to do everyday tasks without a feeling of exhaustion and still has a enough energy to perform extra activity of his own choice. If ever he experiences fatigue , he can easily recover and can indulge further after a rest

- It

is also a combination of medical fitness (body soundness) and dynamic fitness (capacity for action).

Why is Physical Fitness is important?

He

can accomplishes his work with a minimum of stress. He can face lifes problems with a relatively better outlook. He enjoys participating in outdoor and sports activities. His life is not all work but a balanced and pleasurable experience.

Good

physical health contributes to selfconfidence and poise. It gives a person a feeling of security. It enables him to mingle with people at work and at play with satisfaction.

COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS


Try

to lift a heavy object. How strong are your muscles in the arms?

-STRENGTH The ability to


perform or move against a resistance . - Required in various degrees in the performance of daily tasks. - It can be achieved through regular participation in vigorous big muscle activities.

Have

you tried jogging for 20 minutes? Or walking up the stairs to the third floor? How did you feel?

-ENDURANCE- The ability of the body to under go prolonged body stresses . Ex. Running a long distance without

Pick

up some pieces of paper on the floor. Did you do it with ease or was difficult?

- FLEXIBILITY-

The ability to bend freely or increase the range of movement at a given point. - It enables the individual to move efficiently and avoid muscle and joint injuries.

From

a squat position, dodge or jump to avoid a blow. How quick are you?

- AGILITY- The ability to move ones body in different levels and directions. - It requires a combination of coordination and speed. - A good player or gymnast or a dancer must be agile to accomplish his or her task efficiently.

Mount

or walk through a balanced beam. Were you steady or almost losing your balance?

- BALANCE- The ability to assume and maintain any body position, whether static or moving ,against the force of gravity.

Other

physically fitness components are: SPEED POWER COORDINATION

HOW PHYSICALLY FIT ARE YOU?

Bureau of Physical Education and School Sport ( BPESS)


Recommend

the Physical fitness tests (PFT) - Measure approximately the components with the use of minimal facilities and equipment.

Test No. 1 STANDING LONG JUMP measures leg strength and power. Test No. 2 CURL- UP measure strength and endurance of abdominal muscles. Test No. 3- 50 meter Sprint measures speed. Test No. 4 PULL- UP ( boys )measures the strength and endurance of the muscles of the arms and shoulders.

The following tests constitute the BPESS Physical Fitness Tests:

Test No. 4 FIXED- ARM HANG ( girls )measures the strength and endurance of the muscles of the arms and shoulders. Test No. 5 SHUTTLE RUN measures agility and coordination. Test No. 6 - SIT AND REACH measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. Test No. 7 3 MIN. STEP TEST measures cardio- respiratory endurance.

RULES: - Allow two successive fair trials within the testing period. - The measurement is made from the takeoff line to the heel of the foot closer to the take-off board or line. - Attempt where the performer loses his balance and falls back backward is not counted. - Taking beyond the take-off line is considered foul.

STANDING LONG JUMP

Common faults:
The performer takes more than one swing of the arms. The performer does not keep both of his feet behind the front edge of the take-off line at the start of the jump. The performer bounced and took several steps before jumping. Both feet of the performer are not parallel at the take-off.

BENT-KNEE CURL-UPS
RULES: - Only one trial shall be allowed. - No resting between curl-up is permitted. - The knee must remain bent at right angle for the duration of the exercise. - The curl-ups should be counted only if the performer: Keeps the crossed arms close to his chest ; and Returns to starting position with the upper back touching the mat or floor before curling up again.

COMMON FAULTS: Curling up and uncurling are not performed slowly. Performer bounces of the floor when executing curl

PUSH- UPS
COMMON FAULTS: - When the body is not kept straight line from heels . - When the elbow not fully bent.

SIT AND REACH

SHUTTLE RUN

RULES: Do not allow the performer to throw the wooden block across the line. Allow two trials and record the faster.

SUGGESTED FOR THE TESTER: To eliminate the necessity of returning the block after each trial, start the runners on alternate sides. If the testers have stopwatches, it is practicable to have two or more students running at the same time.

THREEMINUTES STEP TEST

NOTE: The rate of 96 steps per minutes for the boys and 88 steps per minute for the girls for the duration of 3 minutes.

50 METER SPRINT

TESTING SUGGESTION: Runners should be instructed not to slow down before the finish line.

UNIT 3

WARM-UP CONDITIONING EXERCISES

INTRODUCTION
Before starting on any innumerable ways to burn out the fat, there is a need to keep certain things in your mind and be cleared out by your doctor to go on the road of achieving a better healthy you.

You

need to be clear about your fitness goals. Before you start any program, have the necessary medical checks, take note of your resting pulse and warm-up. If you are not used to exercise be sure to start with the appropriate beginners program. If you feel dizzy or pain , stop at once. Always choose an activity that you enjoy, so that there is less chances of dropout. If you are beginner, do not start off too fast. You cannot get fit in a week, but

Work

at your own pace. If you stiff the day after, change activities or simply do some warp-up exercises, so that your body gets time to recover. Exercise at time of the day, that is most convenient, but preferably not until two or three hours after a meal. Never exercise if you feel ill or have cold or fever. Do not start training again until you are free of symptoms and keep your intensity low.

Lay

out your exercise clothes the night before. Theyll serve as silent reminders. As far as possible, breathe through your nose, not your mouth. Research indicates that it can reduce the amount of pollutants, including ozone, that reach your mouth.

warm up should include stretching and exercises of moderate intensity that cause sweating and increase muscle temperature. Another important practice to follow in an exercise program is to gradually start the exercise session and gradually taper off at the end. The warm up or conditioning exercise allow various body system to increased
The

In conditioning exercises: - Warm-up should be appropriate for the performer and the sports activity involved. - Warm-up should include some stretching exercises as well as movements related to or similar to the activity that is about to be performed. - Warm-up probably should begin to be reduced 10 minute to 15 minute prior to performance and should be terminate approximately 5 minutes before performance.

THE BASIC WORKOUT OUTLINE Warm up Stretch Aerobic and Stretch Training Cool Down Stretch

WARM-UP SUGGESTED WARM-UP ACTIVITIES: 1. JOG IN PLACE - Jog slowly in place for 30 -60 seconds. - Lift your knees.

2. ROPE JUMPING - Jump slowly for 60 seconds. - Keep your elbows close to your sides. - Turn the rope with small circular motion of your hands and wrist and jump high enough to clear rope.

3. NECK STRETCH - Bend your neck alternately to the left, right, front and back. - Hold each position for 5 seconds and do 2 repetitions. - Do not rotate your neck each movement must be distinct.

4. ARM AND SHOULDER STRETCH - Interlace your fingers, straighten, and lift the arm to produce strength/ stretch in the arm, shoulders and chest. - Hold for 15 to 30 seconds. - Do one set.

TRICEPS AND SHOULDER STRETCH -Gently and slowly pull the elbow behind the head. -Hold for 15 to 30 seconds and reverse arms. - Do one set.

SIDE STRETCH - Keep your hips facing front and bent to the left. - Hold for 5 to 10 seconds and repeat to the right side. - Do 3 repetitions on each side.

CALF STRETCH - While standing, place your left foot near the wall. - Keeping the right foot flat on floor, move right leg back until you feel the stretch in the calf muscle. - Hold an easy stretch for 10-30 seconds. - Do not bounce. - Stretch the other leg.

CHEST STRETCH - Place flat palm of right arms against a wall. - Slowly rotate forward until you feel the stretch in your chest. - Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds. - Stretch the other side.

SHOULDER STRETCH - Extend your left arm on front of your body. - Using the left wrist, place the right wrist underneath and pull inward toward your body, while keeping the left arm extend. - Hold for 10-30 seconds. - Stretch the other side.

QUADRICEPS STRETCH - Supporting your body with your left arm against a solid object, grab your left toes with right arm. - Pull your heel up to your buttocks until you feel the stretch in your thigh.

FOREARM STRETCH - Extend your arm. - Using your left hand, pull your finger tips back toward your body until you feel the stretch in your forearm. - Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds. - Repeat using other arm.

INNER THIGH STRETCH - While seated, pull both feet inward toward the body. - Grab your feet with your hands, while using the elbows to press downward slightly on the knees. - You should feel this stretch in your inner thighs. - Hold for 10-30 seconds.

CAT ( BACK) STRETCH - To stretch the upper back, hands and knees should be on the floor. - Just as a cat would do, slowly lift your back up toward the ceiling and hold in place for 10-30 seconds.

SPINAL TWIST - While seated, extend the left leg in front of you. - Bend your right leg, placing your right foot on the outside of the left knee. - Extend your right arm behind you to support your body. - Place the left arm on the outside of the right leg. Slightly twist the torso using your left arm until you feel the stretch in your side. - Hold for 10-30 seconds. - Stretch the other side.

HARM STRING STRETCH - While seated, extend your leg, placing the bottom of your foot on the inside of the left knee. - Place your right hand on the top of your left hand. - While keeping the lower back straightened, reach toward your left foot. - Hold this for 10-30 seconds. - During this stretch, keep the foot of the straight leg upright with the ankle and toes relaxed. - Repeat for the right leg.

LEG STRETCH - Lie on your right side. - Support the head with your hand. - Bend the left leg and grasp the top of your foot. - Pull toward your hip. - Keep for 5-10 seconds. - This motion stretches the front ankle and the front of thigh.

Lie on your side. - Bend one leg and grasp the top of your foot. - Gently pull the leg out by opening the knee about 90 degrees. - This motion stretches the entire front thigh. - Hold for 5-10 seconds.
-

PARTS OF AN EXERCISE PROGRAM There are three stages in an exercise program; 1. Warm up 2. Main Activity or Workout 3. Cool-down

Everyone can learn to stretch, regardless of age or flexibility. STRETCHING- can be done in the morning, after sitting or standing for long periods, anytime you feel tense or stiff and at odd times like watching TV., reading or sitting and talking. Regular stretching programs can help lengthen your muscles and restore youthful activity.

Do some stretching exercises-

to relax your mind and tune up your body to preserve range of motion to maintain flexibility to prevent injury during exercise to prepare the muscles for more vigorous activity to help developed body awareness to promote circulation

WHAT IS AEROBICS EXERCISE?

AEROBIC EXERCISE - Is any activity that uses large muscles groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmic in nature. - It is a type of exercises that overloads the heart and lungs and causes them to work harder that at rest. - The important idea behind aerobic exercise today is to get up and get moving! There are more activities than ever to choose from, whether it is a new activity or any old one.

TYPE OF AEROBIC EXERCISE - Aerobic dance - Bicycling - Fitness walking - Jumping rope - Running - Stair climbing - Swimming

BENEFITS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE

Increased maximal oxygen consumption Improvement in cardiovascular/cardio-respiratory function ( heart and lungs) Increased blood supply to muscles and ability to used oxygen Lower heart rate and blood pressure at any level of sub maximal exercise Increased threshold for lactic acid accumulation Lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Increased HDL Cholesterol (the good cholesterol) Decreased blood triglycerides Reduced body fat and improved weight control Improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance

ELEMENTS OF EXERCISE PROGRAM


How

frequent should the individual exercise be? ( Frequency) 3-5 days per week How intense or vigorous should the exercise session be? (Intensity) Moderate to vigorous How long should an exercise session be? ( Duration ) 20-60 minutes What types of exercise should be included? (Type of Exercise ) specific including aerobics

THREE TYPES OF EXERCISE


1. ISOTONIC EXERCISE - Where the muscles are made to do some contraction and relaxation to gain tones. These movements are common to many physical education activities. 2. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE - Where the muscles are made to undergo tension and hold a certain position for sometime in order to develop muscle strength.

3. AEROBIC EXERCISE - Which entails vigorous movements such as brisk walking, jogging, running and dancing. The body experiences fast breathing so that the muscles of the heart and the lungs are exercised.

PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE

PRINCIPLE 1 OVERLOAD

Refers to the amount of exercise that is needed to improve fitness levels.

INTENSITY
indicate how hard the exercise can be performed.

DURATION

FREQUENCY
-refers to the number of exercise sessions an individual perform per week at least three to five workouts.

- refers to the length of each exercise can be performed

PRINCIPLE 2

PROGRESSION
- it must be in context of the performers tolerance whether to increase or maintain in the overload.

PRINCIPLE 3

SPECIFICITY
exercise must be specific in its concern. It could be either for strength, flexibility or endurance etc. SPECIFICITY- infers that all skills and activities are unique and require training that is geared specifically to each.
-

PHASES OF EXERCISE

1. WARM-UP
It should be conducted before an intense workout. It will help you perform better and will decrease arches and pain. It prepares the muscles for exercise and allows oxygen supply to ready itself for whatever strenuous activities to be worked at.

2. WORKOUT
It

elevates the heart rate and achieves aerobic fitness. Activities, which may be included in this phase, are walking, jogging, running, swimming, bicycling, rope skipping, and aerobic dancing.

3. COOL -DOWN
After

the workout, cooling down should be accomplished by walking for a few minutes. This can be help prevent soreness the next day by massaging the waste products of exercise into the circulatory system.

BACK PAIN EXERCISE

EXERCISE TO MINIMIZE PROBLEMS WITH BACK PAIN


You

can minimize problems with back pain with exercises that make the muscles in your back, stomach, hips, and thighs strong and flexible.

Some

people keep in good physical condition by being active in recreational activities like running, walking, bike riding, and swimming. In addition to these conditioning activities, there are specific exercises that are directed toward strengthening and stretching your back, stomach, hip and thigh muscles.

EXERCISE TO STRENGTHEN YOUR MUSCLES


Wall slide- to strengthen back, hip and leg muscles Leg raise- to back and hip muscles Leg raises to strengthen stomach and hip muscles Partial sit-up- to strengthen stomach muscles Back leg swing to strengthen hip and back muscles.

WALL SLIDE TO STRENGTHEN BACK,HIP AND LEG MUSCLES

Stand with your back against a wall and feet should-width apart. Slide down in a crouch with knees bent to about 90 degrees. Count to five and slide back up the wall. Repeat 5 times.

LEG RAISE TO STRENGTHEN BACK AND HIP MUSCLES Lies on your stomach.

Tighten the muscles in one leg and raise it from the floor. Hold your leg up for a count of 10 and return it to the floor. Do the same with the other leg. Repeat five times with each leg.

LEG RAISES TO STRENGTHEN STOMACH AND HIP MUSCLES Lie on your back with your arms at your sides. Lift leg off the floor. Hold your leg up for a count of 10 and return it to the floor. Do the same with the other leg. Repeat five times with each leg. If that is too difficult, keep one knee bent and the foot flat on the ground while raising the leg.

You

can also sit upright in a chair with legs straight and extended an angle to the floor. Lift one leg waist high. Slowly return your leg to the floor. Do the same with the other leg. Repeat five times with each leg.

PARTIAL SIT-UP TO STRENGTHEN STOMACH MUSCLES

Lie

on your back with knees bent and feet flat on floor. Slowly raise your head and shoulders off the floor and reach with both hands toward your knees. Count to 10. Repeat five times.

BACK LEG SWING TO STRENGTHEN HIP AND BACK MUSCLES Stand behind a chair with

your hands on the back of the chair. Lift one leg back and up while keeping the knee straight. Return slowly. Raise other leg and return. Repeat five times with each leg.

EXERCISE TO DECREASE THE STRAIN ON YOUR BACK

Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on your bed or floor. Raise your knees toward your chest. Place both hands under your knees and gently pull your knees as close to your chest as possible. Do not raise your head. Do not straight your legs as you lower them. Start with five repetitions, several times a day.

Stand

with your feet slightly apart. Place your hands in the small of your back. Keep your knees straight. Bend backwards at the waist as far as possible and hold the position for one or two seconds.

GUIDELINES IN EXERCISING

1.

2.

3.
4. 5. 6.

7.

There is no one best form of exercise. It depends on what the individual wants to achieve. The individual should choose exercise(s) which he/she likes and enjoys. Exercise 30-60 minutes regularly 3-5 times a week. Wear light comfortable clothes and shoes. Exercise either in the morning or late afternoon when it is not so hot. If the individual is a beginner, graduated exercise program starting with light exercise and gradually increasing the intensity should be followed. Severe exercise must be avoided unless the individual is young and athletic.

NO PAIN , NO GAIN

MIND EXERCISE

1. SPECIAL PLACE IMAGERY PURPOSE: Reduces stress, increase relaxation Reduces anxiety Strengthen the capacity to drawn ones own emotional resources Provides a foundation for other imagery exercises CAUTION AND CONTRADICTION: May provoke strong emotional memories.

2. DIALOGUE WITH A SYMPTOM MATERIALS: Pen and paper or journal PURPOSE: Is tool for self-awareness Help access subconscious information about a problem or symptoms. CAUTION AND CONTRADICTION: May provoke strong emotional memories.

3. SOFT BELLY

Regular relaxation has impressive results for people with cancer; decreased levels of stress and increased immune functioning; Faster recovery, fewer side effects from chemotherapy and less anticipatory nausea and vomiting before chemotherapy ; Decreased anxiety; Improved mood, less suppression of emotions. Relaxations also helps you again perspective on every aspect of your life.

UNIT 4

AEROBIC DANCE FOR HEALTH AND FITNESS

Aerobic Dance is not only an activity that provides a good aerobic workout in a pleasurable rhythmic way, but also provides an opportunity for socialization and allows one to make new friends. Aerobic Dance can be made accessible for individuals with disabilities. Most individual with disabilities need little help or no modifications to participate successfully in a regular aerobic dance program. It offers individuals with special needs a safe and good workout, and helps them to lead a healthier and more meaningful life.

Aerobic Dance is a fan way to get fit. It combines fat-burning aerobic movements, muscle-building exercises, and stretching into routines that are performed to music. Many dance forms are used, including disco, jazz and ballet. Any ages can benefit from aerobic dance. Aerobic Dance classes are usually offered at three levels of intensity.

WHAT IS AEROBIC EXERCISE?

Refers

to exercise which is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. Aerobic means with oxygen or air and refers to the use of oxygen in a muscles energygenerating process.

An effective aerobic exercise should involve 5-10 minutes of warming up at an intensity of 5060% of maximum heart rate, followed by at least 20 minutes of exercise at an intensity of 70-80% of maximum heart rate, ending with 5-10 minutes of cooling down at an intensity of 50-60% of maximum heart rate.

BENEFITS OF AEROBIC EXERCISES

Increased maximal oxygen consumption. Improvement in cardiovascular/ cardio respiratory function ( heart and lungs) Increased maximal cardiac output (amount of blood pumped with every minutes) Increased maximal stroke volume (amount of blood pumped with each beat) Increased blood volume and ability to carry oxygen Reduced workload on the heart (myocardio oxygen consumption) for any given sub maximal exercise

Increased blood supply to muscles and ability to use oxygen. Lowe heart rate and blood pressure at any level of sub maximal exercise. Increased threshold for lactic acid accumulation. Lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. Increased HDL Cholesterol (the good cholesterol). Decreased blood triglycerides. Reduce body fat and improved weight control. Improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance.

BENEFITS OF STRENGTHEN TRAINING

Increased muscular strength Increased strength of tendons and ligaments. Potentially improves flexibility ( ranges of motion of joints) Reduced body fat and increased lean body mass (muscle mass) Potentially decreased resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure Positive changes in blood cholesterol Improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Improved strength, balance and functional ability in older adults.

AEROBIC ACTIVITIES include: Walking Biking Jogging Swimming Aerobic classes Cross country skiing Aerobic dance Stationary cycling Treadmill Rowing machines Stair climbing Running

ANAEROBIC ACTIVITY-is short in duration and high in intensity. Anaerobic activities include: Racquetball Downhill skiing Weight lifting Sprinting Softball Soccer

HISTORY

DR. KENNETH H. COOPER- developed the aerobic dance and exercise. Considered as a FATHER OF AEROBICS M,D an exercise physiologist of the US Air Force. An avowed exercise enthusiast, was personally and professionally puzzled about why some people with excellent muscular strength were still prone to poor performance at tasks such as longdistance , running, swimming, and bicycling. He began measuring sustained performance in terms of the ability to utilize oxygen.

He gives the following benefits on researches: Promotes strong and healthy bones Helps control lifes physical and emotional stresses Improves intellectual capacity and increases ones productivity Aids in the natural way of losing weight and keeping it off Provides significant protection from heart disease Promotes better and more effective sleep.

He make a groundbreaking book, Aerobics, was published in 1969, and included scientific exercise programs using running, walking, swimming, and bicycling. For him aerobic exercises is for cardio-respiratory endurance. The excellent performance of heart and lungs is an indication of physical well-being.

HERE ARE SOME SUGGESTED MOVEMENTS WITHOUT THE USE OF EQUIPMENT.

LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENTS
- These activities are done in any direction to another.

WALKING- Underrated form of aerobic exercise, is fast becoming a popular form of exercise by many adults because it requires little in the way of equipment or facilities. BENEFITS: It can be performed by people of all ages and does not require a great deal of ability or technique in order to be effective. Great calorie burner that can be a great help in maintaining optimal body fat levels.

Walk

briskly forward (8cts.), backward (8cts.), clockwise (8cts.), and counterclockwise (8cts.), arms swinging at the sides.

JOGGING VARIATIONS - Jogging and running are two activities that are growing in popularity in the United States. - Currently, it is estimated that over 15 million American jog or run to develop cardiovascular endurance. - One advantage for jogging or running has over walking, however, is that an individual is able to cover greater distances in a shorter period of time which allows for greater numbers of calories to be burned. - Jogging usually defined a slow running at a comfortable pace between 8 to12 minutes

Jog

in place , hands moving right and left like a car wiper. Jog in any direction with arms moving up and down. Jog in any direction shaking hands in any level.

JUMPING VARIATIONS Jump side to side with arms clasped overhead. Jump forward, backward, sideward, right and left, thrusting arms upward and back to thrust position. Jump twice obliquely backward right and obliquely backward left with arms thrusting forward and back.

Jumping

Jacks with hands clapping overhead at every straddle jump. Jump- twist your body to the right as you swing your arms to the left. Repeat jump-twist to the left , swinging arms to the right.

HOPING VARIATIONS Hop on right foot 4 times with the left knee stretching forward and bending backward on each count. Hands on waist. Repeat with the reversed movement of the legs.

Hop

on one foot in zigzag or circle formation. Repeat with the other foot. Step right foot, then hop on the same foot as right hand touches the extended left leg in front. Repeat with the reversed position of the leg and arms.

AXIAL MOVEMENTS
- These activities are
done in place, feet slightly apart and moving in time with the music.

ARM CIRCLING - Circle arms forward from the shoulder with hands as if pushing an object (8 cts.) Repeat circles backward ( 8 cts.)

SCISSORS - Cross extended arms in front and to do the scissors moving arms gradually upward (8 cts.). Repeat this movement gradually moving downward ( 8 cts.)

ARMS THRUSTING ( CLOSED FIST ) - Thrust right and left arms alternately forward and sideward ( 8 cts.) Repeat thrusting arms and upward alternately ( 8 cts.).

HANDS PUSH With fingers pointing upward, push hands alternately forward in front (4 cts.) Push hands alternately upward, fingers pointing backward (4 cts.). Push hands alternately downward in front ( 4 cts.) Push right hands sideward right, left hand sideward left alternately (4 cts.).

ELBOW JERK - With both arms bent on chest, push right elbow sideward right twice (2 cts.), and left elbow sideward left (2 cts.).

OPPOSITE SWING - With knees slightly apart, twist upper body from the waist to the left as you swing extended arms to the right (1ct.). Repeat twist to the right and swing arms to the left ( 1 ct.). Repeat as many times desired.

ELBOW-HIP TOUCH - Push right hip to the right with elbow touching hip ( 1ct.). Repeat the same to the left, elbow touching left hip ( 1 ct.) Repeat as many times desired.

NOTE : After memorizing the movements try combining some locomotors and axial movements. It is fun. You can perform locomotors and axial movement alternately, too.

DANCE STEPS WITH SUGGESTED ARM MOVEMENTS

STEP POINT - Step left foot in place (ct.1), point right foot sideward right as you bring both arms obliquely upward left (ct.2). Step right foot in place (ct.3), point left foot sideward left as you bring both arms obliquely

STEP - Step, close to the right 2 times (cts.1,2,1,2),arms bending upward and stretching downward right on each count. Repeat to the left.

CLOSE

CROSS-KICK - Step right foot slightly to the right, arms in reversed T position(ct.1), cross kick left leg across the right foot as you fling arms obliquely upward left(ct.2). Repeat the same movement with the left foot and fling arms in opposite direction (cts.3&4). Repeat as

STEP AND

CUT

- Displace one foot with the other, either sideward right and left, or forward and backward. Cut left foot with the right foot sideward, arms extended at the sides (ct.1). Cut right foot with the left foot sideward (ct.2). Repeat 3 times more. Cut left foot backward with the left foot, fling arms forward (ct.2). Repeat 3 times more.

TWIST

- Standing with one foot forward, twist body forward (cts.1-4) and backward

STEP-CROSS-STEP-KICK
a.

b. c.
d. e.

Step right foot sideward, right arms in reversed T position (ct.1) Cross-step left foot over right foot , arms upward (ct.2) Repeat (a) (ct.3) Kick left foot forward ( ct.4) Repeat (a) (d) stepping left foot sideward left, kicking right foot forward. Try doing the steps with other arm movements.

IN AND OUT (FAST3/4 TIMES) - Jump twice, feet together (ct.1,2).Jump once feet apart (ct.3). Repeat 7 times more. Jump to face right about or opposite direction and repeat 8

TINIKLING

CHARLESTON

- Step right foot forward, arms moving naturally toward the right (ct.1). Raise left foot forward, arms moving toward the left (ct.2). Step left foot slightly forward, arms moving toward the right(ct.3). Swing right foot sideward-backward to a point in rear, arms toward

AND PROJECT - With knees slightly apart, swing hips right and left alternately, arms on waist level moving with the swinging of the hips(cts.1-16). Contract and project abdominal muscles forward and backward, arms slightly raised (cts.1-16).

SWING

JUMP - Step right foot backward, arms in reversed T position(ct.1), step left foot in place (ct.2), step right foot in place (ct.3) ,pause (ct.4). Jump 4 times sideward right and left alternately arms upward moving naturally left and right alternately.

CHA-CHA

UNIT 5 IMPROVING PHYSICAL FITNESS: STRENGHT, FLEXIBILITY, AGILITY, BALANCE AND COORDINATION

STRENGHT
Is

a ability to move against a resistance. It can be achieved through participation in vigorous as well as tension exercises. Basic consideration in strength development are duration of activity, distance , or height, speed, and weight.

HERE ARE SOME EXERCISES THAT WILL IMPROVE THE STRENGHT OF THE MUSCLES OF THE ARMS , SHOULDER, BACK, ABDOMEN, AND LEGS.

GRINDER (arm strength) - With right hand on the floor, lean the body sideward right with head at level with body, left arms and hand on sides. With this position turn around walking with the feet and pivot with the support hand.

COFFEE

WALK ( arm strength) - Squat and lean backward with hands and feet as support. Head at same straight line with neck and body. Walk backward in 16 counts. Walk forward in 16 counts.

CRAB

WALK ( arm strength) - Do the seal walk. In push-up position, walk on hand and drag your legs.

SEAL